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postheadericon The Gutenberg Encyclopedia (part 1)

A. This letter of ours corresponds to the first symbol in
the Phoenician alphabet and in almost all its descendants.  In
Phoenician, a, like the symbols for e and for o, did not
represent a vowel, but a breathing; the vowels originally were
not represented by any symbol.  When the alphabet was adopted by
the Greeks it was not very well fitted to represent the sounds
of their language.  The breathings which were not required in
Greek were accordingly employed to represent some of the vowel
sounds, other vowels, like i and u, being represented by
an adaptation of the symbols for the semi-vowels y and w.
The Phoenician name, which must have corresponded closely to
the Hebrew Aleph, was taken over by the Greeks in the form
Alpha (alpsa). The earliest authority for this, as for the
names of the other Greek letters, is the grammatical drama
(grammatike Ieoria) of Callias, an earlier contemporary of
Euripides, from whose works four trimeters, containing the names
of all the Greek letters, are preserved in Athenaeus x. 453 d.

The form of the letter has varied considerably.  In the
earliest of the Phoenician, Aramaic and Greek inscriptions
(the oldest Phoenician dating about 1000 B.C., the oldest
Aramaic from the 8th, and the oldest Greek from the 8th
or 7th century B.C.) A rests upon its side thus--@.  In
the Greek alphabet of later times it generally resembles
the modern capital letter, but many local varieties can be
distinguished by the shortening of one leg, or by the angle
at which the cross line is set-- @, &c. From the Greeks of
the west the alphabet was borrowed by the Romans and from them
has passed to the other nations of western Europe.  In the
earliest Latin inscriptions, such as the inscription found
in the excavation of the Roman Forum in 1899, or that on a
golden fibula found at Praeneste in 1886 (see ALPHABET). 
Fine letters are still identical in form with those of the
western Greeks.  Latin develops early various forms, which
are comparatively rare in Greek, as @, or unknown, as
@.  Except possibly Faliscan, the other dialects of Italy
did not borrow their alphabet directly from the western Greeks
as the Romans did, but received it at second hand through the
Etruscans.  In Oscan, where the writing of early inscriptions
is no less careful than in Latin, the A takes the form
@, to which the nearest parallels are found in north Greece
(Boeotia, Locris and Thessaly, and there only sporadically) .

In Greek the symbol was used for both the long and the short
sound, as in English father (a) and German Ratte
a; English, except in dialects, has no sound corresponding
precisely to the Greek short a, which, so far as can be
ascertained, was a mid-back-wide sound, according to the
terminology of H. Sweet (Primer of Phonetics, p. 107). 
Throughout the history of Greek the short sound remained practically
unchanged.  On the other hand, the long sound of a in the
Attic and Ionic dialects passed into an open e-sound, which
in the Ionic alphabet was represented by the same symbol as
the original e-sound (see ALPHABET: Greek). The vowel
sounds vary from language to language, and the a symbol has,
in consequence, to represent in many cases sounds which are
not identical with the Greek a whether long or short, and
also to represent several different vowel sounds in the same
language.  Thus the New English Dictionary distinguishes about
twelve separate vowel sounds, which are represented by a in
English.  In general it may be said that the chief changes
which affect the a-sound in different languages arise from
(1) rounding, (2) fronting, i.e. changing from a sound
produced far back in the mouth to a sound produced farther
forward.  The rounding is often produced by combination with
rounded consonants (as in English was, wall, &c.), the
rounding of the preceding consonant being continued into
the formation of the vowel sound.  Rounding has also been
produced by a following l-sound, as in the English fall,
small, bald, &c. (see Sweet's History of English Sounds,
2nd ed., sec. sec.  906, 784).  The effect of fronting is seen in
the Ionic and Attic dialects of Greek, where the original
name of the Medes, Madoi, with a in the first syllable
(which survives in Cyprian Greek as Madoi), is changed
into Medoi (Medoi), with an open e-sound instead
of the earlier a.  In the later history of Greek this
sound is steadily narrowed till it becomes identical with
i (as in English seed). The first part of the process
has been almost repeated by literary English, a (ah)
passing into e (eh), though in present-day pronunciation
the sound has developed further into a diphthongal ei
except before r, as in hare (Sweet, op. cit. sec.  783).

In English a represents unaccented forms of several
words, e.g. an (one), of, have, he, and or various
prefixes the history of which is given in detail in the New
English Dictionary (Oxford, 1888), vol. i. p. 4. (P. GI.)

As a symbol the letter is used in various connexions
and for various technical purposes, e.g. for a note in
music, for the first of the seven dominical letters (this
use is derived from its being the first of the litterae
nundinales at Rome), and generally as a sign of priority.

In Logic, the letter A is used as a symbol for the universal
affirmative proposition in the general form ``all x is y.''
The letters I, E and O are used respectively for the particular
affirmative ``some x is y,'' the universal negative ``no x
is y,'' and the particular negative ``some x is not y.''
The use of these letters is generally derived from the vowels
of the two Latin verbs AffIrmo (or AIo), ``I assert,'' and
nEgO, ``I deny.'' The use of the symbols dates from the 13th
century, though some authorities trace their origin to the Greek
logicians.  A is also used largely in abbreviations (q.v.).

In Shipping, A1 is a symbol used to dennote quality of
construction and material.  In the various shipping registers
ships are classed and given a rating after an official
examination, and assigned a classification mark, which
appears in addition to other particulars in those registers
after the name of the ship.  See SHIPBUILDING. It is
popularly used to indicate the highest degree of excellence.

AA, the name of a large number of small European rivers. 
The word is derived from the Old German aha, cognate to
the Latin aqua, water (cf. Ger.-ach; Scand. a, aa,
pronounced o).  The following are the more important
streams of this name:--Two rivers in the west of Russia, both
falling into the Gulf of Riga, near Riga, which is situated
between them; a river in the north of France, falling into
the sea below Gravelines, and navigable as far as St Omer;
and a river of Switzerland, in the cantons of Lucerne and
Aargau, which carries the waters of Lakes Baldegger and
Hallwiler into the Aar. In Germany there are the Westphalian
Aa, rising in the Teutoburger Wald, and joining the Werre at
Herford, the Munster Aa, a tributary of the Ems, and others.

AAGESEN, ANDREW (1826-1879), Danish jurist, was educated
for the law at Kristianshavn and Copenhagen, and interrupted
his studies in 1848 to take part in the first Schleswig war,
in which he served as the leader of a reserve battalion.  In
1855 he became professor of jurisprudence at the university of
Copenhagen.  In 1870 he was appointed a member of the commission
for drawing up a maritime and commercial code, and the navigation
law of 1882 is mainly his work.  In 1879 he was elected a member
of the Landsthing; but it is as a teacher at the university
that he won his reputation.  Among his numerous juridical
works may be mentioned: Bidrag til Laeren om Overdragelse
af Ejendomsret, Bemaerkinger om Rettigheder over Ting
(Copenhagen, 1866, 1871-1872); Fortegnelse over Retssamlinger,
Retslitteratur i Danmark, Norge, Sverige (Copenhagen,
1876).  Aagesen was Hall's successor as lecturer on Roman law
at the university, and in this department his researches were
epoch-making.  All his pupils were profoundly impressed by
his exhaustive examination of the sources, his energetic
demonstration of his subject and his stringent search after
truth.  His noble, imposing, and yet most amiable personality
won for him, moreover, universal affection and respect.

See C. F. Bricka, Dansk.  Brog.  Lex. vol. i. (Copenhagen, 1887); Szmlade
Skrifter, edited by F. C. Bornemann (Copenhagen, 1863). (R. N. B.)

AAL, also known as A'L, ACH, or AICH, the Hindustani
names for the Morinda tinctoria and Morinda citrifalia,
plants extensively cultivated in India on account of the
reddish dye-stuff which their roots contain.  The name
is also applied to the dye, but the common trade name
is Suranji. Its properties are due to the presence
of a glucoside known as Morindin, which is compounded
from glucose and probably a trioxy-methyl-anthraquinone.

AALBORG, a city and seaport of Denmark, the seat of a bishop,
and chief town of the amt (county) of its name, on the south
bank of the Limfjord, which connects the North Sea and the
Cattegat.  Pop. (1901) 31,457.  The situation is typical of
the north of Jutland.  To the west the Linifjord broadens
into an irregular lake, with low, marshy shores and many
islands.  North-west is the Store Vildmose, a swamp where the
mirage is seen in summer.  South-east lies the similar Lille
Vildmose.  A railway connects Aalborg with Hjorring,
Frederikshavn and Skagen to the north, and with Aarhus and
the lines from Germany to the south.  The harbour is good
and safe, though difficult of access.  Aalborg is a growing
industrial and commercial centre, exporting grain and
fish.  An old castle and some picturesque houses of the
17th century remain.  The Budolphi church dates mostly from
the middle of the 18th century, while the Frue church was
partially burnt in 1894, but the foundation of both is of
the 14th century or earlier.  There are also an ancient
hospital and a museum of art and antiquities.  On the north
side of the fjord is Norre Sundby, connected with Aalborg
by a pontoon and also by an iron railway bridge, one of the
finest engineering works in the kingdom.  Aabborgt received
town privileges in 1342 and the bishopric dates from 1554.

AALEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg,
pleasantly situated on the Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian
Alps, about 50 m.  E. of Stuttgart, and with direct railway
communication with Ulm and Cannstatt.  Pop. 10,000.  Woollen
and linen goods are manufactured, and there are ribbon
looms and tanneries in the town, and large iron works in the
neighbourhood.  There are several schools and churches, and a
statue of the poet Christian Schubart.  Aalen was a free imperial
city from 1360 to 1802, when it was annexed to Wurttemberg.

AALESUND, a seaport of Norway, in Romsdal amt (county), 145
m.  N. by E. from Bergen.  Pop. (1900) 11,672.  It occupies
two of the outer islands of the west coast, Aspo and
Norvo, which enclose the picturesque harbour.  Founded
in 1824, it is the principal shipping-place of Sondmore
district, and one of the chief stations of the herring
fishery.  Aalesund is adjacent to the Jorund and Geiranger
fjords, frequented by tourists.  From Oje at the head of
Jorund a driving-route strikes south to the Nordfjord, and
from Merck on Geiranger another strikes inland to Otta, on
the railway to Liilehammer and Christiania.  Aalesund is a
port of call for steamers between Bergen, Hull, Newcastle
and Hamburg, and Trondhjem.  A little to the south of the
town are the ruins of the reputed castle of Rollo, the
founder, in the 9th century, of the dynasty of the dukes of
Normandy.  On the 23rd of January 1904, Aalesund was the
scene of one of the most terrible of the many conflagrations
to which Norwegian towns, built largely of wood, have been
subject.  Practically the whole town was destroyed, a gale aiding
the flames, and the population had to leave the place in the
night at the notice of a few minutes.  Hardly any lives were
lost, but the sufferings of the people were so terrible that
assistance was sent from all parts of the kingdom, and by the
German government, while the British government also offered it.

AALI, MEHEMET, Pasha (1815-1871), Turkish statesman, was born
at Constantinople in 1815, the son of a government official. 
Entering the diplomatic service of his country soon after reaching
manhood, he became successively secretary of the Embassy in
Vienna, minister in London, and foreign minister under Reshid
Pasha.  In 1852 he was promoted to the post of grand vizier,
but after a short time retired into private life.  During the
Crimean War he was recalled in order to take the portfolio
of foreign affairs for a second time under Reshid Pasha,
and in this capacity took part in 1855 in the conference of
Vienna.  Again becoming in that year grand vizier, an office
he filled no less than five times, he represented Turkey
at the congress of Paris in 1856.  In 1867 he was appointed
regent of Turkey during the sultan's visit to the Paris
Exhibition.  Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates
of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul
Mejid and Abdul Aziz.  A scholar and a linguist, he was a
match for the diplomats of the Christian powers, against whom
he successfully defended the interests of his country.  He
died at Erenkeni in Asia Minor on the 6th of September 1871.

AAR, or AARE, the most considerable river which both
rises and ends entirely within Switzerland.  Its total
length (including all bends) from its source to its junction
with the Rhine is about 181 m., during which distance it
descends 5135 ft., while its drainage area is 6804 sq.
m.  It rises in the great Aar glaciers, in the canton of
Bern, and W. of the Grimsel Pass.  It runs E. to the Grimsel
Hospice, and then N.W. through the Hasli valley, forming on the
way the magnificent waterfall of the Handegg (151 ft.), past
Guttannen, and pierces the limestone barrier of the Kirchet
by a grand gorge, before reaching Meiringen, situated in a
plain.  A little beyond, near Brienz, the river expands
into the lake of Brienz, where it becomes navigable.  Near
the west end of that lake it receives its first important
affluent, the Lutschine (left), and then runs across the
swampy plain of the Bodoli, between Interlaken (left) and
Unterseen (right), before again expanding in order to form
the Lake of Thun.  Near the west end of that lake it receives
on the left the Kander, which has just before been joined
by the Simme; on flowing out of the lake it passes Thun, and
then circles the lofty bluff on which the town of Bern is
built.  It soon changes its north-westerly for a due westerly
direction, but after receiving the Saane or Sarine (left)
turns N. till near Aarberg its stream is diverted W. by the
Hagneck Canal into the Lake of Bienne, from the upper end of
which it issues through the Nidau Canal and then runs E. to
Buren.  Henceforth its course is N.E. for a long distance,
past Soleure (below which the Grosse Emme flows in on the
right), Aarburg (where it is joined by the Wigger, right),
Olten, Aarau, near which is the junction with the Suhr on the
right, and Wildegg, where the Hallwiler Aa falls in on the
right.  A short way beyond, below Brugg, it receives first the
Reuss (right), and very shortly afterwards the Limmat or Linth
(right).  It now turns due N., and soon becomes itself an
affluent of the Rhine (left), which it surpasses in volume
when they unite at Coblenz, opposite Waldshut. (W. A. B. C.)

AARAU, the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau.  In 1900
it had 7831 inhabitants, mostly German-speaking, and mainly
Protestants.  It is situated in the valley of the Aar, on the
right bank of that river, and at the southern foot of the range
of the Jura.  It is about 50 m. by rail N.E. of Bern, and 31
m.  N.W. of Zurich.  It is a well-built modern town, with
no remarkable features about it.  In the Industrial Museum
there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good
painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring
Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed
1841---the monks are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in
Tirol).  The cantonal library contains many works relating to
Swiss history and many MSS. coming from the suppressed Argovian
monasteries.  There are many industries in the town, especially
silk-ribbon weaving, foundries, and factories for the manufacture
of cutlery and scientific instruments.  The popular novelist
and historian, Heinrich Zschokke (1771-1848), spent most of
his life here, and a bronze statue has been erected to his
memory.  Aarau is an important military centre.  The slopes
of the Jura are covered with vineyards.  Aarau, an ancient
fortress, was taken by the Bernese in 1415, and in 1798 became
for a time the capital of the Helvetic republic.  Eight miles
by rail N.E. are the famous sulphur baths of Schinznach,
just above which is the ruined castle of Habsburg, the
original home of that great historical house. (W. A. B. C.)

AARD-VARK (meaning ``earth pig''), the Iyutch name for
the mammals of genus Orycteropus, confined to Africa (see
EDEN-TATAI. Several species have been named.  Among them
is the typical form, O. capensis, or Cape ant-bear from
South Africa, and the northern aard-vark (O. aethiopicus)
of north-eastern Africa, extending into Egypt.  In form
these animals are somewhat pig-like; the body is stout,
with arched back; the limbs are short and stout, armed with
strong, blunt claws; the ears disproportionately long; and
the tail very thick at the base and tapering gradually.  The
greatly elongated head is set on a short thick neck, and at
the extremity of the snout is a disk in which the nostrils
open.  The mouth is small and tubular, furnished with a long
extensile tongue.  The measurements of a female taken in the
flesh, were head and body 4 ft., tail 17 1/2 in.; but a large
individual measured 6 ft. 8 in. over all.  In colour the
Cape aard-vark is pale sandy or yellow, the hair being scanty
and allowing the skin to show; the northern aard-vark has
a still thinner coat, and is further distinguished by the
shorter tail and longer head and ears.  These animals are of
nocturnal and burrowing habits, and generally to be found near
ant-hills.  The strong claws make a hole in the side of the
ant-hill, and the insects are collected on the extensile
tongue.  Aard-varks are hunted for their skins; but the
flesh is valued for food, and often salted and smoked.

AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous
mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a
small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharpe
ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the
neck and back.  It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and
feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.

AARGAU (Fr. Argovie), one of the more northerly Swiss
cantons, comprising the lower course of the river Aar (q.v.),
whence its name.  Its total area is 541.9 sq. m., of which
517.9 sq. m. are classed as ``productive'' (forests covering
172 sq. m. and vineyards 8.2 sq. m.).  It is one of the least
mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land,
to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura, above which
rise low hills.  The surface of the country is beautifully
diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating
with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its
tributaries.  It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of
Baden (q.v.) and Schinznach, while at Rheinfelden there are
very extensive saline springs.  Just below Brugg the Reuss
and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined
castle of Habsburg, the old convent of Konigsfelden (with
fine painted medieval glass) and the remains of the Roman
settlement of Vindonissa [Windisch].  The total population
in 1900 was 206,498, almost exclusively German-speaking, but
numbering 114,176 Protestants to 91,039 Romanists and 990
Jews.  The capital of the canton is Aarau (q.v.), while
other important towns are Baden (q.v.), Zofingen (4591
inhabitants), Reinach (3668 inhabitants), Rheinfelden (3349
inhabitants), Wohlen (3274 inhabitants), and Lenzburg (2588
inhabitants).  Aargau is an industrious and prosperous canton,
straw-plaiting, tobacco-growing, silk-ribbon weaving, and
salmon-fishing in the Rhine being among the chief industries. 
As this region was, up to 1415, the centre of the Habsburg
power, we find here many historical old castles (e.g.
Habsburg, Lenzburg, Wildegg), and former monasteries (e.g.
Wettingen, Muri), founded by that family, but suppressed in
1841, this act of violence being one of the main causes
of the civil war called the ``Sonderbund War,'' in 1847 in
Switzerland.  The cantonal constitution dates mainly from
1885, but since 1904 the election of the executive council
of five members is made by a direct vote of the people.  The
legislature consists of members elected in the proportion of
one to every 1100 inhabitants.  The ``obligatory referendum''
exists in the case of all laws, while 5000 citizens have the
right of ``initiative'' in proposing bills or alterations
in the cantonal constitution.  The canton sends 10 members
to the federal Nationalrat, being one for every 20,000,
while the two Standerate are (since 1904) elected by
a direct vote of the people.  The canton is divided into
eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes.

1415 the Aargau region was taken from the Habsburgs by the Swiss
Confederates.  Bern kept the south-west portion (Zofingen,
Aarburg, Aarau, Lenzburg, and Brugg), but some districts,
named the Freie Amter or ``free bailiwicks'' (Mellingen,
Muri, Villmergen, and Bremgarten), with the county of Baden,
were ruled as ``subject lands'' by all or certain of the
Confederates.  In 1798 the Bernese bit became the canton of
Aargau of the Helvetic Republic, the remainder forming the
canton of Baden.  In 1803, the two halves (plus the Frick
glen, ceded in 1802 by Austria to the Helvetic Republic)
were united under the name of Kanton Aargau, which was then
admitted a full member of the reconstituted Confederation.

See also Argovia (published by the Cantonal Historical
Society), Aarau, from 1860; F. X. Bronner, Der Kanton Aargau,
2 vols., St Gall and Bern, 1844; H. Lehmann, Die argauische
Strohindustrie, Aarau, 1896; W. Merz, Die mittelalt. 
Burganlagen und Wehrbauten d.  Kant.  Argau (fine illustrated
work on castles), Aarau, 2 vols., 1904--1906; W. Merz and
F. E. Welti, Die Rechtsquellen d.  Kant. Argau, 3 vols.,
Aarau, 1898--1905; J. Muller, Der Aargau, 2 vols., Zurich,
1870; E. L. Rochholz, Aargauer Weisthumer, Atarau, 1877; E.
Zschokke, Geschichte des Aargaus, Aarau, 1903. (W. A. B. C.)

AARHUS, a seaport and bishop's see of Denmark, on the
east coast of Jutland, of which it is the principal port;
the second largest town in the kingdom, and capital of
the amt (county) of Aarhus.  Pop. (1901) 51,814.  The
district is low-lying, fertile and well wooded.  The town
is the junction of railways from all parts of the country. 
The harbour is good and safe, and agricultural produce is
exported, while coal and iron are among the chief imports. 
The cathedral of the 13th century (extensively restored) is
the largest church in Denmark.  There is a museum of art and
antiquities.  To the south-west (13 m. by rail), a picturesque
region extends west from the railway junction of Skanderborg,
including several lakes, through which flows the Gudenaa,
the largest river in Jutland, and rising ground exceeding
500 ft. in the Himmelbjerg.  The railway traverses this
pleasant district of moorland and wood to Silkeborg, a modern
town having one of the most attractive situations in the
kingdom.  The bishopric of Aarhus dates at least from 951.

AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish
priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites
out of Egypt (see EXODUS; MOSES) . The greater part of
his life-history is preserved in late Biblical narratives,
which carry back existing conditions and beliefs to the
time of the Exodus, and find a precedent for contemporary
hierarchical institutions in the events of that period. 
Although Aaron was said to have been sent by Yahweh (Jehovah)
to meet Moses at the ``mount of God'' (Horeb, Ex.iv.27),he
plays only a secondary part in the incidents at Pharaoh's
court.  After the ``exodus'' from Egypt a striking account
is given of the vision of the God of Israel vouchsafed to
him and to his sons Nadab and Abihu on the same holy mount
(Ex. xxiv. 1 seq. 9-11), and together with Hur he was at the
side of Moses when the latter, by means of his wonder-working
rod, enabled Joshua to defeat the Amalekites (xvii. 8-16). 
Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when
Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of
the Law (xxiv. 12-15), and when the people, in dismay at the
prolonged absence of their leader, demanded a god, it was at
the instigation of Aaron that the golden calf was made (see
CALF, GOLDEN). This was regarded as an act of apostasy
which, according to one tradition, led to the consecration
of the Levites, and almost cost Aaron his life (cp. Deut.
ix. 20). The incident paves the way for the account of the
preparation of the new tables of stone which contain a series
of laws quite distinct from the Decalogue (q.v.) (Ex. xxxiii.
seq.).  Kadesh, and not Sinai or Horeb, appears to have been
originally the scene of these incidents (Deut. xxxiii. 8
seq. compared with Ex. xxxii. 26 sqq.), and it was for some
obscure offence at this place that both Aaron and Moses were
prohibited from entering the Promised Land (Num. xx.).  In
what way they had not ``sanctified'' (an allusion in the
Hebrew to Kadesh ``holy'') Yahweh is quite uncertain, and
it would appear that it was for a similar offence that the
sons of Aaron mentioned above also met their death (Lev. x. 3;
cp.  Num. xx. 12, Deut. xxxii. 51). Aaron is said to have
died at Moserah (Deut. x. 6), or at Mt. Hor; the latter is
an unidentified site on the border of Edom (Num. xx. 23,
xxxiii. 37; for Moserah see ib. 30-31), and consequently
not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the
traditional scene from the time of Josephus (Ant. iv. 4. 7).

Several difficulties in the present Biblical text appear to
have arisen from the attempt of later tradition to find a
place for Aaron in certain incidents.  In the account of the
contention between Moses and his sister Miriam (Num. xii.),
Aaron occupies only a secondary position, and it is very doubtful
whether he was originally mentioned in the older surviving
narratives.  It is at least remarkable that he is only thrice
mentioned in Deuteronomy (ix. 20, x. 6, xxxii. 50). The
post-exilic narratives give him a greater share in the plagues of
Egypt, represent him as high-priest, and confirm his position
by the miraculous budding of his rod alone of all the rods of
the other tribes (Num. xvii.; for parallels see Gray comm.
ad loc., p. 217).  The latter story illustrates the growth
of the older exodus-tradition along with the development of
priestly ritual: the old account of Korah's revolt against the
authority of Moses has been expanded, and now describes (a)
the divine prerogatives of the Levites in general, and (b)
the confirmation of the superior privileges of the Aaronites
against the rest of the Levites, a development which can
scarcely be earlier than the time of Ezekiel (xliv. 15 seq.).

Aaron's son Eleazar was buried in an Ephraimite locality
known after the grandson as the ``hill of Phinehas'' (Josh.
xxiv. 33). Little historical information has been preserved of
either.  The name Phinehas (apparently of Egyptian origin)
is better known as that of a son of Eli, a member of the
priesthood of Shiloh, and Eleazar is only another form of
Eliezer the son of Moses, to whose kin Eli is said to have
belonged.  The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical
names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy,
and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's
sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron. iv.
17) with Jether (cp. JETHRO) and Heber (cp. KENITES). In
view of the confusion of the traditions and the difficulty of
interpreting the details sketched above, the recovery of the
historical Aaron is a work of peculiar intricacy.  He may
well have been the traditional head of the priesthood, and
R. H. Kennett has argued in favour of the view that he was
the founder of the cult at Bethel (Journ. of Theol.  Stud.,
1905, pp. 161 sqq.), corresponding to the Mosaite founder
of Dan (q.v.). This throws no light upon the name, which
still remains quite obscure: and unless Aaron (Aharon) is
based upon Aron, ``ark'' (Redslob, R. P. A. Dozy, J. P.
N. Land), names associated with Moses and Aaron, which are,
apparently, of South Palestinian (or North-Arabian) origin.

For the literature and a general account of the Jewish
priesthood, see the articles LEVTTES and PRIEST. . (S. A. C.)

AARON'S ROD, the popular name given to various tall flowering
plants (``hag taper,', ``golden rod,'' &c.).  In architecture
the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves,
or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the
Biblical references in Exodus vii. 10 and Numbers xvii. 8).

celebrated diplomatist and statesman of the United Provinces. 
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan
van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years,
as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of
France.  He took a considerable part in the negotiations of
the twelve years' truce in 1606.  His conduct of affairs having
displeased the French king, he was recalled from his post by
Oldenbarneveldt in 1616.  Such was the hatred he henceforth
conceived against his former benefactor, that he did his
very utmost to effect his ruin.  He was one of the packed
court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to
death.  For his share in this judicial murder a deep stain
rests on the memory of Aarssens.  He afterwards became the
confidential counsellor of Maurice, prince of Orange, and
afterwards of Frederick Henry, prince of Orange, in their
conduct of the foreign affairs of the republic.  He was sent
on special embassies to Venice, Germany and England, and
displayed so much diplomatic skill and finesse that Richelieu
ranked him among the three greatest politicians of his time.

AASEN, IVAR (1813-1896), Norwegian philologist and
lexicographer, was born at Aasen i Orsten, in Sondmore,
Norway, on the. 5th of August 1813.  His father, a small
peasant-farmer named Ivar Jonsson, died in 1826.  He was
brought up to farmwork, but he assiduously cultivated all
his leisure in reading, and when he was eighteen he opened an
elementary school in his native parish.  In 1833 he entered
the household of H. C. Thoresen the husband of the eminent
writer Magdalene Thoresen, in Hero, and here he picked up
the elements of Latin.  Gradually, and by dint of infinite
patience and concentration, the young peasant became master
of many languages, and began the scientific study of their
structure.  About 1841 he had freed himself from all the
burden of manual labour, and could occupy his thoughts with
the dialect of his native district, the Sondmore; his
first publication was a small collection of folk-songs in
the Sondmore language (1843) . His remarkable abilities now
attracted general attention, and he was helped to continue his
studies undisturbed.  His Grammar ofthe Norwegian Dialects
(1848) was the result of much labour, and of journeys taken
to every part of the country.  Aasen's famous Dictionary
of the Norwegian Dialects appeared in its original form in
1850, and from this publication dates all the wide cultivation
of the popular language in Norwegian, since Aasen really did
no less than construct, out of the different materials at his
disposal, a popular language or definite folke-maal for
Norway.  With certain modifications, the most important of which
were introduced later by Aasen himself, this artificial language
is that which has been adopted ever since by those who write in
dialect, and which later enthusiasts have once more endeavoured
to foist upon Norway as her official language in the place of
Dano-Norwegian.  Aasen composed poems and plays in the composite
dialect to show how it should be used; one of these dramas,
The Heir (1855), was frequently acted, and may be considered
as the pioneer of all the abundant dialect-literature of the
last half-century, from Vinje down to Garborg.  Aasen continued
to enlarge and improve his grammars and his dictionary.  He
lived very quietly in lodgings in Christiania, surrounded by
his books and shrinking from publicity, but his name grew into
wide political favour as his ideas about the language of the
peasants became more and more the watch-word of the popular
party.  Quite early in his career, 1842, he had begun to
receive a stipend to enable him to give his entire attention
to his philological investigations; and the Storthing--.
conscious of the national importance of his woth---treated hm
in this respect with more and more generosity as he advanced in
years.  He continued his investigations to the last, but it
may be said that, after the 1873 edition of his Dictionary,
he added but little to his stores.  Ivar Aasen holds perhaps
an isolated place in literary history as the one man who has
invented, or at least selected and constructed, a language
which has pleased so many thousands of his countrymen that
they have accepted it for their schools, their sermons
and their songs.  He died in Christiania on the 23rd of
September 1896, and was buried with Public honours. (E. G.)

AB, the fifth month of the ecclesiastical and the
eleventh of the civil year of the Jews.  It approximately
Corresponds to the period of the 15th of July to the 15th of
August.  The word is of Babylonian origin, adopted by the
Jews with other calendar names after the Babylonian exile. 
Tradition ascribes the death of Aaron to the first day of Ab.
On the ninth is kept the Fast of Ab, or the Black Fast, to
bewail the destruction of the first temple by Nebuchadrezzar
(586 B.C.) and of the second by Titus (A.D. 70).

ABA. (1) A form of altazimuth instrument, invented by, and Cabled
after, Antoine d'Abbadie; (2) a rough homespun manufactured in
Bulgariai (3) a long coarse shirt worn by the Bedouin Arabs.

ABABDA (the Gebadei of Pliny, probably the Troglodytes of
classical writers), a nomad tribe of African ``Arabs,, of Hamitic
origin.  They extend from the Nile at Assuan to the Red Sea,
and reach northward to the Kena-Kosseir road, thus occupying
the southern border of Egypt east of the Nile.  They call
themselves ``sons of the Jinns.'' With some of the clans of
the Bisharin (q.v.) and possibly the Hadendoa (q.v.) they
represent the Blemmyes of classic geographers, and their location
to-day is almost identical with that assigned them in Roman
times.  They were constantly at war with the Romans, who at
last subsidized them.  In the middle ages they were known as
Beja (q.v.), and convoyed pilgrims from the Nile valley to
Aidhab, the port of embarkation for Jedda.  From time immemorial
they have acted as guides to caravans through the Nubian
desert and up the Nile valley as far as Sennar.  To-day many of
them are employed in the telegraph service across the Arabian
desert.  They intermarried with the Nuba, and settled in small
Colonies at Shendi and elsewhere long before the Egyptian
invasion (A.D. 1820-1822).  They are still great trade
carriers, and visit very distant districts.  The Ababda of
Egypt, numbering some 30,000, are governed by an hereditary
``chief.'' Although nominally a vassal of the Khedive he pays no
tribute.  Indeed he is paid a subsidy, a portion of the
road-dues, in return for his safeguarding travellers from Bedouin
robbers.  The sub-sheikhs are directly responsible to him. 
The Ababda of Nubia, reported by Joseph von Russegger, who
visited the country in 1836, to number some 40,000, have since
diminished, having probably amalgamated with the Bisharin,
their hereditary enemies when they were themselves a powerful
nation.  The Ababda generally speak Arabic (mingled with
Barabra [Nubian] words), the result of their long-continued
contact with Egypt; but the southern and south-eastern portion
of the tribe in many cases still retain their Beja dialect,
ToBedawiet.  Those of Kosseir will not speak this before
strangers, as they believe that to reveal the mysterious
dialect would bring ruin on them.  Those nearest the Nile
have much fellah blood in them.  As a tribe they claim an Arab
origin, apparently through their sheikhs.  They have adopted
the dress and habits of the fellahin, unlike their kinsmen
the Bisharin and Hadendoa, who go practically naked.  They
are neither so fierce nor of so fine a physique as these
latter.  They are lithe and well built, but small: the average
height is little more than 5 ft., except in the sheikh clan,
who are obviously of Arab origin.  Their complexion is more
red than black, their features angular, noses straight and hair
luxuriant.  They bear the character of being treacherous and
faithless, being bound by no oath, but they appear to be honest
in money matters and hospitable, and, however poor, never
beg.  Formerly very poor, the Ababda became wealthy after
the British occupation of Egypt.  The chief settlements are in
Nubia, where they live in villages and employ themselves in
agriculture.  Others of them fish in the Red Sea and then
hawk the salt fish in the interior.  Others are pedlars,
while charcoal burning, wood-gathering and trading in gums
and drugs, especially in senna leaves, occupy many.  Unlike
the true Arab, the Ababda do not live in tents, but build
huts with hurdles and mats, or live in natural caves, as
did their ancestors in classic times.  They have few horses,
using the camel as beast of burden or their ``mount'' in
war.  They live chiefly on milk and durra, the latter
eaten either raw or roasted.  They are very superstitious,
believing, for example, that evil would overtake a family
if a girl member should, after her marriage, ever set eyes
on her mother: hence the Ababda husband has to make his
home far from his wife's village.  In the Mahdist troubles
(1882-1898) many ``friendlies'' were recruited from the tribe.

For their earlier history see BEJA; see also BISHARIN,
HADENDOA, KABBABish; and the following authorities:---Sir
F. R. Wingate, Mahdism and the Egyptian Sudan (Lond.
1891); Giuseppe Sergi, Africa: Antropologia della Stirpe
Camitica (Turin, 1897); A. H. Keane, Ethnology of Egyptian
Sudan (Lond. 1884); Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, edited by
Count Gleichen (Lond. 1905); Joseph von Russegger, Die
Reisen in Afrika (Stuttgart, 1841-1850). (T. A. J.)

ABACA, or ABAKA, a native name for the plant Musa textilis,
which produces the fibre called Manila Hemp (q.v.). .

ABACUS (Gr. abax, a slab Fr. abaque, tailloir), in
architecture, the upper member of the capital of a column. 
Its chief function is to provide a larger supporting surface
for the architrave or arch it has to carry.  In the Greek Doric
order the abacus is a plain square slab.  In the Roman and
Renaissance Doric orders it is crowned by a moulding.  In the
Archaic-Greek Ionic order, owing to the greater width of the
capital, the abacus is rectangular in plan, and consists of a
carved ovolo moulding.  In later examples the abacus is square,
except where there are angle volutes, when it is slightly
curved over the same.  In the Roman and Renaissance Ionic
capital, the abacus is square with a fillet On the top of an
ogee moulding, but curved over angle volutes.  In the Greek
Corinthian order the abacus is moulded, its sides are concave
and its angles canted (except in one or two exceptional Greek
capitals, where it is brought to a sharp angle); and the same
shape is adopted in the Roman and Renaissance Corinthian and
Composite capitals, in some cases with the ovolo moulding
carved.  In Romanesque architecture the abacus is square with
the lower edge splayed off and moulded or carved, and the
same was retained in France during the medieval period; but
in England,in Early English work, a circular deeply moulded
abacus was introduced, which in the 14th and 15th centuries
was transformed into an octagonal one.  The diminutive of
Abacus, ABACISCUS, is applied in architecture to the chequers
or squares of a tessellated pavement . ``Abacus'' is also the
name of an instrument employed by the ancients for arithmetical
calculations; pebbles, hits of bone or coins being used as
counters.  Fig. 1 shows a Roman abacus taken from an ancient
monument.  It contains seven long and seven shorter rods
or bars, the former having four perforated beads running
on them and the latter one.  The bar marked 1 indicates
units, X tens, and so on up to millions.  The beads on the
shorter bars denote fives,--five units, five tens, &c. The
rod O and corresponding short rod are for marking ounces;
and the short quarter rods for fractions of an ounce.

The Swan-Pan of the Chinese (fig. 2) closely resembles
the Roman abacus in its construction and use.  Computations
are made with it by means of balls of bone or ivory running
on slender bamboo rods, similar to the simpler board,
fitted up with beads strung on wires, which is employed in
teaching the rudiments of arithmetic in English schools.

FIG. 2.--Chinese Swan-Pan.  The name of ``abacus'' is also
given, in logic, to an instrument, often called the ``logical
machine,'' analogous to the mathematical abacus.  It is
constructed to show all the possible combinations of a set of
logical terms with their negatives, and, further, the way in which
these combinations are affected by the addition of attributes
or other limiting words, i.e. to simplify mechanically the
solution of logical problems.  These instruments are all more
or less elaborate developments of the ``logical slate,'' on
which were written in vertical columns all the combinations
of symbols or letters which could be made logically out of a
definite number of terms.  These were compared with any given
premises, and those which were incompatible were crossed
off.  In the abacus the combinations are inscribed each on a
single slip of wood or similar substance, which is moved by a
key; incompatible combinations can thus be mechanically removed
at will, in accordance with any given series of premises. 
The principal examples of such machines are those of W. S.
Jevons (Element.  Lessons in Logic, C. xxiii.), John Venn
(see his Symbolic Logic, 2nd ed., 1894, p. 135), and Allan
Marquand (see American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1885, pp.
303-7, and Johns Hopkins University Studies in Logic, 1883).

ABADDON, a Hebrew word meaning ``destruction.'' In poetry
it comes to mean ``place of destruction,'' and so the
underworld or Sheol (cf. Job xxvi. 6; Prov. xv. 11). In Rev.
ix. 11 Abaddon ((Abaddon) is used of hell personified,
the prince of the underworld.  The term is here explained
as Apollyon (q.v.), the ``destroyer.', W. Baudissin
(Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklo padie) notes that Hades and
Abaddon in Rabbinic writings are employed as personal names,
just as shemayya in Dan. iv. 23, shamayim (``heaven''),
and makom (``place'') among the Rabbins, are used of God.

ABADEH, a small walled town of Persia, in the province of
Fars, situated at an elevation of 6200 ft. in a fertile
plain on the high road between Isfahan and Shiraz, 140 m.
from the former and 170 m. from the latter place.  Pop.
4000.  It is the chief place of the Abadeh-Iklid district,
which has 30 villages; it has telegraph and post offices,
and is famed for its carved wood-work, small boxes, trays,
sherbet spoons, &c., made of the wood of pear and box trees.

ABAE (rabai), a town in the N.E. corner of Phocis, in
Greece, famous in early times for its oracle of Apollo,
one of those consulted by Croesus (Herod. i. 46). It was
rich in treasures (Herod. viii. 33), but was sacked by the
Persians, and the temple remained in a ruined state.  The
oracle was, however, still consulted, e.g. by the Thebans
before Leuctra (Paus. iv. 32. 5). The temple seems to have
been burnt again during the Sacred War, and was in a very
dilapidated state when seen by Pausanias (x. 35), though
some restoration, as well as the building of a new temple,
was undertaken by Hadrian.  The sanctity of the shrine
ensured certain privileges to the people of Abac (Bull. 
Corresp.  Hell. vi. 171), and these were confirmed by the
Romans.  The polygonal wabs of the acropolis may still be
seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill
standing about 500 ft. above the little plain of Exarcho;
one gateway remains, and there are also traces of town walls
below.  The temple site was on a low spur of the hill, below the
town.  An early terrace wall supports a precinct in which are
a stoa and some remains of temples; these were excavated by the
British School at Athens in 1894, but very little was found.

See also W. M. Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, ii. p. 163i Journal
of Hellenic Studies, xvi. pp. 291-312 (V. W. Yorke). . (E. GR.)

ABAKANSK, a fortified town of Siberia, in the Russian
government of Yeniseisk, on the river Yenisei, 144 m.  S.S.W.
of Krasnoyarsk, in lat. 54 deg. 20' N., long. 91 deg. 40' E. This is
considered the mildest and most salubrious place in Siberia, and
is remarkable for certain tumuli (of the Li Kitai) and statues
of men from seven to nine feet high, covered with hieroglyphics. 
Peter the Great had a fort built here in 1707.  Pop. 2000.

ABALONE, the Spanish name used in California for various
species of the shell-fish of the Haliotidae family, with a
richly coloured shell yielding mother-of-pearl.  This sort
of Haliotis is also commonly called ``ear-shell,'' and in
Guernsey ``ormer'' (Fr. ormier, for oreille de mer).
The abalone shell is found especially at Santa Barbara and
other places on the southern Californian coast, and when
polished makes a beautiful ornament.  The mollusc itself is
often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan.

ABANA (or AMANAH, classical Chrysorrhoas) and PHARPAR,
the ``rivers of Damascus'' (2 Kings v. 12), now generally
identified with the Barada (i.e. ``cold'') and the A`waj
(i.e. ``crooked'') respectively, though if the reference
to Damascus be limited to the city, as in the Arabic
version of the Old Testament, Pharpar would be the modern
Taura.  Both streams run from west to east across the plain of
Damascus, which owes to them much of its fertility, and lose
themselves in marshes, or lakes, as they are called, on the
borders of the great Arabian desert.  John M'Gregor, who gives
an interesting description of them in his Rob Roy on the
Jordan, affirmed that as a work of hydraulic engineering,
the system and construction of the canals, by which the Abana
and Pharpar were used for irrigation, might be considered as
one of the most complete and extensive in the world.  As the
Barada escapes from the mountains through a narrow gorge,
its waters spread out fan-like, in canals or ``rivers'', the
name of one of which, Nahr Banias, retains a trace of Abana.

(1758-1792), French statesman, and nephew of Calonne.  He was
Louis XVI.'s last minister of war (July 1792), and organized
the defence of the Tuileries for the 10th of August.  Commanded
by the Legislative Assembly to send away the Swiss guards, he
refused, and was arrested for treason to the nation and sent
to Orleans to be tried.  At the end of August the Assembly
ordered Abancourt and the other prisoners at Orleans to
be transferred to Paris with an escort commanded by Claude
Fournier, ``the American.'' At Versailles they learned of the
massacres at Paris, and Abancourt and his fellow-prisoners
were murdered in cold blood on the 8th of September 1792. 
Fournier was unjustly charged with complicity in the crime.

ABANDONMENT (Fr. abandonnement, from abandonner, to
abandon, relinquish; abandonner was originally equivalent
to mettrea bandon, to leave to the jurisdiction, i.e. of
another, bandon being from Low Latin bandum, bannum, order,
decree, ``ban''), in law, the relinquishment of an interest,
claim, privilege or possession.  Its signification varies
according to the branch of the law in which it is employed,
but the more important uses of the word are summarized below.

ABANDONMENT OF AN ACTION is the discontinuance of proceedings
commenced in the High Court of Justice either because the
plaintiff is convinced that he will not succeed in his action
or for other reasons.  Previous to the Judicature Act of 1875,
considerable latitude was allowed as to the time when a suitor
might abandon his action, and yet preserve his right to bring
another action on the same suit (see NONSUIT); but since 1875
this right has been considerably curtailed, and a plaintiff who
has deilvered his reply (see PLEADING), and afterwards wishes
to abandon his action, can generally obtain leave so to do only
on condition of bringing no further proceedings in the matter.

ABANDONMENT IN MARINE INSURANCE is the surrender of the ship
or goods insured to the insurers, in the case of a constructive
total loss of the thing insured.  For the requisites and
effects of abandonment in this sense See INSURANCE, MARINE.

DESERTION, and the abandonment or exposure of a
young child under the age of two, which is an indictable
misdemeanour, is dealt with under CHILDREN, CRUELTY TO.

ABANDONMENT OF DOMICILE is the ceasing to reside permanently
in a former domicile coupled with the intention of choosing a new
domicile.  The presumptions which will guide the court in deciding
whether a former domicile has been abandoned or not must be
inferred from the facts of each individual case.  See DOMICILE.

ABANDONMENT OF AN EASEMENT is the relinquishment of some
accommodation or right in another's land, such as right of
way, free access of light and air, &c. See EASEMENT.

ABANDONMENT OF RAILWAYS has a legal signification in England
recognized by statute, by authority of which the Board of
Trade may, under certain circumstances, grant a warrant to a
railway authorizing the abandonment of its line or part of it.

ABANO, PIETRO D, (1250-1316), known also as PETRUS DE
APONO or APONENSIS, Italian physician and philosopher,
was born at the Italian town from which he takes his name
in 1250, or, according to others, in 1246.  After studying
medicine and philosophy at Paris he settled at Padua, where
he speedily gained a great reputation as a physician, and
availed himself of it to gratify his avarice by refusing
to visit patients except for an exorbitant fee.  Perhaps
this, as well as his meddling with astrology, caused him to
be charged with practising magic, the particular accusations
being that he brought back into his purse, by the aid of the
devil, all the money he paid away, and that he possessed the
philosopher's stone.  He was twice brought to trial by the
Inquisition; on the first occasion he was acquitted, and he
died (1316) before the second trial was completed.  He was
found guilty, however, and his body was ordered to be exhumed
and burned; but a friend had secretly removed it, and the
Inquisition had, therefore, to content itself with the public
proclamation of its sentence and the burning of Abano in
effigy.  In his writings he expounds and advocates the medical
and philosophical systems of Averroes and other Arabian
writers.  His best known works are the Conciliator differentiarum
quae inter philosophos et medicos versantur (Mantua, 1472;
V.enice, 1476), and De venenis eorumque remediis (1472),
of which a French translation was published at Lyons in 1593.

ABANO BAGNI, a town of Venetia, Italy, in the province of
Padua, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei; it is 6 m.  S.W.
by rail from Padua.  Pop. (1901) 4556.  Its hot springs and
mud baths are much resorted to, and were known to the Ronlans
as Aponi fons or Aquae Patavinae. Some remains of the
ancient baths have been discovered (S. Mandruzzato, Trattato
dei Bagni d' Abano, Padua, 1789).  An oracle of Geryon lay
near, and the so-called sortes Praenestinae (C.I.L. i.,
Berlin, 1863; 1438-1454), small bronze cylinders inscribed, and
used as oracles, were perhaps found here in the 16th century.

ABARIS, a Scythian or Hyperborean, priest and prophet
of Apollo, who is said to have visited Greece about 770
B.C., or two or three centuries later.  According to
the legend, he travelled throughout the country, living
without food and riding on a golden arrow, the gift of
the god; he healed the sick, foretold the future, worked
miracles, and delivered Sparta from a plague (Herod. iv. 36;
Iamblichus, De Fit. Pythag. xix. 28). Suidas credits him
with several works: Scythian oracles, the visit of Apollo to
the Hyperboreans, expiatory formulas and a prose theogony.

ABATED, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and
metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the
surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round
the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief.

ABATEMENT (derived through the French abattre, from the
Late Latin battere, to beat), a beating down or diminishing or
doing away with; a term used especially in various legal phrases.

ABATEMENT OF A NUISANCE is the remedy allowed by law to
a person or public authority injured by a public nuisance
of destroying or removing it, provided no breach of the
peace is committed in doing so.  In the case of private
nuisances abatement is also allowed provided there be no
breach of the peace, and no damage be occasioned beyond
what the removal of the nuisance requires. (See NUISANCE.)

ABATEMENT OF FREEHOLD takes place where, after the death of
the person last seised, a stranger enters upon lands before
the entry of the heir or devisee, and keeps the latter out of
possession.  It differs from intrusion, which is a similar
entry by a stranger on the death of a tenant for life, to
the prejudice of the reversioner, or remainder man; and from
disseisin, which is the forcible or fraudulent expulsion
of a person seised of the freehold. (See FREEHOLD.)

ABATEMENT OE DEBTS AND LEGACIES. When the equitable assets
(see ASSETS) of a deceased person are not sufficient to
satisfy fully all the creditors, their debts must abate
proportionately, and they must accept a dividend.  Also, in
the case of legacies when the funds or assets out of which
they are payable are not sufficient to pay them in full, the
legacies abate in proportion, unless there is a priority given
specially to any particular legacy (see LEGACY). Annuities
are also subject to the same rule as general legacies.

ABATEMENT IN PLEADING, or plea in abatement, was the
defeating or quashing of a particular action by some matter of
fact, such as a defect in form or the personal incompetency
of the parties suing, pleaded by the defendant.  It did not
involve the merits of the cause, but left the right of action
subsisting.  In criminal proceedings a plea in abatement was at
one time a common practice in answer to an indictment, and was
set up for the purpose of defeating the indictment as framed,
by alleging misnomer or other misdescription of the defendant. 
Its effect for this purpose was nullified by the Criminal Law
Act 1826, which required the court to amend according to the
truth, and the Criminal Procedure Act 1851, which rendered
description of the defendant unnecessary.  All pleas in abatement
are now abolished (R.S.G.  Order 21, r. 20). See PLEADING.

ABATEMENT IN LITIGATION. In civil proceedings, no action
abates by reason of the marriage, death or bankruptcy of any
of the parties, if the cause of action survives or continues,
and does not become defective by the assignment, creation or
devolution of any estate or title pendente lite (R.S.C. Order
17, r. 1). Criminal proceedings do not abate on the death of
the prosecutor, being in theory instituted by the crown, but
the crown itself may bring about their termination without any
decision on the merits and without the assent of the prosecutor.

ABATEMENT OF FALSE LIGHTS. By the Merchant Shipping Act
1854, the general lighthouse authority (see LIGHTHOUSE) has
power to order the extinguishment or screening of any light
which may be mistaken for a light proceeding from a lighthouse.

ABATEMENT IN COMMERCE is a deduction sometimes made at a
custom-house from the fixed duties on certain kinds of goods, on
account of damage or loss sustained in warehouses.  The rate and
conditions of such deductions are regulated, in England, by the
Customs Consolidation Act 1853. (See also DRAWBACK; REBATE.)

ABATEMENT IN HERALDRY is a badge in coat-armour, indicating some
kind of degradation or dishonour.  It is called also rebatement.

ABATI, or DELL' ABBATO, NICCOLO (1512--1571), a celebrated
fresco-painter of Modena, whose best works are there and at
Bologna.  He accompanied Primaticcio to France, and assisted
in decorating the palace at Fontainebleau (1552--1571).  His
pictures exhibit a combination of skill in drawing, grace
and natural colouring.  Some of his easel pieces in oil are
in different collections; one of the finest, in the Dresden
Gallery, represents the martyrdom of St Peter and St Paul.

ABATIS,ABATTIS or ABBATTIS (a French word meaning
a heap of material thrown), a term in field fortification
for an obstacle formed of the branches of trees laid
in a row, with the tops directed towards the enemy and
interlaced or tied with wire.  The abatis is used alone or
in combination with wire-entanglements and other obstacles.

ABATTOIR (from abattre, to strike down), a French word often
employed in English as an equivalent of ``slaughter-house''
(q.v.), the place where animals intended for food are killed.

ABAUZIT, FIRMIN (1679-1767), a learned Frenchman, was born of
Protestant parents at Uzes, in Languedoc.  His father died when
he was but two years of age; and when, on the revocation of the
edict of Nantes in 1685, the authorities took steps to have him
educated in the Roman Catholic faith, his mother contrived his
escape.  For two years his brother and he lived as fugitives in
the mountains of the Cevennes, but they at last reached Geneva,
where their mother afterwards joined them on escaping from
the imprisonment in which she was held from the time of their
flight.  Abauzit at an early age acquired great proficiency in
languages, physics and theology.  In 1698 he went to Holland,
and there became acquainted with Pierre Bayle, P. Jurieu and J.
Basnage.  Proceeding to England, he was introduced to Sir Isaac
Newton, who found in him one of the earliest defenders of his
discoveries.  Sir Isaac corrected in the second edition of
his Principia an error pointed out by Abauzit, and, when
sending him the Commercium Epistolicum, said, ``You are
well worthy to judge between Leibnitz and me.'' The reputation
of Abauzit induced William III. to request him to settle in
England, but he did not accept the king's offer, preferring
to return to Geneva.  There from 1715 he rendered valuable
assistance to a society that had been formed for translating
the New Testament into French.  He declined the offer of
the chair of philosophy in the university in 1723, but
accepted, in 1727, the sinecure office of librarian to the
city of his adoption.  Here he died at a good old age, in
1767.  Abauzit was a man of great learning and of wonderful
versatility.  Whatever chanced to be discussed,it used to be
said of Abauzit, as of Professor W. Whewell of more modern
times, that he seemed to have made it a subject of particular
study.  Rousseau, who was jealously sparing of his praises,
addressed to him, in his Nouvelle Heloise, a fine panegyric;
and when a stranger flatteringly told Voltaire he had come
to see a great man, the philosopher asked him if he had seen
Abauzit.  Little remains of the labours of this intellectual
giant, his heirs having, it is said, destroyed the papers
that came into their possession, because their own religious
opinions were different.  A few theological, archaeological
abd astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the
Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed
several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique
(1767).  He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical
authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply
from Dr Leonard Twells.  He also edited and made valuable
additions to J. Spon's Histoire de la republique de Geneve.
A collection of his writings was published at Geneva in
1770 (OEuvres de feu M. Abauzit), and another at London
in 1773 (OEuvres diverses de M. Abauzit). Some of them
were translated into English by Dr Edward Harwood (1774).

Information regarding Abauzit will be found in J.
Senebier's HIstoire Litteraire de Geneve, Harwood's
Miscellanies, and W. Orme's Bibliotheca Biblica (1824).

'ABAYE, the name of a Babylonian 'amora (q.v.),
born in the middle of the 3rd century.  He died in 339.

'ABBA 'ARIKA, the name of thc Babylonian 'amora (q.v.) of
the 3rd century, who established at Sura the systematic study
of the Rabbinic traditions which, using the Mishnah as text, led
to the compilation of the Talmud.  He is commonly known as Rab.

ABBADIDES, a Mahommedan dynasty which arose in Spain on the
downfall of the western caliphate.  It lasted from about 1023
till 1091, but during the short period of its existence was
singularly active and typical of its time.  The founder of
the house was Abd-ul-Qasim Mahommed, the cadi of Seville in
1023.  He was the chief of an Arab family settled in the city
from the first days of the conquest.  The Beni-abbad were not
of ancient descent, though the poets, whom they paid largely,
made an illustrious pedigree for them when they had become
powerful.  They were, however, very rich.  Abd-ul-Qasim gained
the confidence of the townsmen by organizing a successful
resistance to the Berber soldiers of fortune who were grasping
at the fragments of the caliphate.  At first he professed to
rule only with the advice of a council formed of the nobles,
but when his power became established he dispensed with this
show of republican government, and then gave himself the
appearance of a legitimate title by protecting an impostor
who professed to be the caliph Hisham II. When Abd-ul-Qasim
died in 1042 he had created a state which, though weak in
itself, was strong as compared to the little powers about
it.  He had made his family the recognized leaders of the
Mahommedans of Arab and native Spanish descent against
the Berber element, whose chief was the king of Granada. 
Abbad, surnamed El Motaddid, his son and successor, is
one of the most remarkable figures in Spanish Mahommedan
history.  He had a striking resemblance to the Italian princes
of the later middle ages and the early renaissance, of the
stamp of Fiiipo Maria Visconti.  El Motaddid was a poet and
a lover of letters, who was also a poisoner, a drinker of
wine, a sceptic and treacherous to the utmost degree.  Though
he waged war all through his reign he very rarely appeared in
the field, but directed the generals, whom he never trusted,
from his ``lair'' in the fortified palace, the Alcazar of
Seville.  He killed with his own hand one of his sons who had
rebelled against him.  On one occasion he trapped a number
of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting
him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room
of a bath.  It was his taste to preserve the skulls of the
enemies he had killed--those of the meaner men to be used as
flower-pots, while those of the princes were kept in special
chests.  His reign until his death on the 28th of February
1069 was mainly spent in extending his power at the expense
of his smaller neighbours, and in conflicts with his chief
rival the king of Granada.  These incessant wars weakened the
Mahommedans, to the great advantage of the rising power of
the Christian kings of Leon and Castile, but they gave the
kingdom of Seville a certain superiority over the other little
states.  After 1063 he was assailed by Fernando El Magno of
Castile and Leon, who marched to the gates of Seville, and
forced him to pay tribute.  His son, Mahommed Abd-ul-Qasim
Abenebet---who reigned by the title of El Motamid--was the
third and last of the Abbadides, He was a no less remarkable
person than his father and much more amiable.  Like him he was
a poet, and a favourer of poets.  El Motamid went, however,
considerably further in patronage of literature than his father,
for he chose as his favourite and prime minister the poet Ibn
Ammar.  In the end the vanity and featherheadedness of Ibn
Ammar drove his master to kill him.  El Motamid was even
more influenced by his favourite wife, Romaica, than by his
vizir.  He had met her paddling in the Guadalquivir, purchased
her from her master, and made her his wife.  The caprices
of Romaica, and the lavish extravagance of Motamid in his
efforts to please her, form the subject of many stories. 
In politics he carried on the feuds of his family with the
Berbers, and in his efforts to extend his dominions could be
as faithless as his father.  His wars and his extravagance
exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by
taxes.  In 1080 he brought down upon himself the vengeance of
Alphonso VI. of Castile by a typical piece of flighty oriental
barbarity.  He had endeavoured to pay part of his tribute to the
Christian king with false money.  The fraud was detected by a
Jew, who was one of the envoys of Alphonso.  El Motamid, in
a moment of folly and rage, crucified the Jew and imprisoned
the Christian members of the mission.  Alphonso retaliated
by a destructive raid.  When Alphonso took Toledo in 1085,
El Motamid called in Yusef ibn Tashfin, the Almoravide (see
SPAIN, History, and ALMORAVIDES). During the six years
which preceded his deposition in 1091, El Motamid behaved
with valour on the field, but with much meanness and political
folly.  He endeavoured to curry favour with Yusef by betraying
the other Mahommedan princes to him, and intrigued to secure
the alliance of Alphonso against the Almoravide.  It was
probably during this period that he surrendered his beautiful
daughter Zaida to the Christian king, who made her his
concubine, and is said by some authorities to have married
her after she bore him a son, Sancho.  The vacillations and
submissions of El Motamid did not save him from the fate
which overtook his fellow-princes.  Their scepticism and
extortion had tired their subjects, and the mullahs gave Yusef
a ``fetva'' authorzing him to remove them in the interest of
religion.  In 1091 the Almoravides stormed Seville.  El
Motamid, who had fought bravely, was weak enough to order his
sons to surrender the fortresses they still held, in order
to save his own life.  He died in prison in Africa in 1095.

AUTHORITIES.--Dozy, Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne,
Leiden, 1861; and Historia Abbadidarum (Scriptorum
Arabum loci de Abbadidio), Leiden, 1846. (D. II.)

D', (1815-1893), two brothers notable for their travels in
Abyssinia during the first half of the 19th century.  They
were both born in Dublin, of a French father and an Irish
mother, Antoine in 1810 and Arnaud in 1815.  The parents
removed to France in 1818, and there the brothers received
a careful scientific education.  In 1835 the French Academy
sent Antoine on a scientific mission to Brazil, the results
being published at a later date (1873) under the title of
Observations relatives a! la physique du globe faites au
Bresil et en Ethiopie. The younger Abbadie spent some
time in Algeria before, in 1837, the two brothers started for
Abyssinia, landing at Massawa in February 1838.  They visited
various parts of Abyssinia, including the then little-known
districts of Ennarea and Kaffa, sometimes together and
sometimes separately.  They met with many difficulties and
many adventures, and became involved in political intrigues,
Antoine especially exercising such influence as he possessed
in favour of France and the Roman Catholic missionaries.  After
collecting much valuable information concerning the geography,
geology, archaeology and natural history of Abyssinia, the
brothers returned to France in 1848 and began to prepare their
materials for publication.  The younger brother, Arnaud, paid
another visit to Abyssinia in 1853.  The more distinguished
brother, Antoine, became involved in various controversies
relating both to his geographical results and his political
intrigues.  He was especially attacked by C. T. Beke, who
impugned his veracity, especially with reference to the journey to
Kana.  But time and the investigations of subsequent explorers
have shown that Abbadie was quite trustworthy as to his facts,
though wrong in his contention--hotly contested by Beke--that
the Blue Nile was the main stream.  The topographical results
of his explorations were published in Paris in 1860-1873 in
Geodesie d'Ethiopie, full of the most valuable information and
illustrated by ten maps.  Of the Geographie de l'Ethiopie
(Paris, 1890) only one volume has been published.  In Un
Catalogue raisonne de manuscrits ethiopiens (Paris, 1859)
is a description of 234 Ethiopian manuscripts collected by
Antoine.  He also compiled various vocabularies, including
a Dictionnaire de la langue amarinna (Paris, 1881), and
prepared an edition of the Shepherd of Hermas, with the
Latin version, in 1860.  He published numerous papers dealing
with the geography of Abyssinia, Ethiopian coins and ancient
inscriptions.  Under the title of Reconnaissances magnetiques
he published in 1890 an account of the magnetic observations
made by him in the course of several journeys to the Red
Sea and the Levant.  The general account of the travels of
the two brothers was published by Arnaud in 1868 under the
title of Douze ans dans la Haute Ethiopie. Both brothers
received the grand medal of the Paris Geographical Society in
1850.  Antoine was a knight of the Legion of Honour and a
member of the Academy of Sciences.  He died in 1897, and
bequeathed an estate in the Pyrenees, yielding 40,000 francs
a year, to the Academy of Sciences, on condition of its
producing within fifty years a catalogue of half-a-million
stars.  His brother Arnaud died in 1893. (J. S. K.)

ABBADIE, JAKOB (1654?-1727), Swiss Protestant divine,
was born at Nay in Bern.  He studied at Sedan, Saumur and
Puylaurens, with such success that he received the degree of
doctor in theology at the age of seventeen.  After spending
some years in Berlin as minister of a French Protestant church,
where he had great success as a preacher, he accompanied
Marshal Schomberg, in 1688, to England, and next year became
minister of the French church in the Savoy, London.  His
strong attachment to the cause of King William appears in
his elaborate defence of the Revolution (Defense de la
nation britannique, 1692) as well as in his history of the
conspiracy of 1696 (Histoire de la grande conspiration
d'Angleterre). The king promoted him to the deanery of Killaloe
in Ireland.  He died in London in 1727.  Abbadie was a man
of great ability and an eloquent preacher, but is best known
by his religious treatises, several of which were translated
from the original French into other languages and had a wide
circulation throughout Europe.  The most important of these are
Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne (1684); its
continuation, Traite de la divinite de Jesus-Christ
(1689); and L'Art de se connaitre soi-meme (1692).

'ABBAHU, the name of a Palestinian 'amora (q.v.)
who flourished c. 279-320. 'Abbahu encouraged the
study of Greek by Jews.  He was famous as a collector of
traditional lore, and is very often cited in the Talmud.

ABBA MARI (in full, Abba Mari ben Moses benJoseph), French
rabbi, was born at Lunel, near Montpellier, towards the end of
the 13th century.  He is also known as Yarhi from his birthplace
(Heb.  Yerah, i.e. moon, lune), and he further took the
name Astruc, Don Astruc or En Astruc of Lunel.  The descendant
of men learned in rabbinic lore, Abba Mari devoted himself
to the study of theology and philosophy, and made himself
acquainted with the writing of Moses Maimonides and Nachmanides
as well as with the Talmud.  In Montpellier, where he lived
from 1303 to 1306, he was much distressed by the prevalence
of Aristotelian rationalism, which, through the medium of
the works of Maimonides, threatened the authority of the Old
Testament, obedience to the law, and the belief in miracles and
revelation.  He, therefore, in a series of letters (afterwards
collected under the title Minhat Kenaot, i.e. ``Jealousy
Offering'') called upon the famous rabbi Solomon ben Adret
of Barcelona to come to the aid of orthodoxy.  Ben Adret,
with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a
letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the
study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years
of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal
section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in
1305.  The result was a great schism among the Jews of Spain
and southern France, and a new impulse was given to the study
of philosophy by the unauthorized interference of the Spanish
rabbis.  On the expulsion of the Jews from France by Philip
IV. in 1306, Abba Mari settled at Perpignan, where he
published the letters connected with the controversy.  His
subsequent history is unknown.  Beside the letters, he was
the author of liturgical poetry and works on civil law.

AUTHORITIES.--Edition of the Minhat Kenaot by M. L.
Bislichis (Pressburg, 1838); E. Renan, Les rabbins francais,
pp. 647 foll.; Perles, Salomo ben Abrahann ben Adereth,
pp. 15-54; Jewish Encyclopaedia, s.v. ``Abba Mari.''

ABBAS I. (1813-1854), pasha of Egypt, was a son of Tusun
Pasha and grandson of Mehemet Ali, founder of the reigning
dynasty.  As a young man he fought in Syria under Ibrahim Pasha
(q.v.), his real or supposed uncle.  The death of Ibrahim
in November 1848 made Abbas regent of Egypt, and in August
following, on the death of Mehemet Alh--who had been deposed
in July 1848 on account of mental weakness,--Abbas succeeded
to the pashalik.  He has been generally described as a mere
voluptuary, but Nubar Pasha spoke of him as a true Turkish
gentleman of the old school.  He was without question a
reactionary, morose and taciturn, and spent nearly all his
time shut up in his palace.  He undid, as far as lay in his
power, the works of his grandfather, good and bad.  Among
other things he abolished trade monopolies, closed factories
and schools, and reduced the strength of the army to 9000
men.  He was inaccessible to adventurers bent on plundering
Egypt, but at the instance of the British government
allowed the construction of a railway from Alexandria to
Cairo.  In July 1854 he was murdered in Benha Palace by two
of his slaves, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha.

ABBAS II. (1874-- ), khedive of Egypt.  Abbas Hilmi Pasha,
great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of
July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive
of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.  When a boy he visited
England, and he had an English tutor for some time in
Cairo.  He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there
passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna.  In addition to
Turkish, his mother tongue, he acquired fluency in Arabic,
and a good conversational knowledge of English, French and
German.  He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden
death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was
barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority
at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne.  For
some time he did not co-operate very cordially with Great
Britain.  He was young and eager to exercise his new
power.  His throne and life had not been saved for him by the
British, as was the case with his father.  He was surrounded
by intriguers who were playing a game of their own, and for
some time he appeared almost disposed to be as reactionary
as his great-uncle Abbas I. But in process of time he learnt
to understand the importance of British counsels.  He paid
a second visit to England in 1900, during which he frankly
acknowledged the great good the British had done in Egypt,
and declared himself ready to follow their advice and to
co-operate with the British officials administering Egyptian
affairs.  The establishment of a sound system of native
justice, the great remission of taxation, the reconquest
of the Sudan, the inauguration of the stupendous irrigation
works at Assuan, the increase of cheap, sound education,
each received his approval and all the assistance he could
give.  He displayed more interest in agriculture than in
statecraft, and his farm of cattle and horses at Koubah,
near Cairo, would have done credit to any agricultural
show in England; at Montaza, near Alexandria, he created
a similar establishment.  He married the Princess Ikbal
Hanem and had several children.  Mahommed Abdul Mouneim,
the heir-apparent, was born on the 20th of February 1899.

ABBAS I. (e. 1557-1628 or 1629), shah of Persia, called
the Great, was the son of shah Mahommed (d. 1586) . In the
midst of general anarchy in Persia, he was proclaimed ruler of
Khorasan, and obtained possession of the Persian throne in
1586.  Determined to raise the fallen fortunes of his country,
he first directed his efforts against the predatory Uzbegs,
who occupied and harassed Khorasan.  After a long and severe
struggle, he regained Meshed, defeated them in a great battle
near Herat in 1597, and drove them out of his dominions.  In
the wars he carried on with the Turks during nearly the whole
of his reign, his successes were numerous, and he acquired,
or regained, a large extent of territory.  By the victory he
gained at Bassora in 1605 he extended his empire beyond the
Euphrates; sultan Ahmed I. was forced to cede Shirvan and
Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars
were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas
made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing
the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in
1623.  In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese,
by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was
diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the
shah.  When he died, his dominions reached from the Tigris
to the Indus.  Abbas distinguished himself, not only by his
successes in arms, and by the magnificence of his court and
of the buildings which he erected, but also by his reforms in
the administration of his kingdom.  He encouraged commerce,
and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much
to facilitate it.  To foreigners, especially Christians, he
showed a spirit of tolerance; two Englishmen, Sir Anthony
and Sir Robert Shirley, or Sherley, were admitted to his
confidence.  His fame is tarnished, however, by numerous deeds
of tyranny and cruelty.  His own family, especially, suffered
from his fits of jealousy; his eldest son was slain, and
the eyes of his other children were put out, by his orders.

See The Three Brothers, or Travels of Sir Anthony, Sir
Robert Sherley, &c. (London, 1823); Sir C. R. Markham,
General Sketch of the History of Persia (London, 1874).

ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad,
the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan
empire.  The Abbasid caliphs officially based their claim
to the throne on their descent from Abbas (A.D. 566-652),
the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they
regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as
opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya.  Throughout
the second period of the Omayyads, representatives of this
family were among their most dangerous opponents, partly by
the skill with which they undermined the reputation of the
reigning princes by accusations against their orthodoxy,
their moral character and their administration in general,
and partly by their cunning manipulation of internecine
jealousies among the Arabic and non-Arabic subjects of the
empire.  In the reign of Merwan II. this opposition culminated
in the rebellion of Ibrahim the Imam, the fourth in descent
from Abbas, who, supported hy the province of Khorasan, achieved
considerable successes, but was captured (A.D. 747) and died
in prison (as some hold, assassinated).  The quarrel was taken
up by his brother Abdallah, known by the name of Abu'l-Abbas
as-Saffah, who after a decisive victory on the Greater Zab
(750) finally crushed the Omayyads and was proclaimed caliph.

The history of the new dynasty is marked by perpetual
strife and the development of luxury and the liberal arts,
in place of the old-fashioned austerity of thought and
manners.  Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred
the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against
the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid
(786--809) and Mamun (813-833) were periods of extraordinary
splendour.  But the empire as a whole stagnated and then decayed
rapidly.  Independent monarchs established themselves in
Africa and Khorasan (Spain had remained Omayyad throughout),
and in the north-west the Greeks successfully encroached. 
The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish
slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim
(833-842).  Their power steadily grew until Radi (934-941) was
constrained to hand over most of the royal functions to Mahommed
b.  Raik.  Province after province renounced the authority
of the caliphs, who were merely lay figures, and finally
Hulagu, the Mongol chief, burned Bagdad (Feb. 28th, 1258). 
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority,
confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes,
but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who
was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.

See CALIPHATE (Sections B, 14 and C), where a
detailed account of the dynasty will be found.

ABBAS MIRZA (c. 1783-1833), prince of Persia, was a
younger son of the shah, Feth Ali, but on account of his
mother's royal birth was destined by his father to succeed
him.  Entrusted with the government of a part of Persia, he
sought to rule it in European fashion, and employed officers
to reorganize his army.  He was soon at war with Russia, and
his aid was eagerly solicited by both England and Napoleon,
anxious to checkmate one another in the East.  Preferring
the friendship of France, Abbas continued the war against
Russia, but his new ally could give him very little assistance,
and in 1814 Persia was compelled to make a disadvantageous
peace.  He gained some successes during a war between Turkey
and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his
army, and a treaty was signed in 1823.  His second war with
Russia, which began in 1825, was attended with the same want of
success as the former one, and Persia was forced to cede some
territory.  When peace was made in 1828 Abbas then sought
to restore order in the province of Khorasan, which was
nominally under Persian supremacy, and while engaged in the
task died at Meshed in 1833.  In 1834 his eldest son, Mahommed
Mirza, succeeded Feth Ali as shah.  Abbas was an intelligent
prince, possessed some literary taste, and it noteworthy
on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.

ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of
Tiflis, 50 m.  S.W. of the Borzhom railway station and 65
m.  E. of Batum, very picturesquely situated in a cauldron-shaped
valley.  It has hot sulphur baths (93 1/2 deg. -118 1/2 deg. 
Fahr.) and an astronomical observatory (4240 ft.).

ABBAZIA, a popular summer and winter resort of Austria, in
Istria, 56 m.  S.E. of Trieste by rail.  Pop. (1900) 2343.  It
is situated on the Gulf of Quarnero in a sheltered position at
the foot of the Monte Maggiore (4580 ft.), and is surrounded
by beautiiul woods of laurel.  The average temperature is 50 deg. 
Fahr. in winter, and 77 deg.  Fahr. in summer.  The old abbey,
San Giacomo della Priluca, from which the place derives its
name, has been converted into a villa.  Abbazia is frequented
annually by about 16,000 visitors.  The whole sea-coast to
the north and south of Abbazia is rocky and picturesque,
and contains several smaller winter-resorts.  The largest
of them is Lovrana (pop. 513), situated 5 m. to the south.

ABBESS (Lat. abbatissa, fem. form of abbas, abbot),
the female superior of an abbey or convent of nuns.  The
mode of election, position, rights and authority of an abbess
correspond generally with those of an abbot (q.v.). The
office is elective, the choice being by the secret votes of the
sisters from their own body.  The abbess is solemnly admitted
to her office by episcopal benediction, together with the
conferring of a staff and pectoral cross, and holds for life,
though liable to be deprived for misconduct.  The council of
Trent fixed the qualifying age at forty, with eight years of
profession.  Abbesses have a right to demand absolute obedience
of their nuns, over whom they exercise discipline, extending
even to the power of expulsion, subject, however, to the
bishop.  As a female an abbess is incapable of performing the
spiritual functions of the priesthood belonging to an abbot. 
She cannot ordain, confer the veil, nor excommunicate.  In
England abbesses attended ecclesiastical councils, e.g. that
of Becanfield in 694, where they signed before the presbyters.

By Celtic usage abbesses presided over joint-houses of monks and
nuns.  This custom accompanied Celtic monastic missions to France
and Spain, and even to Rome itself.  At a later period, A.D.
1115, Robert, the founder of Fontevraud, committed the government
of the whole order, men as well as women, to a female superior.

In the German Evangelical church the title of abbess (Aebtissin)
has in some cases--e.g. Itzehoe--survived to designate the
heads of abbeys which since the Reformation have continued as
Stifte, i.e. collegiate foundations, which provide a home
and an income for unmarried ladies, generally of noble birth,
called canonesses (Kanonissinen) or more usually Stiftsdamen.
This office of abbess is of considerable social dignity, and
is sometimes filled by princesses of the reigning houses.

ABBEVILLE, a town of northern France, capital of an
arrondissement in the department of Somme, on the Somme, 12
m. from its mouth in the English Channel, and 28 m.  N,W. of
Amiens on the Northern railway.  Pop. (1901) 18,519; (1906)
18,971.  It lies in a pleasant and fertile valley, and is
built partly on an island and partly on both sides of the
river, which is canalized from this point to the estuary.  The
streets are narrow, and the houses are mostly picturesque old
structures, built of wood, with many quaint gables and dark
archways.  The most remarkable building is the church of St
Vulfran, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries.  The
original design was not completed.  The nave has only two bays
and the choir is insignificant.  The facade is a magnificent
specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic
towers.  Abbeville has several other old churches and an
hotel-de-ville, with a belfry of the 13th century.  Among
the numerous old houses, that known as the Maison de Francois
Ie, which is the most remarkable, dates from the 16th century. 
There is a statue of Admiral Courbet (d. 1885) in the chief
square.  The public institutions include tribunals of first instance
and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal
college.  Abbeville is an important industrial centre; in addition
to its old-established manufacture of cloth, hemp-spinning,
sugar-making, ship-building and locksmiths' work are carried on;
there is active commerce in grain, but the port has little trade.

Abbeville, the chief town of the district of Ponthieu, first
appears in history during the 9th century.  At that time
belonging to the abbey of St Riquier, it was afterwards
governed by the counts of Ponthieu.  Together with that county,
it came into the possession of the Alencon and other French
families, and afterwards into that of the house of Castillo,
from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to Edward I., king of
England.  French and English were its masters by turns till
1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the duke of
Burgundy.  In 1477 it was annexed by Louis XI., king of France,
and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in
the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown.

ABBEY, EDWIN AUSTIN (1852- ), American painter, was born at
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of April 1852.  He left
the schools of the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts at the
age of nineteen to enter the art department of the publishing
house of Harper & Brothers in New York, where, in company
with such men as Howard Pyle, Charles Stanley Reinhart, Joseph
Pennell and Alfred Parsons, he became very successful as an
illustrator.  In 1878 he was sent by the Harpers to England
to gather material for illustrations of the poems of Robert
Herrick.  These, published in 1882, attracted much attention,
and were followed by illustrations for Goldsmith's She
Stoops to Conquer (1887), for a volume of Old Songs
(1889), and for the comedies (and a few of the tragedies) of
Shakespeare.  His water-colours and pastels were no less
successful than the earlier illustrations in pen and ink. 
Abbey now became closely identified with the art life of
England, and was elected to the Royal Institute of Painters
in Water-Colours in 1883.  Among his water-colours are ``The
Evil Eye'' (1877); ``The Rose in October'' (1879); ``An Old
Song'' (1886); ``The Visitors'' (1890), and ``The Jongleur''
(1892).  Possibly his best known pastels are ``Beatrice,''
``Phyllis,'' and ``Two Noble Kinsmen.'' In 1890 he made his
first appearance with an oil painting, ``A May Day Morn,'' at
the Royal Academy in London.  He exhibited ``Richard duke of
Gloucester and the Lady Anne'' at the Royal Academy in 1896,
and in that year was elected A.R.A., becoming a full R.A. in
1898.  Apart from his other paintings, special mention must
be made of the large frescoes entitled ``The Quest of the Holy
Grail,'' in the Boston Public Library, on which he was occupied
for some years; and in 1901 he was commissioned by King Edward
VII. to paint a picture of the coronation, containing many
portraits elaborately grouped.  The dramatic subjects, and the
brilliant colouring of his on pictures, gave them pronounced
individuality among the works of contemporary painters. 
Abbey became a member not only of the Royal Academy, but also
of the National Academy of Design of New York, and honorary
member of the Royal Bavarian Society, the Societe Nationale
des Beaux Arts (Paris), the American Water-Colour Society,
etc.  He received first class gold medals at the International
Art Exhibition of Vienna in 1898, at Philadelphia in 1898,
at the Paris Exhibitions of 1889 and 1900, and at Berlin in
1903; and was made a chevalier of the French Legion of Honour.

ABBEY (Lat. abbatia; from Syr. abba, father), a
monastery, or conventual establishment, under the government
of an ABBOT or an ABBESS. A priory only differed from
an abbey in that the superior bore the name of prior instead
of abbot. This was the case in all the English conventual
cathedrals, e.g. Canterbury, Ely, Norwich, &c., where the
archbishop or bishop occupied the abbot's place, the superior
of the monastery being termed prior.  Other priories were
originally offshoots from the larger abbeys, to the abbots
of which they continued subordinate; but in later times the
actual distinction between abbeys and priories was lost.

The earliest Christian monastic communities (see MONASTICISM)
with which we are acquainted consisted of groups of cells or
huts collected about a common centre, which was usually the abode
of some anchorite celebrated for superior holiness or singular
asceticism, but without any attempt at orderly arrangement. 
The formation of such communities in the East does not date
from the introduction of Christianity.  The example had been
already set by the Essenes in Judea and the Therapeutae in Egypt.

In the earliest age of Christian monasticism the ascetics
were accustomed to live singly, independent of one another,
at no great distance from some village, supporting themselves
by the labour of their own hands, and distributing the
surplus after the supply of their own scanty wants to the
poor.  Increasing religious fervour, aided by persecution,
drove them farther and farther away from the abodes of men
into mountain solitudes or lonely deserts.  The deserts
of Egypt swarmed with the ``cells'' or huts of these
anchorites.  Anthony, who had retired to the Egyptian Thebaid
during the persecution of Maximin, A.D. 312, was the most
celebrated among them for his austerities, his sanctity, and
his power as an exorcist.  His fame collected round him a
host of followers, emulous of his sanctity.  The deeper he
withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples
became.  They refused to be separated from him, and built
their ceils round that of their spiritual father.  Thus arose
the first monastic community, consisting of anchorites living
each in his own little dwelling, united together under one
superior.  Anthony, as Neander remarks (Church History,
vol. iii. p. 316, Clark's trans.), ``without any conscious
design of his own, had become the founder of a new mode
of living in common, Coenobitism.'' By degrees order was
introduced in the groups of huts.  They were arranged in
lines like the tents in an encampment, or the houses in a
street.  From this arrangement these lines of single cells
came to be known as Laurae, Laurai, "streets" or "lanes."

The real founder of coenobian koinos, common, and bios,
life) monasteries in the modern sense was Pachomius, an Egyptian
of the beginning of the 4th century.  The first community
established by him was at Tabennae, an island of the Nile in Upper
Egypt.  Eight others were founded in his lifetime, numbering 3000
monks.  Within fifty years from his death his societies could
reckon 50,000 members.  These coenobia resembled vilIages,
peopled by a hard-working religious community, ail of one
sex.  The buildings were detached, small and of the humblest
character.  Each cell or hut, according to Sozomen (H.R. iii.
14), contained three monks.  They took their chief meal in a
common refectory at 3 P.M., up to which hour they usually
fasted.  They ate in silence, with hoods so drawn over their
faces that they could see nothing but what was on the table
before them.  The monks spent all the time, not devoted to
religious services or study, in manual labour.  Palladius,
who visited the Egyptian monasteries about the close of the
4th century, found among the 300 members of the coenobium of
Panopolis, under the Pachomian rule, 15 tailors, 7 smiths, 4
carpenters, 12 cameldrivers and 15 tanners.  Each separate
community had its own oeconomus or steward, who was subject
to a chief oeconomus stationed at the head establishment. 
All the produce of the monks' labour was committed to him, and
by him shipped to Alexandria.  The money raised by the sale
was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the
communities, and what was over was devoted to charity.  Twice
in the year the superiors of the several coenobia met at
the chief monastery, under the presidency of an archimandrite
(``the chief of the fold,'' from miandra, a fold), and at
the last meeting gave in reports of their administration for the
year.  The coenobia of Syria belonged to the Pachomian
institution.  We learn many details concerning those in the
vicinity of Antioch from Chrysostom's writings.  The monks
lived in separate huts, kalbbia, forming a religious hamlet
on the mountain side.  They were subject to an abbot, and
observed a common rule. (They had no refectory, but ate their
common meal, of bread and water only, when the day's labour
was over, reclining on strewn grass, sometimes out of doors,)
Four times in the day they joined in prayers and psalms.

Santa Laura, Mount Athos.

The necessity for defence from hostile attacks, economy of
space and convenience of access from one part of the community
to another, by degrees dictated a more compact and orderly
arrangement of the buildings of a monastic coenobium.  Large
piles of building were erected, with strong outside walls,
capable of resisting the assaults of an enemy, within which
all the necessary edifices were ranged round one or more
open courts, usually surrounded with cloisters.  The usual
Eastern arrangement is exemplified in the plan of the convent
of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Laura, the designation of a
monastery generally, being converted into a female saint).

This monastery, like the oriental monasteries generally, is
surrounded by a strong and lofty blank stone wall, enclosing
an area of between 3 and 4 acres.  The longer side extends to
a length of about 500 feet.  There is only one main entrance,
on the north side (A), defended by three separate iron
doors.  Near the entrance is a large tower (M), a constant
feature in the monasteries of the Levant.  There is a small
postern gate at L. The enceinte comprises two large open
courts, surrounded with buildings connected with cloister
galleries of wood or stone.  The outer court, which is much the
larger, contains the granaries and storehouses (K), and the
kitchen (H) and other offices connected with the refectory
(G). Immediately adjacent to the gateway is a two-storied
guest-house, opening from a cloister (C). The inner court is
surrounded by a cloister (EE), from which open the monks' cells
(II).  In the centre of this court stands the catholicon
or conventual church, a square building with an apse of
the cruciform domical Byzantine type, approached by a domed
narthex.  In front of the church stands a marble fountain
(F), covered by a dome supported on columns.  Opening from
the western side of the cloister, but actually standing in
the outer court, is the refectory (G), a large cruciform
building, about 100 feet each way, decorated within with
frescoes of saints.  At the upper end is a semicircular
recess, recalling the triclinium of the Lateran Palace

A. Gateway.
B. Chapels.
C. Guest-house.
D. Church.
E. Cloister.
F. Fountain.
G. Refectory.
H. Kitchen.
I. Cells.
K. Storehouses.
L. Postern gate.
M. Tower.
FIG. 1.---Monastery of Santa Laura, Mount Athos (Lenoir).

at Rome, in which is placed the seat of the hegumenos or
abbot.  This apartment is chiefly used as a hall of meeting, the
oriental monks usually taking their meals in their separate cells.


St Laura is exceeded in magnitude by the convent of Vatopede
also on Mount Athos.  This enormous establishment covers at
least 4 acres of ground, and contains so many separate buildings
within its massive walls that it resembles a fortified town.  It
lodges above 300 monks, and the establishment of the hegumenos is
described as resembling the court of a petty sovereign prince. 
The immense refectory, of the same cruciform shape as that of
St Laura, will accommodate 500 guests at its 24 marble tables.

The annexed plan of a Coptic monastery, from Lenoir,
shows a church of three aisles, with cellular apses, and
two ranges of cells on either side of an oblong gallery.


Monasticism in the West owes its extension and development
to Benedict of Nursia (born A.D. 480).  His rule was
diffused with miraculous rapidity from the parent foundation
on Monte Cassino through the whole of western Europe, and
every country witnessed the erection of monasteries far
exceeding anything that had yet been seen in spaciousness and
splendour.  Few great towns in Italy were without their
Benedictine convent, and they quickly rose in all the great
centres of population in England, France and Spain.  The number
of these monasteries founded between A.D. 520 and 700 is
amazing.  Before the Council of Constance, A.D. 1415, no
fewer than 15,070 abbeys had been established of this order
alone.  The buildings of a Benedictine abbey were uniformly
arranged ofter one plan, modified where necessary (as at
Durham and Worcester, where the monasteries stand close to the
steep bank of a river) to accommodate the arrangement to local
circumstances.  We have no existing examples of the earlier
monasteries of the Benedictine order.  They have all yielded
to the ravages of time and the violence of man.  But we
have fortunately preserved to us an elaborate plan of the
great Swiss monastery of St Gall, erected about A.D. 820,
which puts us in possession of the whole arrangements of a
monastery of the first class towards the early part of the 9th
century.  This curious and interesting plan has been made
the subject of a memoir both by Keller (Zurich, 1844) and by
Professor Robert Willis (Arch. Journal, 1848, vol. v. pp.
86-117.  To the latter we are indebted for the substance of
the following description, as well as for the plan, reduced
from his elucidated transcript of the original preserved

FIG. 2.---Plan of Coptic Monastery.
A. Narthex. B. Church.
C. Corridor, with cells on each side.
D. Staircase.

in the archives of the convent.  The general apperance
of the convent is that of a town of isolated houses with
streets running between them.  It is evidently planned in
compliance with the Benedictine rule, which enjoined that,
if possible, the monastery should contain within itself
every necessary of life, as well as the buildings more
intimately connected with the religious and social life of its
inmates.  It should comprise a mill, a bakehouse, stables
and cow-houses, together with accommodation for carrying
on all necessary mechanical arts within the walls, so as to
obviate the necessity of the monks going outside its limits.

The general distribution of the buildings may be thus
described:-The church, with its cloister to the south, occupies
the centre of a quadrangular area, about 430 feet square.  The
buildings, as in all great monasteries, are distributed into
groups.  The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the
religious life of the community.  In closest connexion with
the church is the group of buildings appropriated to the
monastic line and its daily requirements---the refectory for
eating, the dormitory for sleeping, the common room for social
intercourse, the chapter-house for religious and disciplinary
conference.  These essential elements of monastic life
are ranged about a cloister court, surrounded by a covered
arcade, affording communication sheltered ftom the elements
between the various buildings.  The infirmary for sick monks,
with the physician's house and physic garden, lies to the
east.  In the same group with the infirmary is the school for
the novices.  The outer school, with its headmaster's house
against the opposite wall of the church, stands outside the
convent enclosure, in close proximity to the abbot's house,
that he might have a constant eye over them.  The buildings
devoted to hospitality are divided into three groups,--one
for the reception of distinguished guests, another for monks
visiting the monastery, a third for poor travellers and
pilgrims.  The first and third are placed to the right and
left of the common entrance of the monastery,---the hospitium
for distinguished guests being placed on the north side of the
church, not far from the abbot's house; that for the poor
on the south side next to the farm buildings.  The monks are
lodged in a guest-house built against the north wall of the
church.  The group of buildings connected with the material
wants of the establishment is placed to the south and west
of the church, and is distinctly separated from the monastic
buildings.  The kitchen, buttery and offices are reached by a
passage from the west end of the refectory, and are connected
with the bakehouse and brewhouse, which are placed still farther
away.  The whole of the southern and western sides is devoted to
workshops, stables and farm-buildings.  The buildings, with some
exceptions, seem to have been of one story only, and all but
the church were probably erected of wood.  The whole includes
thirty-three separate blocks.  The church (D) is cruciform,
with a nave of nine bays, and a semicircular apse at either
extremity.  That to the west is surrounded by a semicircular
colonnade, leaving an open ``paradise'' (E) between it and
the wall of the church.  The whole area is divided by screens
into various chapels.  The high altar (A) stands immediately
to the east of the transept, or ritual choir; the altar
of St Paul (B) in the eastern, and that of St Peter (C) in
the western apse.  A cylindrical campanile stands detached
from the church on either side of the western apse (FF).

The ``cloister court', (G) on the south side of the nave of the

FIG. 3.--Ground-plan of St

CHURCH.                          U. House for blood-letting.
A. High altar.                   V. School.
B. Altar of St Paul.             W. Schoolmaster's lodgings.
C. Altar of St Peter.            X1X1. Guest-house for those
D. Nave.                                  of superior rank
E. Paradise.                     X2X2. Guest-house for the poor.
FF. Towers.                      Y. Guest-chamber for strange monks.
G. Cloister.                     MENIAL DEPARTMENT.
H. Calefactory, with             Z. Factory.
dormitory over.               a. Threshing-floor
I. Necessary.                    b. Workshops.
J. Abbot's house.                c, c. Mills.
K. Refectory.                    d. Kiln.
L. Kitchen.                      e. Stables.
M. Bakehouse and brewhouse.      f Cow-sheds.
N. Cellar.                       g. Goat-sheds.
O. Parlour.               (over. h. Pig-sties. i. Sheep-folds.
P1. Scriptorium with library  k, k, k. Servants' and workmen's
P2. Sacristy and vestry.                     sleeping-chambers.
Q. House of Novices--1.chapel;   l. Gardener's house
2. refectory; 3. calefactory;  m,m. Hen and duck house.
4. dormitory; 5. master's room n. Poultry-keeper's house.
6. chambers.                   o. Garden.
R. Infirmary--1--6 as above in   q. Bakehouse for sacramental
the house of novices.
S. Doctor's house.               s, s, s. Kitchens.
T. Physic garden.                t, t, t. Baths.

church has on its east side the ``pisalis'' or ``calefactory',
(H), the common sitting-room of the brethren, warmed by
flues beneath the floor.  On this side in later monasteries
we invariably find the chapterhouse, the absence of
which in this plan is somewhat surprising.  It appears,
however, from the inscriptions on the plan itself, that the
north walk of the cloisters served for the purposes of a
chapter-house, and was fitted up with benches on the long
sides.  Above the calefactory is the ``dormitory'' opening
into the south transept of the church, to enable the monks
to attend the nocturnal services with readiness.  A passage
at the other end leads to the ``necessarium'' (I), a portion
of the monastic buildings always planned with extreme
care.  The southern side is occupied by the ``refectory''
(K), from the west end of which by a vestibule the kitchen
(L) is reached.  This is separated from the main buildings
of the monastery, and is connected by a long passage with
a building containing the bake house and brewhouse (M), and
the sleeping-rooms of the servants.  The upper story of the
refectory is the ``vestiarium,'' where the ordinary clothes of
the brethren were kept.  On the western side of the cloister
is another two story building (N). The cellar is below,
and the larder and store-room above.  Between this building
and the church, opening by one door into the cloisters, and
by another to the outer part of the monastery area, is the
``parlour'' for interviews with visitors from the external
world (O). On the eastern side of the north transept is the
``scriptorium'' or writing-room (P1), with the library above.

To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprising
two miniature conventual establishments, each complete in
itself.  Each has a covered cloister surrounded by the usual
buildings, i.e. refectory, dormitory, &c., and a church or
chapel on one side, placed back to back.  A detached building
belonging to each contains a bath and a kitchen.  One of these
diminutive convents is appropriated to the ``oblati'' or novices
(Q), the other to the sick monks as an ``imfirmary'' (R).

The ``residence of the physicians'' (S) stands contiguous to the
infirmary, and the physic garden (T) at the north-east corner of
the monastery.  Besides other rooms, it contains a drug store,
and a chamber for those who are dangerously ill.  The ``house
for bloodletting and purging'' adjoins it on the west (U).

The ``outer school,'' to the north of the convent area, contains
a large schoolroom divided across the middle by a screen or
partition, and surrounded by fourteen little rooms, termed
the dwellings of the scholars.  The head-master's house (W)
is opposite, built against the side wall of the church.  The
two ``hospitia'' or `' guest-houses'' for the entertainment
of strangers of different degrees (X1 X2) comprise a large
common chamber or refectory in the centre, surrounded by
sleeping-apartments.  Each is provided with its own brewhouse
and bakehouse, and that for travellers of a superior order has
a kitchen and storeroom, with bedrooms for their servants and
stables for their horses.  There is also an ``hospitium'' for
strange monks, abutting on the north wall of the church (Y).

Beyond the cloister, at the extreme verge of the convent
area to the south, stands the `factory'' (Z), containing
workshops for shoemakers, saddlers (or shoemakers, sellarii),
cutlers and grinders, trencher-makers, tanners, curriers,
fullers, smiths and goldsmiths, with their dwellings in the
rear.  On this side we also find the farmbuildings, the large
granary and threshing-floor (a), mills (c), malthouse
(d). Facing the west are the stables (e), ox-sheds
(f), goatstables (gl, piggeries (h), sheep-folds (i),
together with the servants' and labourers' quarters (k).
At the south-east corner we find the hen and duck house, and
poultry-yard (m), and the dwelling of the keeper (n).
Hard by is the kitchen garden (o), the beds bearing the
names of the vegetables growing in them, onions, garlic,
celery, lettuces, poppy, carrots, cabbages, &c., eighteen in
all.  In the same way the physic garden presents the names
of the medicinal herbs, and the cemetery (p) those of
the trees, apple, pear, plum, quince, &c., planted there.

Canterbury Cathedral.

A curious bird's-eye view of Canterbury Cathedral and its
annexed conventual buildings, taken about 1165, is preserved
in the Great Psalter in the library of Trinity College,
Cambridge.  As elucidated by Professor Willis,1 it exhibits
the plan of a great Benedictine monastery in the 12th century,
and enables us to compare it with that of the 9th as seen at St
Gall.  We see in both the same general principles of arrangement,
which indeed belong to all Benedictine monasteries, enabling
us to determine with precision the disposition of the various
buildings, when little more than fragments of the walls
exist.  From some local reasons, however, the cloister and
monastic buildings are placed on the north, instead, as is far
more commonly the case, on the south of the church.  There is
also a separate chapter-house, which is wanting at St Gall.

The buildings at Canterbury, as at St Gall, form separate
groups.  The church forms the nucleus.  In immediate contact
with this, on the north side, lie the cloister and the
group of buildings devoted to the monastic life.  Outside of
these, to the west and east, are the ``halls and chambers
devoted to the exercise of hospitality, with which every
monastery was provided, for the purpose of receiving as
guests persons who visited it, whether clergy or laity,
travellers, pilgrims or paupers.'' To the north a large
open court divides the monastic from the menial buildings,
intentionally placed as remote as possible from the conventual
buildings proper, the stables, granaries, barn, bakehouse,
brewhouse, laundries, &c., inhabited by the lay servants of the
establishment.  At the greatest possible distance from the
church, beyond the precinct of the convent, is the eleemosynary
department.  The almonry for the relief of the poor,
with a great hall annexed, forms the paupers' hospitium.

The most important group of buildings is naturally that devoted
to monastic life.  This includes two Cloisters, the great
cloister surrounded by the buildings essentially connected with
the daily life of the monks,---the church to the south, the
refectory or frater-house here as always on the side opposite
to the church, and farthest removed from it, that no sound or
smell of eating might penetrate its sacred precincts, to the
east the dormitory, raised on a vaulted undercroft, and the
chapter-house adjacent, and the lodgings of the cellarer to the
west.  To this officer was committed the provision of the
monks' daily food, as well as that of the guests.  He was,
therefore, appropriately lodged in the immediate vicinity of
the refectory and kitchen, and close to the guest-hall.  A
passage under the dormitory leads eastwards to the smaller
or infirmary cloister, appropriated to the sick and infirm
monks.  Eastward of this cloister extend the hall and chapel of
the infirmary, resembling in form and arrangement the nave and
chancel of an aisled church.  Beneath the dormitory, looking
out into the green court or herbarium, lies the ``pisalis''
or ``calefactory,'' the common room of the monks.  At its
north-east corner access was given from the dormitory to the
necessarium, a portentous edifice in the form of a Norman
hall, 145 ft. long by 25 broad, containing fifty-five seats.  It
was, in common with all such offices in ancient monasteries,
constructed with the most careful regard to cleanliness and
health, a stream of water running through it from end to
end.  A second smaller dormitory runs from east to west for
the accommodation of the conventual officers, who were bound
to sleep in the dormitory.  Close to the refectory, but outside
the cloisters, are the domestic offices connected with it:
to the north, the kitchen, 47 ft. square, surmounted by a
lofty pyramidal roof, and the kitchen court; to the west, the
butteries, pantries, &c. The infirmary had a small kitchen of its
own.  Opposite the refectory door in the cloister are two
lavatories, an invariable adjunct to a monastic dining-hall,
at which the monks washed before and after taking food.

The buildings devoted to hospitality were divided into three
groups.  The prior's group ``entered at the south-east angle
of the green court, placed near the most sacred part of the
cathedral, as befitting the distinguished ecclesiastics or
nobility who were assigned to him.'' The cellarer's buildings
were near the west end of the nave, in which ordinary visitors
of the middle class were hospitably entertained.  The inferior
pilgrims and paupers were relegated to the north hall or almonry,
just within the gate, as far as possible from the other two.

Westminster Abbey.

Westminster Abbey is another example of a great Benedictine
abbey, identical in its general arrangements, so far as they
can be traced, with those described above.  The cloister and
, monastic buildings lie to the south side of the church. 
Parallel to the nave, on the south side of the cloister,
was the refectory, with its lavatory at the door.  On the
eastern side we find the remains of the dormitory, raised
on a vaulted substructure and communicating with the south
transept.  The chapter-house opens out of the same alley of the
cloister.  The small cloister lles to the south-east of
the larger cloister, and still farther to the east we have
the remains of the infirmary with the table hall, the
refectory of those who were able to leave their chambers.  The
abbot's house formed a small courtyard at the west entrance,
close to the inner gateway.  Considerable portions of this
remain, including the abbot's parlour. celebrated as ``the
Jerusalem Chamber,'' his hall, now used for the Westminster
King's Scholars, and the kitchen and butteries beyond.


St Mary's Abbey, York, of which the ground-plan is annexed,
exhibits the usual Benedictine arrangements.  The precincts
are surrounded by a strong fortified wall on three sides,
the river Ouse being sufficient protection on the fourth
side.  The entrance was by a strong gateway (U) to the
north.  Close to the entrance was a chapel, where is now
the church of St Olaf (W), in which the new-comers paid
their devotions immediately on their arrival.  Near the
gate to the south was the guest-hall or hospitium (T).
The buildings are completely ruined, but enough remains to
enable us to identify the grand cruciform church (A), the
cloister-court with the chapterhouse (B), the refectory (I),
the kitchen-court with its offices (K, O, O) and the other
principal apartments.  The infirmary has perished completely.

Some Benedictine houses display exceptional arrangements,
dependent upon local circumstances, e.g. the dormitory of
Worcester runs from east to west, from the west walk of the
cloister, and that of Durham is built over the west, instead of

FIG. 4

St Mary's Abbey, York (Benedictine).--Churton's Monnastic Ruins.
A. Church.                        O. Offices.
B. Chapter-house.                 P. Cellars.
C. Vestibule to ditto.            Q. Uncertain.
E. Library or scriptorium.        R. Passage to abbot's house.
F. Calefactory.                   S. Passage to common house.
G. Necessary.                     T. Hospitium.
H. Parlour.                       U. Great gate.
I. Refectory.                     V. Porter's lodge.
K. Great kitchen and court.       W. Church of St Olaf.
L. Cellarer's office.             X. Tower.
M. Cellars.                       Y. Entrance from Bootham.
N. Passage to cloister.

as usual, over the east walk; but, as a general rule, the arrangements
deduced from the examples described may be regarded as invariable.

The history of monasticism is one of alternate periods of
decay and revival.  With growth in popular esteem came increase
in material wealth, leading to luxury and worldliness.  The
first religious ardour cooled, the strictness of the rule was
relaxed, until by the 10th century the decay of discipline
was so complete in France that the monks are said to have
been frequently unacquainted with the rule of St Benedict,
and even ignorant that they were bound by any rule at
all.  The reformation of abuses generally took the form of
the establishment of new monastic orders, with new and more
stringent rules, requiring a modification of the architectural
arrangements.  One of the earliest of these reformed orders
was the Cluniac. This order took its name from,the little
village of Cluny, 12 miles N.W. of Macon, near which, about
A.D. 909, a reformed Benedictine abbey was founded by William,
duke of Aquitaine and count of Auvergne, under Berno, abbot of
Beaume.  He was succeeded by Odo, who is often regarded as
the founder of the order.  The fame of Cluny spread far and
wide.  Its rigid rule was adopted by a vast number of the
old Benedictine abbeys, who placed themselves in affiliation
to the mother society, while new foundations sprang up in
large numbers, all owing allegiance to the ``archabbot,''
established at Cluny.  By the end of the 12th century the
number of monasteries affiliated to Cluny in the various
countries of western Europe amounted to 2000.  The monastic
establishment of Cluny was one of the most extensive
and magnificent in France.  We may form some idea of its
enormous dimensions from the fact recorded, that when, A.D.
1245, Pope Innocent IV., accompanied by twelve cardinals,

FIG. 5--Abbey of Cluny, from

A. Gateway.        F. Tomb of St Hugh.  M. Bakehouse.
B. Narthex.        G. Nave.             N. Abbey buildings.
C. Choir.          H. Cloister.         O. Garden.
D. High-altar.     K. Abbot's house.    P. Refectory.
E. Retro-altar.    L. Guest-house.

a patriarch, three archbishops, the two generals of the
Carthusians and Cistercians, the king (St Louis), and three
of his sons, the queen mother, Baldwin, count of Flanders
and emperor of Constantinople, the duke of Burgundy, and
six lords, visited the abbey, the whole party, with their
attendants, were lodged withn the monastery without disarranging
the monks, 400 in number.  Nearly the whole of the abbey
buildings, including the magnificent church, were swept away
at the close of the 18th century.  When the annexed ground-plan
was taken, shortly before its destruction, nearly all the
monastery, with the exception of the church, had been rebuilt.

The church, the ground-plan of which bears a remarkable
resemblance to that of Lincoln Cathedral, was of vast
dimensions.  It was 656 ft. high.  The nave (G) had double
vaulted aisles on either side.  Like Lincoln, it had an
eastern as well as a western transept, each furnished with
apsidal chapels to the east.  The western transept was 213
ft. long, and the eastern 123 ft.  The choir terminated in
a semicircular apse (F), surrounded by five chapels, also
semicircular.  The western entrance was approached by an
ante-church, or narthex (B), itself an aisled church of
no mean dimensions, flanked by two towers, rising from a
stately flight of steps bearing a large stone cross.  To the
south of the church lay the cloister-court (H), of immense
size, placed much farther to the west than is usually the
case.  On the south side of the cloister stood the refectory
(P), an immense building, 100 ft. long and 60 ft. wide,
accommodating six longitudinal and three transverse rows of
tables.  It was adorned with the portraits of the chief
benefactors of the abbey, and with Scriptural subjects.  The
end wall displayed the Last Judgment.  We are unhappily unable
to identify any other of the principal buildings (N). The
abbot's residence (K), still partly standing, adjoined the
entrance-gate.  The guest-house (L) was close by.  The bakehouse
(M), also remaining, is a detached building of immense size.

English Cluniac

The first English house of the Cluniac order was that of
Lewes, founded by the earl of Warren, c. A.D. 1077.  Of
this only a few fragments of the domestic buildings exist. 
The best preserved Cluniac houses in England are Castle Acre,
Norfolk, and Wenlock, Shropshire.  Ground-plans of both are
given in Britton's Architectural Antiquities. They show
several departures from the Benedictine arrangement.  In
each the prior's house is remarkably perfect.  All Cluniac
houses in England were French colonies, governed by priors
of that nation.  They did not secure their independence nor
become ``abbeys'' till the reign of Henry VI. The Cluniac
revival, with all its brilliancy, was but short-lived. 
The celebrity of this, as of other orders, worked its moral
ruin.  With their growth in wealth and dignity the Cluniac
foundations became as worldly in life and as relaxed in
discipline as their predecessors, and a fresh reform was needed.


The next great monastic revival, the Cistercian, arising in
the last years of the 11th century, had a wider diffusion,
and a longer and more honourable existence.  Owing its real
origin, as a distinct foundation of reformed Benedictines, in
the year 1098, to Stephen Harding (a native of Dorsetshire,
educated in the monastery of Sherborne), and deriving its
name from Citeaux (Cistercium), a desolate and almost
inaccessible forest solitude, on the borders of Champagne and
Burgundy, the rapid growth and wide celebrity of the order
are undoubtedly to be attributed to the enthusiastic piety
of St Bernard, abbot of the first of the monastic colonies,
subsequently sent forth in such quick succession by the
first Cistercian houses, the far-famed abbey of Clairvaux
(de Clara Valle), A.D. 1116.  The rigid self-abnegation,
which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation
of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and
other buildings erected by them.  The characteristic of the
Cistercian abbeys was the extremest simplicity and a studied
plainness.  Only one tower--a central one --was permitted, and
that was to be very low.  Unnecessary pinnacles and turrets
were prohibited.  The triforium was omitted.  The windows
were to be plain and undivided, and it was forbidden to
decorate them with stained glass.  All needless ornament was
proscribed.  The crosses must be of wood; the candlesticks of
iron.  The renunciation of the world was to be evidenced
in all that met the eye.  The same spirit manifested itself
in the choice of the sites of their monasteries.  The more
dismal, the more savage, the more hopeless a spot appeared,
the more did it please their rigid mood.  But they came
not merely as ascetics, but as improvers.  The Cistercian
monasteries are, as a rule, found placed in deep well-watered
valleys.  They always stand on the border of a stream; not
rarely, as at Fountains, the buildings extend over it.  These
valleys, now so rich and productive, wore a very different
aspect when the brethren first chose them as the place of their
retirement.  Wide swamps, deep morasses, tangled thickets,
wild impassable forests, were their prevailing features.  The
``bright valley,'' Clara Vallis of St Bernard, was known
as the ``valley of Wormwood,'' infamous as a den of robbers.
``It was a savage dreary solitude, so utterly barren that
at first Bernard and his companions were reduced to live on
beech leaves.''-(Milman's Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 335.)


All Cistercian monasteries, unless the circumstances of the
locality forbade it, were arranged according to one plan.  The
general arrangement and distribution of the various
buildings, which went to make up one of these vast
establishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's own
abbey of Clairvaux, which is here given.  It will be observed
that the abbey precincts are surrounded by a strong wall,
furnished at intervals with watch-towers and other defensive
works.  The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water,
artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow
through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with
an abundant supply in every part, for the litigation of
the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the
brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops.

The precincts are divided across the centre by a wall,
running from N. to S., into an outer and inner ward,--the
former containing the menial, the latter the monastic
buildings.  The precincts are entered by a gateway (P), at
the extreme western extremity, giving admission to the lower
ward.  Here the barns, granaries, stables, shambles, workshops
and workmen,s lodgings were placed, without any regard to
symmetry, convenience being the only consideration.  Advancing
eastwards, we have before us the wall separating the

FIG. 6.--.Clairvaux, No. 1 (Cistercian), General

A. Cloisters.         I. Wine-press and       O. Public presse.
B. Ovens, and corn          hay-chamber       P. Gateway.
oil-mills        K. Parlour              R. Remains of old monastery
C. St Bernard's cell. L. Workshops and.
D. Chief entrance.         workmen's lodgings S. Oratory.
E. Tanks for fish.                            V. Tile-works.
F. Guest-house.       M. Slaughter-house.     X. Tile-kiln.
G. Abbot's house.     N. Barns and stables.   V. Water-courses.
H. Stables.

outer and inner ward, and the gatehouse (D) affording communication
between the two.  On passing through the gateway, the outer
court of the inner ward was entered, with the western facade
of the monastic church in front.  Immediately on the right
of entrance was the abbot's house (G), in close proximity to
the guest-house (F). On the other side of the court were the
stables, for the accommodation of the horses of the guests
and their attendants (H). The church occupied a central
position.  To the south was the great cloister (A),
surrounded by the chief monastic buildings, and farther to
the east the smaller cloister, opening out of which were
the infirmary, novices' lodgings and quarters for the aged
monks.  Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic
buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards,
and tank for fish.  The large fish-ponds, an indispensable
adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation
of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and
which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these
vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls.

Plan No. 2 furninshes the ichnography of the distinctly
monastic buildings on a larger scale.  The usually unvarying
arrangement of the Cistercian houses allows us to accept
this as a type of the monasteries of this order.  The church
(A) is the chief feature.  It consists of a vast nave of
eleven bays, entered by a narthex, with a transept and short
apsidal choir. (It may be remarked that the eastern limb in
all unaltered Cistercian churches is remarkably short, and
usually square.) To the east of each limb of the transept
are two square chapels, divided according to Cistercian
rule by solid walls.  Nine radiating chapels, similarly
divided, surround the apse.  The stalls of the monks,
forming the ritual choir, occupy the four eastern bays of the
nave.  There was a second range of stalls in the extreme
western bays of the nave for the fratres conversi, or lay
brothers.  To the south of the church, so as to secure as
much sun as possible, the cloister was invariably placed,
except when local reasons forbade it.  Round the cloister
(B) were ranged the buildings connected with the monks' daily
life.  The chapter-house (C) always opened out of the east
walk of the cloister in a line with the south transept.

FIG. 7.--Clairvaux, No. 2 (Cistercian), Monastic

A. Church.            L. Lodgings of novices.   S. Cellars and storehouses.
B. Cloister.
C. Chapter-house.     M. Old guest-house.       T. Water-course.
D. Monks' parlour.    N. Old abbot's lodgings.  U. Saw-mill and oil mill
E. Calefactory.
F. Kitchen and court. O. Cloister of            V. Currier's shop.
G. Refectory.            supernumerary monks.
H. Cemetery.                                    X. Sacristy.
I. Little cloister.   P. Abbot's hall.          Y. Little library.
K. Infirmary.         Q. Cell of St Bernard.    Z. Undercroft of dormitory.
R. Stables.

In Cistercian houses this was quadrangular, and was divided
by pillars and arches into two or three aisles.  Between
it and the transept we find the sacristy (X), and a small
book-room (Y) armariolum, where the brothers deposited the
volumes borrowed from the library.  On the other side of the
chapter-house, to the south, is a passage (D) communicating
with the courts and buildings beyond.  This was sometimes
known as the parlour, colloquii locus, the monks having the
privilege of conversation here.  Here also, when iscipline
became relaxed, traders, who had the liberty of admission,
were allowed to display their goods.  Beyond this we often
find the calefactorium or day-room--an apartment warmed
by flues beneath the pavement, where the brethren, half
frozen during the night offices, betook themselves after
the conclusion of lauds, to gain a little warmth, grease
their sandals and get themselves ready for the work of the
day.  In the plan before us this apartment (E) opens from the
south cloister walk, adjoining the refectory.  The place usually
assigned to it is occupied by the vaulted substructure of the
dormitory (Z). The dormitory, as a rule, was placed on the
east side of the cloister, running over the calethetory and
chapter-house, and joined the south transept, where a flight
of steps admitted the brethren into the church for nocturnal
services.  Opening out of the dormitory was always the
necessarium, planned with the greatest regard to health and
cleanliness, a water-course invariably running from end to
end.  The refectory opens out of the south cloister at G.
The position of the refectory is usually a marked point of
difference between Benedictine and Cistercian abbeys.  In the
former, as at Canterbury, the refectory ran east and west
parallel to the nave of the church, on the side of the cloister
farthest removed from it.  In the Cistercian monasturies, to
keep the noise and smell of dinner still farther away from
the sacred building, the refectory was built north and south,
at right angles to the axis of the church.  It was often
divided, sometimes into two, sometimes, as here, into three
aisles.  Outside the refectory door, in the cloister,
was the lavatory, where the monks washed their hands at
dinner-time.  The buildings belonging to the material life of
the monks lay near the refectory, as far as possible from the
church, to the S.W. With a distinct entrance from the outer
court was the kitchen court (F), with its buttery, scullery
and larder, and the important adjunct of a stream of running
water.  Farther to the west, projecting beyond the line of
the west front of the church, were vast vaulted apartments
(SS), serving as cellars and storehouses, above which was
the dormitory of the conversi. Detached from these, and
separated entirely from the monastic buildings, were various
workshops, which convenience repuired to be banished to
the outer precincts, a saw-mill and oil-mill (UU) turned
by water, and a currier's shop (V), where the sandals
and leathern girdles of the monks were made and repaired.

Returning to the cloister, a vaulted passage admitted to the small
cloister (l), opening from the north side of which were eight
small cells, assigned to the scribes employed in copying works
for the library, which was placed in the upper story, accessible
by a turret staircase.  To the south of the small cloister
a long hall will be noticed.  This was a lecture-hall, or
rather a hall for the religious disputations customary among the
Cistercians.  From this cloister opened the infirmary (K),
with its hall, chapel, cells, blood-letting house and other
dependencies.  At the eastern verge of the vast group of buildings
we find the novices' lodgings (L), with a third cloister
near the novices' quarters and the original guest-house (M).
Detached from the great mass of the monastic edifices was the
original abbot's house (N), with its dining-hall (P). Closely
adjoining to this, so that the eye of the father of the whole
establishment should be constantly over those who stood the
most in need of his watchful care,--those who were training
for the monastic life, and those who had worn themselves
out in its duties,--was a fourth cloister (O), with annexed
buildings, devoted to the aged and infirm members of the
establishment.  The cemetery, the last resting-place of the
brethren, lay to the north side of the nave of the church (H).

It will be seen from the above account that the arrangement of
a Cistercian monastery was in accordance with a clearly defined
system, and admirably adapted to its purpose.  The base court
nearest to the outer wall contained the buildings belonging to
the functions of the body as agriculturists and employers of
labour.  Advancing into the inner court, the buildings`devoted
to hospitality are found close to the entrance; while those
connected with the supply of the material wants of the brethren,
--the kitchen, cellars, &c.,--form a court of themselves
outside the cloister and quite detached from the church. 
The church refectory, dormitory and other buildings belonging
to the professional life of the brethren surround the great
cloister.  The small cloister beyond, with its scribes' cells,
library, hall for disputations, &c., is the centre of the
literary life of the community.  The requirements of sickness
and old age are carefully provided for in the infirmary
cloister and that for the aged and infirm members of the
establishment.  The same group contains the quarters of the novices.

This stereotyped arrangement is further shown by the
illustration of the mother establishment of Citeaux.


A cross (A), planted on the high road, directs travellers to
the gate of the monastery. reached by an avenue of trees.  On
one side of the gate-house (B) is a long building (C), probably
the almonry, with a dormitory above for the lower class of
guests.  On the other side is a chapel (D). As soon as the
porter heard a stranger knock at the gate, he rose, saying,
Deo gratias, the opportunity for the exercise of hospitality
being regarded as a cause for thankfulness.  On opening the
door he welcomed the new arrival with a blessing --Benedicite.
He fell on his knees before him, and then went to inform the
abbot.  However important the abbot's occupations might
be, he at once hastened to receive him whom heaven had
sent.  He also threw himself at his guest's feet, and
conducted him to the chapel (D) purposely built close to the
gate.  After a short prayer, the abbot committed the guest
to the care of the brother hospitaller, whose duty it was
to provide for his wants and conduct the beast on which he
might be riding to the stable (F), built adjacent to the inner
gatehouse (E). This inner gate conducted into the base court
(T), round which were placed the barns, stables, cow-sheds, &c.
On the eastern side stood the dormitory of the lay brothers,
fratres conversi (G), detached from the cloister, with
cellars and storehouses below.  At H, also outside the monastic
buildings proper, was the abbot's house, and annexed to it the
guest-house.  For these buildings there was a separate door
of entrance into the church (S). The large cloister, with its
surrounding arcades, is seen at V. On the south end projects
the refectory (K), with its kitchen at I, accessible from
the base court.  The long gabled building on the east side of
the cloister contained on the ground floor the chapter-house
and calefactory, with the monks' dormitory above (M),
communicating with the south transept of the church.  At L
was the staircase to the dormitory.  The small cloister is at
W, where were the carols or cells of the scribes, with the
library (P) over, reached by a turret staircase.  At R we see
a portion of the infirmary.  The whole precinct is surrounded
by a strong buttressed wall (XXX), pierced with arches,

FIG. 8.---Bird's-eye view of

A. Cross.            H. Abbot's house.            R. Infirmary.
B. Gate-house.       I. Kitchen.                  S. Door to the church
C. Almonry.          K. Refectory.                   for the lay brothers.
D. Chapel.           L. Staircase to dormitory.
E. Inner gate-house.                              T. Base court.
F. Stable.           M. Dormitory.                V. Great cloister.
G. Dormitory of lay  N. Church.                   W. Small cloister.
brethren.     P. Library.                  X. Boundary wall.

through which streams of water are introduced.  It will
be noticed that the choir of the church is short, and has
a square end instead of the usual apse.  The tower, in
accordance with the Cistercian rule, is very low.  The windows
throughout accord with the studied simplicity of the order.

Kirkstall Abbey.

The English Cistercian houses, of which there are such extensive
and beautiful remains at Fountains, Rievaulx, Kirkstall,
Tintern, Netley, &c., were mainly arranged after the same
plan, with slight local variations.  As an example, we give
the groundplan of Kirkstall Abbey. which is one of the best
preserved.  The church here is of the Cistercian type, with
a short chancel of two squares, and transepts with three
eastward chapels to each, divided by solid walls (2 2 2).
The whole is of the most studied plainness.  The windows
are unornamented, and the nave has no triforium.  The
cloister to the south (4) occupies the whole length of the
nave.  On the east side stands the two-aisled chapter-house
(5), between which and the south transept is a small
sacristy (3), and on the other side two small apartments,
one of which was probably the parlour (6). Beyond this
stretches southward the calefactory or day-room of the monks
(14).  Above this whole range of building runs the monks'
dormitory, opening by stairs into the south transept of the
church.  At the other end were the necessaries.  On thc south
side of the cloister we have the remains of the old refectory
(11), running, as in Benedictine houses, from east to west,
and the new refectory (12), which, with the increase of the
inmates of the house, superseded it, stretching, as is usual
in Cistercian houses, from north to south.  Adjacent to this
apartment are the remains of the kitchen, pantry and buttery. 
The arches of the lavatory are to be seen near the refectory
entrance.  The western side of the cloister is, as usual,
occupied by vaulted cellars, supporting on the upper story
the dormitory of the lay brothers (8). Extending from the

FIG. 9 Kirkstall Abbey, Yorkshire

1. Church.                         10. Common room.
2. Chapels.                        11. Old refectory.
3. Sacristy.                       12. New refectory.
4. Cloister.                       13. Kitchen court.
5. Chapter-house.                  14. Calefactory or day-room.
6. Parlour.                        15. Kitchen and offices.
7. Punishment cell (?).            16-19. Uncertain; perhaps offices
8. Cellars, with dormitories for            connected with the infirmary.
conversi over.
9. Guest-house.                    20. Infirmary or abbot's house.

south-east angle of the main group of buildings are the
walls and foundations of a secondary group of considerable
extent.  These have been identified either with the hospitium
or with the abbot's house, but they occupy the position in
which the infirmary is more usually found.  The hall was
a very spacious apartment, measuring 83 ft. in length by
48 ft. 9 in. in breadth, and was divided by two rows of
columns.  The fish-ponds lay between the monastery and
the river to the south.  The abbey mill was situated
about 80 yards to the north-west.  The millpool may be
distinctly traced, together with the gowt or mill stream.

Fountains Abbey.

Fountains Abbey, first founded A.D. 1132, is one of the
largest and best preserved Cistercian houses in England. 
But the earlier buildings received considerable additions
and alterations in the later period of the order, causing
deviations from the strict Cistercian type.  The church
stands a short distance to the north of the river Skell, the
buildings of the abbey stretching down to and even across the
stream.  We have the cloister (H) to the south, with the
three-aisled chapter-house (I) and calefactory (L) opening from
its eastern walk, and the refectory (S), with the kitchen (Q)
and buttery (T) attached, at right angles to its southern walk.

FIG. 10.--Ground-plan of Fountains Abbey,

A. Nave of the church.     N. Cellar.              Z. Gate-house.
B. Transept.               O. Brewhouse.              ABBOT'S HOUSE.
C. Chapels.                P. Prisons.                 1. Passage
D. Tower.                  Q. Kitchen.                 2. Great hall.
E. Sacristy.               R. Offices.                 3. Refectory.
F. Choir.                  S. Refectory.               4. Refectory.
G. Chapel of nine alters.  T. Buttery.                 5. Storehouse.
H. Cloister.               U. Cellars and storehouses. 6. Chapel.
I. Chapter-house.          V. Necessary.               7. Kitchen.
K. Base court.             W. Infirmary (?).           8. Ashpit.
L. Calefactory.            X. Guest-houses.            9. Yard.
M. Water-course.           Y. Mill bridge.            10. Kitchen tank.

Parallel with the western walk is an immense vaulted substructure
(U), incorrectly styled the cloisters, serving as cellars and
store-rooms, and supporting the dormitory of the conversi
above.  This building extended across the river.  At its S.W.
corner were the necessaries (V), also built, as usual, above
the swiftly flowing stream.  The monks' dormitory was in its
usual position above the chapter-house, to the south of the
transept.  As peculiarities of arrangement may be noticed
the position of the kitchen (Q), between the refectory and
calefactory, and of the infirmary (W) (unless there is some
error in its designation) above the river to the west, adjoining
the guest-houses (XX).  We may also call attention to the
greatly lengthened choir, commenced by Abbot John of York,
1203-1211, and carried on by his successor, terminating, like
Durham Cathedral, in an eastern transept, the work of Abbot
John of Kent, 1220-1247, and to the tower (D), added not long
before the dissolution by Abbot Huby, 1494-1526, in a very
unusual position at the northern end of the north transept. 
The abbot's house, the largest and most remarkable example of
this class of buildings in the kingdom, stands south to the
east of the church and cloister, from which it is divided by
the kitchen court (R), surrounded by the ordinary domestic
offices.  A considerable portion of this house was erected on
arches over the Skell.  The size and character of this house,
probably, at the time of its erection, the most spacious
house of a subject in the kingdom, not a castle, bespeaks
the wide departure of the Cistercian order from the stern
simplicity of the original foundation.  The hall (2) was one
of the most spacious and magnificent apartments in medieval
times, measuring 170 ft. by 70 ft.  Like the hall in the
castle at Winchester, and Westminster Hall, as originally
built, it was divided by 18 pillars and arches, with 3
aisles.  Among other apartments, for the designation of which
we must refer to the ground-plan, was a domestic oratory or
chapel, 46 1/2 ft. by 23 ft. and a kitchen (7), 50 ft. by 38
ft.  The whole arrangements and character of the building
bespeak the rich and powerful feudal lord, not the humble
father of a body of hard-working brethren, bound by vows to a
life of poverty and self-denying toil.  In the words of Dean
Milman, ``the superior, once a man bowed to the earth with
humility, care-worn, pale, emaciated, with a coarse habit
bound with a cord, with naked feet, had become an abbot
on his curvetting palfrey, in rich attire, with his silver
cross before him, travelling to take his place amid the
lordliest of the realm.'' --(Lat. Christ. vol. iii. p. 330.)

Austin Canons.

The buildings of the Austin canons or Black canons (so
called from the colour of their habit) present few distinctive
peculiarities.  This order had its first seat in England at
Colchester, where a house for Austin canons was founded about
A.D. 1105, and it very soon spread widely.  As an order
of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks
and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish
priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length
to accommodate large congregations.  The choir is usually
long, and is sometimes, as at Llanthony and Christ Church
(Twynham), shut off from the aisles, or, as at Bolton, Kirkham,
&c., is destitute of aisles altogether.  The nave in the northern
houses, not unfrequently, had only a north aisle, as at Bolton,
Brinkburn and Lanercost.  The arrangement of the monastic
buildings followed the ordinary type.  The prior's lodge was
almost invariably attached to the S.W. angle of the nave.

Bristol Cathedral.

The annexed plan of the Abbey of St Augustine's at Bristol,
now the cathedral church of that city, shows the arrangement
of the buildings, which departs very little from the
ordinary Benedictine type.  The Austin canons' house at
Thornton, in Lincolnshire, is remarkable for the size
and magnificence of its gate-house, the upper floors of
which formed the guest-house of the establishment, and for
possessing an octagonal chapter-house of Decorated date.


The Premonstratensian regular canons, or White canons, had
as many as 35 houses in England, of which the most perfect
remaining are those of Easby.  Yorkshire, and Bayham, Kent. 
The head house of the order in England was Welbeck.  This order
was a reformed branch of the Austin canons, founded, A.D.
1119, by Norbert (born at Xanten, on the Lower Rhine, c.
1080) at Premontre, a secluded marshy valley in the forest
of Coucy in the diocese of Laon.  The order spread widely. 
Even in the founder's lifetime it possessed houses in Syria and
Palestine.  It long maintained its rigid austerity, till in
the course of years wealth impaired its discipline, and its
members sank into indolence and luxury.  The Premonstratensians
were brought to England shortly after A.D. 1140, and were
first settled at Newhouse, in Lincolnshire, near the Humber. 
The ground-plan of Easby Abbey, owing to its situation on the
edge of the steeply sloping banks of a river, is singularly
irregular.  The cloister is duly placed on the south side of the
church, and the chief buildings occupy their usual positions
round it.  But the cloister garth, as at Chichester, is not
rectangular, and all the surrounding buildings are thus made
to sprawl in a very awkward fashion.  The church follows
the plan adopted by the Austin canons in their northern
abbeys, and has only one aisle to the nave--that to the
north; while the choir is long, narrow and aisleless.  Each
transept has an aisle to the east, forming three chapels.

The church at Bayham was destitute of aisles either to nave or
choir.  The latter terminated in a three-sided apse.  This church
is remarkable for its exceeding narrowness in proportion to its
length.  Extending in longitudinal dimensions 257 ft., it is

FIG. 11.--St Augustine's Abbey, Bristol (Bristol

A. Church.            H. Kitchen.         S. Friars' lodging.
B. Great cloister.    I. Kitchen court.   T. King's hall.
C. Little cloister.   K. Cellars.         V. Guest-house.
D. Chapter-house.     L. Abbot's hall.    W. Abbey gateway.
E. Calefactory.       P. Abbot's gateway. X. Barns, stables, &c
F. Refectory.         R. Infirmary.       Y. Lavatory.
G. Parlour.

not more than 25 ft. broad.  Stern Premonstratensian canons
wanted no congregations, and cared for no possessions;
therefore they built their church like a long room.


The Carthusian order, on its establishment by St Bruno,
about A.D. 1084, developed a greatly modified form and
arrangement of a monastic institution.  The principle of this
order, which combined the coenobitic with the solitary life,
demanded the erection of buildings on a novel plan.  This
plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his twelve
companions at the original institution at Chartreux, near
Grenoble, was maintained in all the Carthusian establishments
throughout Europe, even after the ascetic severity of the order
had been to some extent relaxed, and the primitive simplicity
of their buildings had been exchanged for the magnificence
of decoration which characterizes such foundations as the
Certosas of Pavia and Florence.  According to the rule of
St Bruno, all the members of a Carthusian brotherhood lived
in the most absolute solitude and silence.  Each occupied a
small detached cottage, standing by itself in a small garden
surrounded by high walls and connected by a common corridor or
cloister.  In these cottages or cells a Carthusian monk
passed his time in the strictest asceticism, only leaving
his solitary dwelling to attend the services of the Church,
except on certain days when the brotherhood assembled in the
refectory.  The peculiarity of the arrangements of a Carthusian
monastery, or charter-house, as it was called in England,
from a corruption of the French chartreux, is exhibited
in the plan of that of Clermont, from Viollet-le-Duc.


The whole establishment is surrounded hy a wall, furnished
at intervals with watch towers (R) . The enclosure is divided
into two courts, of which the eastern court, surrounded by a
cloister, from from which the cottages of the monks (I) open,
is musch the larger.  The two courts are divided by the main
buildings of the monastery, including the church, the sanctuary
(A), divided from B, the monks' choir, by a screen with two
altars, the smaller cloister to the south (S) surrounded by
the chapter-house (E), the refectory (X)---these buildings
occupying their normal position--and the chapel of Pontgibaud
(K). The kitchen with its offices (V) lies behind the
relectory, accessible ftom the outer court without entering the
cloister.  To the north of the church, beyond the sacristy
(L), and the side chapels (M), we find the cell of the sub-prior
(a), with its garden.  The lodgings of the prior (G) occupy
the centre of the outer court, immediately in front of the
west door of the church, and face the gateway of the convent
(O). A small raised court with a fountain (C) is before
it.  This outer court also contains the guest-chambers (P),
the stables and lodgings of the lay brothers (N), the barns
and granaries (Q), the dovecot (H) and the bakehouse (T).
At Z is the prison.  In this outer court, in all the earlier
foundations, as at Witham, there was a smaller church in
addition to the larger church of the monks.) The outer and
inner courts are connected by a long passage (F), wide enough
to admit a cart laden with wood to supply the cells of the
brethren with fuel.  The number of cells surrounding the great

A. Church.
B. Monks' choir.
C. Prior's garden.
D. Great cloister.
E. Chapter-house.
F. Passage.
G. Prior's lodgings.
H. Dovecot.
I. Cells.
K. Chapel of Pontgibaud.
L. Sacristy.
M. Chapel.
N. Stables.
O. Gateway.
P. Guest-chambers.
Q. Barns and granaries.
R. Watch-tower.
S. Little cloister.
T. Bakehouse.
V. Kitchen.
X. Refectory.
Y. Cemetery.
Z. Prison.
a. Cell of subprior
b. Garden of do.
FIG. 12.--Carthusian monastery of Clermont.

cloister is 18. They are all arranged on a uniform plan. 
Each little dwelling contains three rooms: a sitting-room
(C), warmed by a stove in winter; a sleeping-room (D),
furnished with a bed, a table, a bench, and a bookcase; and
a closet (E). Between the cell and the cloister gallery (A)
is a passage or corridor (B), cutting off the inmate of the
cell from all sound or movement which might interrupt his
meditations.  The superior had free access to this corridor, and
through open niches was able to inspect the garden without being
seen.  At I is the hatch or turn-table, in which the daily
allowance of food was deposited by a brother appointed for that
purpose, affording no view either inwards or outwards.  H is the
garden, cultivated by the occupant of the cell.  At K is the
wood-house.  F is a covered walk, with the necessary at the end.

The above arrangements are found with scarcely any variation
in all the charter-houses of western Europe.  The Yorkshire
Charter-house of Mount Grace, founded by Thomas Holland, the
young duke of Surrey, nephew of Richard II. and marshal of
England, during the revival of the popularity of the order,
about A.D. 1397, is the most perfect and best preserved English
example.  It is characterized by all the simplicity of the
order.  The church is a modest building, long, narrow and
aisleless.  Within the wall of enclosure are two courts. 
The smaller of the two, the south, presents the usual
arrangement of church, refectory, &c., opening out of a
cloister.  The buildings are plain and solid.  The northern
court contains the cells, 14 in number.  It is surrotmded by a
double stone wall, the two walls being about 30 ft. or 40 ft.
apart.  Between these, each in its own garden, stand the cells;
low-built two-storied cottages, of two or three rooms on the
ground-floor, lighted by a larger and a smaller window to the
side, and provided with a doorway to the court, and one at the
back, opposite to one in the outer wall, through which the
monk may have conveyed the sweepings of his cell and the refuse
of his garden to the ``eremus'' beyond.  By the side of the
door to the court is a little hatch through which the daily
pittance of food was supplied, so contrived by turning at an
angle in the wall that no one could either look in or look
out.  A very perfect example of this hatch---an arrangement
belonging to all Carthusian houses--exists at Miraflores, near
Burgos, which remains nearly as it was completed in 1480.

A. Cloister gallery.
B. Corridor.
C. Living-room.
D. Sleeping-room.
E. Closets.
F. Covered walk.
G. Necessary.
H. Garden.
I. Hatch.
K. Wood-house.
FIG. 13--Carthusian cell, Clermont.

There were only nine Carthusian houses in England.  The
earliest was that at Witham in Somersetshire, founded
by Henry II., by whom the order was first brought into
England.  The wealthiest and most magnificent was that of
Sheen or Richmond in Surrey, founded by Henry V. about A.D.
1414.  The, dimensions of the buildings at Sheen are stated
to have been remarkably large.  The great court measured
300 ft. by 250 ft.; the cloisters were a square of 500 ft.;
the hall was 110 ft. in length by 60 ft. in breadth.  The
most celebrated historically is the Charter house of London,
founded by Sir Walter Manny A.D. 1371, the name of which
is preserved by the famous public school established on the
site by Thomas Sutton A.D. 1611, now removed to Godalming.

Mendicant Friars.

An article on monastic arrangements would be incomplete without
some account of the convents of the Mendicant or Preaching
Friars, including the Black Friars or Dominicans, the Grey
or Franciscans, the White or Carmelites, the Eremite or
Austin, Friars.  These orders arose at the beginning of the
13th century, when the Benedictines, together with their
various reformed branches, had terminated their active
mission, and Christian Europe was ready for a new religious
revival.  Planting themselves, as a rule, in large towns,
and by preference in the poorest and most densely populated
districts, the Preaching Friars were obliged to adapt their
buildings to the requirements of the site.  Regularity of
arrangement, therefore, was not possible, even if they had
studied it.  Their churches, built for the reception of
large congregations of hearers rather than worshippers, form
a class by themselves, totally unlike those of the elder
orders in ground-plan and character.  They were usually long
parallelograms unbroken by transepts.  The nave very usually
consisted of two equal bodies, one containing the stalls
of the brotherhood, the other left entirely free for the
congregation.  The constructional choir is often wanting,
the whole church forming one uninterrupted structure, with
a continuous range of windows.  The east end was usually
square, but the Friars Church at Winchelsea had a polygonal
apse.  We not unfrequently find a single transept, sometimes of
great size, rivalling or exceeding the nave.  This arrangement
is frequent in Ireland, where the numerous small friaries
afford admirable exemplifications of these peculiarities of
ground-plan.  The friars' churches were at first destitute of
towers; but in the 14th and 15th centuries, tall, slender towers
were commonly inserted between the nave and the choir.  The
Grey Friars at Lynn, where the tower is hexagonal, is a good
example.  The arrangement of the monastic buildings is equally
peculiar and characteristic.  We miss entirely the regularity
of the buildings of the earlier orders.  At the Jacobins at
Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long narrow church
of two parallel aisles, while the refectory--a room of immense
length, quite detached from the cloister--stretched across
the area before the west front of the church.  At Toulouse the
nave also has two parallel aisles, but the choir is apsidal,
with radiating chapel.  The refectory stretches northwards at
right angles to the cloister, which lies to the north of the
church, having the chapter-house and sacristy on the east.

Norwich.  Gloucester.

As examples of English friaries, the Dominican house at
Norwich, and those of the Dominicans and Franciscans at
Gloucester, may be mentioned.  The church of the Black
Friars of Norwich departs from the original type in the
nave (now St Andrew's Hall), in having regular aisles.  In
this it resembles the earlier examples of the Grey Friars at
Reading.  The choir is long and aisleless; an hexagonal tower
between the two, like that existing at Lynn, has perished.  Thc
cloister and monastic buildings remain tolerably perfect to the
north.  The Dominican convent at Gloucester still exhibits the
cloister-court, on the north side of which is the desecrated
church.  The refectory is on the west side and on the south
the dormitory of the 13th century.  This is a remarkably good
example.  There were 18 cells or cubicles on each side, divided
by partitions, the bases of which remain.  On the east side
was the prior's house, a building of later date.  At the Grey
or Franciscan Friars, the church followed the ordinary type in
having two equal bodies, each gabled, with a continuous range of
windows.  There was a slender tower between the nave and the choir.


Of the convents of the Carmelite or White Friars we have a
good example in the Abbey of Hulne, near Alnwick, the first
of the order in England, founded A.D. 1240.  The church
is a narrow oblong, destitute of aisles, 123 ft. long by
only 26 ft. wide.  The cloisters are to the south, with
the chapter-house, &c., to the east, with the dormitory
over.  The prior's lodge is placed to the west of the
cloister.  The guest-houses adjoin the entrance gateway, to
which a chapel was annexed on the south side of the conventual
area.  The nave of the church of the Austin Friars or Eremites
in London is still standing.  It is of Decorated date, and
has wide centre and side aisles, divided by a very light and
graceful arcade.  Some fragments of the south walk of the
cloister of the Grey Friars remained among the buildings of
Christ's Hospital (the Blue-Coat School), while they were still
standing.  Of the Black Friars all has perished but the
name.  Taken as a whole, the remains of the establishments of
the friars afford little warrant for the bitter invective of
the Benedictine of St Alban's, Matthew Paris:---``The friars
who have been founded hardly 40 years have built residences
as the palaces of kings.  These are they who, enlarging day
by day their sumptuous edifices, encircling them with lofty
walls, lay up in them their incalculable treasures, imprudently
transgressing the bounds of poverty and violating the very
fundamental rules of their profession.'' Allowance must here be
made for jealousy of a rival order just rising in popularity.


Every large monastery had depending upon it one or more smaller
establishments known as cells. These cells were monastic
colonies, sent forth by the parent house, and planted on some
outlying estate.  As an example, we may refer to the small
religious house of St Mary Magdalene's, a cell of the great
Benedictine house of St Mary's, York, in the valley of the
Witham, to the south-east of the city of Lincoln.  This consists
of one long narrow range of building, of which the eastern part
formed the chapel and the western contained the apartments of
the handful of monks of which it was the home.  To the east
may be traced the site of the abbey mill, with its dam and
mill-lead.  These cells, when belonging to a Cluniac house,
were called Obedientiae. The plan given by Viollet-le-Duc
of the Priory of St Jean des Bons Hommes, a Cluniac cell,
situated between the town of Avallon and the village of
Savigny, shows that these diminutive establishments comprised
every essential feature of a monastery,---chapel, cloister,
chapter-room, refectory, dormitory, all grouped according to the
recognized arrangement.  These Cluniac obedientiae differed
from the ordinary Benedictine cells in being also places of
punishment, to which monks who had been guilty of any grave
infringement of the rules were relegated as to a kind of
penitentiary.  Here they were placed under the authority of a
prior, and were condemned to severe manual labour, fulfilling
the duties usually executed by the lay brothers, who acted as
farmservants.  The outlying farming establishments belonging to
the monastic foundations were known as villae or granges.
They gave employment to a body of conversi and labourers
under the management of a monk, who bore the title of Brother
Hospitaller ---the granges, like their parent institutions,
affording shelter and hospitality to belated travellers.

AUTHORITIES.--Dugdale, Monasticon; Lenoir,
Architecture monastique (1852--1856); Veollet-le-Duc,
Dictionnaire raisonnee de l'architecture francaise;
Springer, Klosterleben und Klosterkunst (1886); Kraus,
Geschichte der christlichen Kunst (1896). (E. V.)

learned Frenchman, born near Orleans about 945. He distinguished
himself in the schools of Paris and Reims, and was especially
proficient in science as known in his time.  He spent two
years in England, assisting Archbishop Oswald of York in
restoring the monastic system, and was abbot of Romsey.  After
his return to France he was made abbot of Fleury on the Loire
(988).  He was twice sent to Rome by King Robert the Pious
(986, 996), and on each occasion succeeded in warding off a
threatened papal interdict.  He was killed at La Reole in
1004, in endeavouring to quell a monkish revolt.  He wrote an
Epitomie de vitis Romanorum pontificum, besides controversial
treatises, letters, &c. (see Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol.
139).  His life, written by his disciple Aimoin of Fleury, in
which much of Abbon's correspondence was reproduced, is of great
importance as a source for the reign of Robert II., especially
with reference to the papacy (cf. Migne, op. cit. vol. 139).

See Ch. Pfister, Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux (1885);
Cuissard-Gaucheron, ``L'Ecole de Fleury-sur-Loire a la fin du 10
siecle,'' in Memoires de la societe de l'Orleanais, xiv.
(Orleans, 1875); A. Molinier, Sources de l'histoire de France.

ABBOT, EZRA (1819--1884), American biblical scholar, was
born at Jackson, Waldo county, Maine, on the 28th of April
1819.  He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1840; and in
1847, at the request of Prof.  Andrews Norton, went to
Cambridge, where he was principal of a public school until
1856.  He was assistant librarian of Harvard University from
1856 to 1872, and planned and perfected an alphabetical card
catalogue, combining many of the advantages of the ordinary
dictionary catalogues with the grouping of the minor topics
under more general heads, which is characteristic of a systematic
catalogue.  From 1872 until his death he was Bussey Professor
of New Testament Criticism and Interpretation in the Harvard
Divinity School.  His studies were chiefly in Oriental languages
and the textual criticism of the New Testament, thoygh his
work as a bibliographer showed such results as the exhaustive
list of writings (5300 in all) on the doctrine of the future
life, appended to W. R. Alger's History of the Doctrine of
a Future Life, as it has prevailed in all Nations and Ages
(1862), and published separately in 1864.  His publications,
though always of the most thorough and scholarly character,
were to a large extent dispersed in the pages of reviews,
dictionaries, concordances, texts edited by others, Unitarian
controversial treatises, &c.; but he took a more conspicuous
and more personal part in the preparation (with the Baptist
scholar, Horatio B. Hackett) of the enlarged American edition
of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the
Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400
articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical
completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the
American revision committee employed in connexion with the
Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided
in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to
the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.  His principal
single production, representing his scholarly method and
conservative conclusions, was The Authorship af the Fourth
Gospel: External Evidences (1880; second edition, by J. H.
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and
in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time
probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence,
of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest
treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel. 
Abbot, though a layman, received the degree of S. T. D. from
Harvard in 1872, and that of D.D. from Edinburgh in 1884. . He
died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 21st of March 1884.

See S. J. Barrows, Ezra Abbot (Cambridge, Mass., 1884).

ABBOT, GEORGE (1562-1633), English divine, archbishop of
Canterbury, was born on the 19th of October 1562, at Guildford in
Surrey, where his father was a cloth-worker.  He studied, and
then taught, at Balliol College, Oxford, was chosen master of
University College in 1597, and appointed dean of Winchester in
1600.  He was three times vice-chancellor of the university,
and took a leading part in preparing the authorized version
of the New Testament.  In 1608 he went to Scotland with the
earl of Dunbar to arrange for a union between the churches
of England and Scotland.  He so pleased the king (James
I.) in this affair that he was made bishop of Lichfield and
Coventry in 1609, was translated to the see of London a month
afterwards, and in less than a year was raised to that of
Canterbury.  His puritan instincts frequently led him not
only into harsh treatment of Roman Catholics, but also into
courageous resistance to the royal will, e.g. when he
opposed the scandalous divorce suit of the Lady Frances Howard
against the earl of Essex, and again in 1618 when, at Croydon,
he forbade the reading of the declaration permitting Sunday
sports.  He was naturally, therefore, a promoter of the match
between the elector palatine and the Princess Elizabeth,
and a firm opponent of the projected marriage of the prince
of Wales with the infanta of Spain.  This policy brought
upon him the hatred of Laud (with whom he had previously
come into collision at Oxford) and the court, though the
king himself never forsook him.  In 1622, while hunting in
Lord Zouch's park at Bramshill, Hampshire, a bolt from his
cross-bow aimed at a deer happened to strike one of the
keepers, who died within an hour, and Abbot was so greatly
distressed by the event that he fell into a state of settled
melancholy.  His enemies maintained that the fatal issue of
this accident disqualified him for his office, and argued
that, though the homicide was involuntary, the sport of
hunting which had led to it was one in which no clerical
person could lawfully indulge.  The king had to refer the
matter to a commission of ten, though he said that ``an angel
might have miscarried after this sort.'' The commission was
equally divided, and the king gave a casting vote in the
archbishop's favour, though signing also a formal pardon or
dispensation.  After this the archbishop seldom appeared
at the council, chiefly on account of his infirmities.  He
attended the king constantly, however, in his last illness,
and performed the ceremony of the coronation of Charles I.
His refusal to license the assize sermon preached by Dr Robert
Sibthorp at Northampton on the 22nd of February 1626-1627, in
which cheerful obedience was urged to the king's demand for a
general loan, and the duty proclaimed of absolute non-resistance
even to the most arbitrary royal commands, led Charles to
deprive him of his functions as primate, putting them in
commission.  The need of summoning parliament, however,
soon brought about a nominal restoration of the archbishop's
powers.  His presence being unwelcome at court, he lived
from that time in retirement, leaving Laud and his party in
undisputed ascendancy.  He died at Croydon on the 5th of August
1633, and was buried at Guildford, his native place, where
he had endowed a hospital with lands to the value of L. 300 a
year.  Abbot was a conscientious prelate, though narrow in view
and often harsh towards both separatists and Romanists.  He
wrote a large number of works, the most interesting being his
discursive Exposition on the Prophet Jonah (1600), which was
reprinted in 1845.  His Geography, or a Brief Description
of the Whole World (1599), passed through numerous editions.

The best account of him is in S. R. Gardiner's History of England.

ABBOT, GEORGE (1603-1648), English writer, known as ``The
Puritan,'' has been oddly and persistently mistaken for
others.  He has been described as a clergyman, which he never
was, and as son of Sir Morris (or Maurice) Abbot, and his
writings accordingly entered in the bibliographical authorities
as by the nephew of the archbishop of Canterbury.  One of the
sons of Sir Morris Abbot was, indeed, named George, and he
was a man of mark, but the more famous George Abbot was of a
different family altogether.  He was son or grandson (it is
not clear which) of Sir Thomas Abbot, knight of Easington,
East Yorkshire, having been born there in 1603--1604,
his mother (or grandmother) being of the ancient house of
Pickering.  Of his early life and training nothing is
known.  He married a daughter of Colonel Purefoy of Caldecote,
Warwickshire, and as his monument, which may still be seen
in the church there, tells, he bravely held the manor house
against Princes Rupert and Maurice during the civil war.  As
a layman, and nevertheless a theologian and scholar of rare
ripeness and critical ability, he holds an almost unique
place in the literature of the period.  The terseness of his
Whole Booke of Job Paraphrased, or made easy for any to
understand (1640, 4to), contrasts favourably with the usual
prolixity of the Puritan expositors and commentators.  His
Vindiciae Sabbathi (1641, 8vo) had a profound and lasting
influence in the long Sabbatarian controversy.  His Brief
Notes upon the Whole Book of Psalms (1651, 4to), as its date
shows, was posthumous.  He died on the 2nd of February 1648.

AUTHORITIES--MS.collections at Abbeyville for history of all
of the name of Abbot, by J. T. Abbot, Esq., F.S.A., Darlington;
Dugdale's Antiquities of Warwickshire, 1730 p. 1099; Wood's
Athenae (Bliss), ii.141, 594; Cox's Literature of the Sabbath.

ABBOT, ROBERT (1588?-1662?), English Puritan divine.  Noted
as this worthy was in his own time, and representative in
various ways, he has often since been confounded with others,
e.g. Robert Abbot, bishop of Salisbury.  He is also wrongly
described as a relative of Archbishop Abbot, from whom he
acknowledges very gratefully, in the first of his epistles
dedicatory of A Hand of Fellowship to Helpe Keepe out Sinne
and Antichrist (1623, 4to), that he had ``received all'' his
``worldly maintenance,'' as well as ``best earthly countenance',
and ``fatherly incouragements.', The worldly maintenance
was the presentation in 1616 to the vicarage of Cranbrook in
Kent.  He had received his education at Cambridge, where he
proceeded M.A., and was afterwards incorporated at Oxford.  In
1639, in the epistle to the reader of his most noticeable book
historically, his Triall of our Church-Forsakers, he tells
us, ``I have lived now, by God's gratious dispensation, above
fifty years, and in the place of my allotment two and twenty
full.'' The former date carries us back to 1588-1589, or
perhaps 1587-1588 ---the ``Armada'' year---as his birth-time;
the latter to 1616-1617 (ut supra). In his Bee Thankfull
London and her Sisters (1626), he describes himself as
formerly ``assistant to a reverend divine . . . now with
God,'' and the name on the margin is ``Master Haiward of Wool
Church (Dorset).'' This was doubtless previous to his going to
Cranbrook.  Very remarkable and effective was Abbot's
ministry at Cranbrook, where his parishioners were as his
own ``sons and daughters'' to him.  Yet, Puritan though he
was, he was extremely and often unfairly antagonistic to
Nonconformists.  He remained at Cranbrook until 1643, when,
Parliament deciding against pluralities of ecclesiastical
offices, he chose the very inferior living of Southwick,
Hants, as between the one and the other.  He afterwards
succeeded the ``extruded'' Udall of St Austin's, London,
where according to the Warning-piece he was still pastor in
1657.  He disappears silently between 1657-1658 and 1662. 
Robert Abbot's books are conspicuous amongst the productions
of his time by their terseness and variety.  In addition to
those mentioned above he wrote Milk for Babes, or a Mother's
Catechism for her Children (1646), and A Christian Family
builded by God, or Directions for Governors of Families (1653).

AUTHORITIES.--.Brook's Puritans, iii. 182, 3; Walker's
Sufferings, ii. 183; Wood's Athenae (Bliss), i. 323;
Palmer's Nonconf.  Mem. ii. 218, which confuses him most
oddly of all with one of the ejected ministers of 1662.

ABBOT, WILLIAM (1798--1843), English actor, was born in
Chelsea, and made his first appearance on the stage at Bath
in 1806, and his first London appearance in 1808.  At Covent
Garden in 1813, in light comedy and melodrama, he made his
first decided success.  He Was Pylades to Macready's Orestes
in Ambrose Philips's Distressed Mother when Macready made
his first appearance at that theatre (1816).  He created the
parts of Appius Claudius in Sheridan Knowles's Virginius
(1820) and of Modus in his Hunchback (1832).  In 1827 he
organized the company, including Macready and Miss Smithson,
which acted Shakespeare in Paris.  On his return to London
he played Romeo to Fanny Kemble's Juliet (1830).  Two of
Abbot's melodramas, The Youthful Days of Frederick the Great
(1817) and Swedish Patriotism (1819), were produced at
Covent Garden.  He died in poverty at Baltimore, Maryland.

ABBOT (from the Hebrew ab, a father, through the Syriac
abba, Lat. abbas, gen. abbatis, O.E. abbad, fr. late
Lat. form abbad-em changed in 13th century under influence
of the Lat. form to abbat, used abternatively till the end
of the 17th century; Ger. Abt; Fr. abbe), the head and
chief governor of a community of monks, called also in the
East hegumenos or archimandrite.  The title had its origin
in the monasteries of Syria, whence it spread through the
East, and soon became accepted generally in all languages as
the designation of the head of a monastery.  At first it was
employed as a respectful title for any monk, as we learn from St
Jerome, who denounced the custom on the ground that Christ had
said, ``Call no man father on earth'' (in Epist. ad Gal.
iv. 6, in Matt. xxiii. 9), but it was soon restricted to the
superior.  The name ``abbot,'' though general in the West,
was never universal.  Among the Dominicans, Carmelites,
Augustinians, &c., the superior was called Praepositus,
``provost,'' and Prior; among the Franciscans, Custos,
``guardian''; and by the monks of Camaldoi, Major.

In Egypt, the first home of monasticism, the jurisdiction
of the abbot, or archimandrite, was but loosely defined. 
Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over
several, each of which had its own abbot as well.  Cassian
speaks of an abbot of the Thebaid who had 500 monks under
him, a number exceeded in other cases.  By the rule of St
Benedict, which, until the reform of Cluny, was the norm
in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one
community.  The rule, as was inevitable, was subject to
frequent violations; but it was not until the foundation of
the Cluniac Order that the idea of a supreme abbot, exercising
jurisdiction over all the houses of an order, was definitely
recognized.  New styles were devised to express this new
relation; thus the abbot of Monte Cassino was called abbas
abbatum, while the chiefs of other orders had the tities
abbas generails, or magister or minister generalis.

Monks, as a rule, were laymen, nor at the outset was the abbot
any exception.  All orders of clergy, therefore, even the
``doorkeeper,', took precedence of him.  For the reception
of the sacraments, and for other religious offices, the
abbot and his monks were commanded to attend the nearest
church (Nocellae, 133, c. ii.).  This rule naturally proved
inconvenient when a monastery was situated in a desert or at
a distance from a city, and necessity compelled the ordination
of abbots.  This innovation was not introduced without a
struggle, ecclesiastical dignity being regarded as inconsistent
with the higher spiritual life, but, before the close of
the 5th century, at least in the East, abbots seem almost
universally to have become deacons, if not presbyters.  The
change spread more slowly in the West, where the office of
abbot was commonly filled by laymen till the end of the 7th
century, and partially so up to the 11th.  Ecclesiastical
councils were, however, attended by abbots.  Thus at that
held at Constantinople, A.D. 448, for the condemnation of
Eutyches, 23 archimandrites or abbots sign, with 30 bishops,
and, c A.D. 690, Archbishop Theodore promulgated a
canon, inhibiting bishops from compelling abbots to attend
councils.  Examples are not uncommon in Spain and in England
in Saxon times.  Abbots were permitted by the second council
of Nicaea, A.D. 787, to ordain their monks to the inferior
orders.  This rule was adopted in the West, and the strong
prejudice against clerical monks having gradually broken down,
eventually monks, almost without exception, took holy orders.

Abbots were originally subject to episcopal jurisdiction, and
continued generally so, in fact, in the West till the 11th
century.  The Code of Justinian (lib. i. tit. iii. de Ep. leg.
xl.) expressly subordinates the abbot to episcopal oversight. 
The first case recorded of the partial exemption of an abbot
from episcopal control is that of Faustus, abbot of Lerins,
at the council of Arles, A.D. 456; but the exorbitant claims
and exactions of bishops, to which this repugnance to episcopal
control is to be traced, far more than to the arrogance of
abbots, rendered it increasingly frequent, and, in the 6th
century, the practice of exempting religious houses partly or
altogether from episcopal control, and making them responsible
to the pope alone, received an impulse from Gregory the
Great.  These exceptions, introduced with a good object, had
grown into a widespread evil by the 12th century, virtually
creating an imperium in imperio, and depriving the bishop
of all authority over the chief centres of influence in his
diocese.  In the 12th century the abbots of Fulda claimed
precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.  Abbots more and
more assumed almost episcopal state, and in defiance of the
prohibition of early councils and the protests of St Bernard and
others, adopted the episcopal insignia of mitre, ring, gloves and
sandals.  It has been maintained that the right to wear mitres
was sometimes granted by the popes to abbots before the 11th
century, but the documents on which this claim is based are
not genuine (J. Braun, Liturgische Gewandung, p. 453).  The
first undoubted instance is the bull by which Alexander II.
in 1063 granted the use of the mitre to Egelsinus, abbot of
the monastery of St Augustine at Canterbury (see MITRE). The
mitred abbots in England were those of Abingdon, St Alban's,
Bardney, Battle, Bury St Edmund's, St Augustine's Canterbury,
Colchester, Croyland, Evesham, Glastonbury, Gloucester,
St Benet's Hulme, Hyde, Malmesbury, Peterborough, Ramsey,
Reading, Selby, Shrewsbury, Tavistock, Thorney, Westminster,
Winchcombe, St Mary's York.  Of these the precedence was
originally yielded to the abbot of Glastonbury, until in
A.D. 1154 Adrian IV. (Nicholas Breakspear) granted it to the
abbot of St Alban's, in which monastery he had been brought
up.  Next after the abbot of St Alban's ranked the abbot of
Westminster.  To distinguish abbots from bishops, it was ordained
that their mitre should be made of less costly materials,
and should not be ornamented with gold, a rule which was soon
entirely disregarded, and that the crook of their pastoral
staff should turn inwards instead of outwards, indicating
that their jurisdiction was limited to their own house.

The adoption of episcopal insignia by abbots was followed
by an encroachment on episcopal functions, which had to be
specially but ineffectually guarded against by the Lateran
council, A.D. 1123.  In the East, abbots, if in priests'
orders, with the consent of the bishop, were, as we have
seen, permitted by the second Nicene council, A.D. 787,
to confer the tonsure and admit to the order of reader; but
gradually abbots, in the West also, advanced higher claims,
until we find them in A.D. 1489 permitted by Innocent
IV. to confer both the subdiaconate and diaconate.  Of
course, they always and everywhere had the power of admitting
their own monks and vesting them with the religious habit.

When a vacancy occurred, the bishop of the diocese chose
the abbot out of the monks of the convent, but the right
of election was transferred by jurisdiction to the monks
themselves, reserving to the bishop the confirmation of the
election and the benediction of the new abbot.  In abbeys
exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the confirmation and
benediction had to be conferred by the pope in person, the house
being taxed with the expenses of the new abbot's journey to
Rome.  By the rule of St Benedict, the consent of the laity
was in some undefined way required; but this seems never
to have been practically enforced.  It was necessary that
an abbot should be at least 25 years of age, of legitimate
birth, a monk of the house, unless it furnished no suitable
candidate, when a liberty was allowed of electing from another
convent, well instructed himself, and able to instruct others,
one also who had learned how to command by having practised
obedience.  In some exceptional cases an abbot was allowed
to name his own successor.  Cassian speaks of an abbot in
Egypt doing this; and in later times we have another example
in the case of St Bruno.  Popes and sovereigns gradually
encroached on the rights of the monks, until in Italy the
pope had usurped the nomination of all abbots, and the king in
France, with the exception of Cluny, Premontre and other
houses, chiefs of their order.  The election was for life,
unless the abbot was canonically deprived by the chiefs of
his order, or when he was directly subject to them, by the
pope or the bishop.  The ceremony of the formal admission of
a Benedictine abbot in medieval times is thus prescribed by
the consuetudinary of Abingdon.  The newly elected abbot was
to put off his shoes at the door of the church, and proceed
barefoot to meet the members of the house advancing in a
procession.  After proceeding up the nave, he was to kneel
and pray at the topmost step of the entrance of the choir,
into which he was to be introduced by the bishop or his
commissary, and placed in his stall.  The monks, then kneeling,
gave him the kiss of peace on the hand, and rising, on the
mouth, the abbot holding his staff of office.  He then put
on his shoes in the vestry, and a chapter was held, and
the bishop or his commissary preached a suitable sermon.

The power of the abbot was paternal but absolute, limited,
however, by the canons of the church, and, until the general
establishment of exemptions, by episcopal control.  As a
rule, however, implicit obedience was enforced; to act
without his orders was culpable; while it was a sacred duty
to execute his orders, however unreasonable, until they were
withdrawn.  Examples among the Egyptian monks of this blind
submission to the commands of the superiors, exalted into
a virtue by those who regarded the entire crushing of the
individual will as the highest excellence, are detailed by
Cassian and others,--- e.g. a monk watering a dry stick,
day after day, for months, or endeavouring to remove a huge
rock immensely exceeding his powers.  St Jerome, indeed, lays
down, as the principle of the compact between the abbot and his
monks, that they should obey their superiors in all things,
and perform whatever they commanded (Ep. 2, ad Eustoch. de
custod. virgin.). So despotic did the tyranny become in the
West, that in the time of Charlemagne it was necessary to
restrain abbots by legal enactments from mutilating their
monks and putting out their eyes; while the rule of St
Columban ordained 100 lashes as the punishment for very slight
offences.  An abbot also had the power of excommunicating
refractory nuns, which he might use if desired by their abbess.

The abbot was treated with the utmost submission and reverence
by the brethren of his house.  When he appeared either in
church or chapter all present rose and bowed.  His letters
were received kneeling, like those of the pope and the
king.  If he gave a command, the monk receiving it was also to
kneel.  No monk might sit in his presence, or leave it without his
permission.  The highest place was naturally assigned to him,
both in church and at table.  In the East he was commanded to
eat with the other monks.  In the West the rule of St Benedict
appointed him a separate table, at which he might entertain
guests and strangers.  This permission opening the door to
luxurious living, the council of Aix, A.D. 817, decreed that
the abbot should dine in the refectory, and be content with
the ordinary fare of the monks, unless he had to entertain a
guest.  These ordinances proved, however, generally ineffectual
to secure strictness of diet, and contemporaneous literature
abounds with satirical remarks and complaints concerning the
inordinate extravagance of the tables of the abbots.  When the
abbot condescended to dine in the refectory, his chaplains waited
upon him with the dishes, a servant, if necessary, assisting
them.  At St Alban's the abbot took the lord's seat, in the
centre of the high table, and was served on silver plate, and
sumptuously entertained noblemen, ambassadors and strangers of
quality.  When abbots dined in their own private hall, the rule
of St Benedict charged them to invite their monks to their table,
provided there was room, on which occasions the guests were
to abstain from quarrels, slanderous talk and idle gossiping.

The ordinary attire of the abbot was according to rule to be
the same as that of the monks.  But by the 10th century the
rule was commonly set aside, and we find frequent complaints of
abbots dressing in silk, and adopting sumptuous attire.  They
sometimes even laid aside the monastic habit altogether, and
assumed a secular dress.1 This was a necessary consequence of
their following the chase, which was quite usual, and indeed at
that time only natural.  With the increase of wealth and power,
abbots had lost much of their special religious character, and
become great lords, chiefly distinguished from lay lords by
celibacy.  Thus we hear of abbots going out to sport, with
their men carrying bows and arrows; keeping horses, dogs and
huntsmen; and special mention is made of an abbot of Leicester,
c. 1360, who was the most skilled of all the nobility in
harehunting.  In magnificence of equipage and retinue the
abbots vied with the first nobles of the realm.  They rode
on mules with gilded bridles, rich saddles and housings,
carrying hawks on their wrist, followed by an immense train of
attendants.  The bells of the churches were rung as they
passed.  They associated on equal terms with laymen of the
highest distinction, and shared all their pleasures and
pursuits.  This rank and power was, however, often used most
beneficially.  For instance, we read of Whiting, the last
abbot of Glastonbury, judicially murdered by Henry VIII.,
that his house was a kind of well-ordered court, where as
many as 300 sons of noblemen and gentlemen, who had been sent
to him for virtuous education, had been brought up, besides
others of a meaner rank, whom he fitted for the universities. 
His table, attendance and officers were an honour to the
nation.  He would entertain as many as 500 persons of rank at
one time, besides relieving the poor of the vicinity twice a
week.  He had his country houses and fisheries, and when
he travelled to attend parliament his retinue amounted to
upwards of 100 persons.  The abbots of Cluny and Vendome
were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.

In process of time the title abbot was improperly transferred
to clerics who had no connexion with the monastic system,
as to the principal of a body of parochial clergy; and
under the Carolingians to the chief chaplain of the king,
Abbas Curiae, or military chaplain of the emperor, Abbas
Castrensis. It even came to be adopted by purely secular
officials.  Thus the chief magistrate of the republic at Genoa
was called Abbas Populi. Du Cange, in his glossary, also gives
us Abbas Campanilis, Clocherii, Palatii, Scholaris, &c.

Lay abbots (M. Lat. defensores, abbacomites, abbates laici,
abbates milites, abbates saeculares or irreligiosi,
abbatiarii, or sometimes simply abbates) were the outcome
of the growth of the feudal system from the 8th century
onwards.  The practice of commendation, by which---to meet
a contemporary emergency--the revenues of the community were
handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection,
early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of
rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam.
During the Carolingian epoch the custom grew up of granting
these as regular heritable fiefs or benefices, and by the 10th
century, before the great Cluniac reform, the system was firmly
established.  Even the abbey of St Denis was held in commendam
by Hugh Capet.  The example of the kings was followed by the
feudal nobles, sometimes by making a temporary concession
permanent, sometimes without any form of commendation
whatever.  In England the abuse was rife in the 8th
century, as may be gathered from the acts of the council of
Cloveshoe.  These lay abbacies were not merely a question of
overlordship, but implied the concentration in lay hands
of all the rights, immunities and jurisdiction of the
foundations, i.e. the more or less complete secularization of

1 Walworth, the fourth abbot of St Alban's, c. 930, is
charged by Matthew Paris with adopting the attire of a sportsman.

spiritual institutions.  The lay abbot took his recognized
rank in the feudal hierarchy, and was free to dispose of
his fief as in the case of any other.  The enfeoffment of
abbeys differed in form and degree.  Sometimes the monks were
directly subject to the lay abbot; sometimes he appointed a
substitute to perform the spirtual functions, known usually
as dean (decanus), but also as abbot (abbas legitimas,
monasticus, regularis). When the great reform of the 11th
century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay
abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by
certain of the great feudal famines, as late as the 13th century
and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of
dean.  The connexion of the lesser lay abbots with the
abbeys, especially in the south of France, lasted longer;
and certain feudal families retained the title of abbes
chevaliers (abbates milltes) for centuries, together with
certain rights over the abbey lands or revenues.  The abuse was
not confined to the West.  John, patriarch of Antioch, at the
beginning of the 12th Century, informs us that in his time most
monasteries had been handed over to laymen, bencficiarii,
for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.

In conventual cathedrals, where the bishop occupied the
place of the abbot, the functions usually devolving on
the superior of the monastery were performed by a prior.

The title abbe (Ital. abbate), as commonly used in the
Catholic church on the European continent, is the equivalent
of the English ``Father,'' being loosely applied to all who
have received the tonsure.  This use of the title is said to
have originated in the right conceded to the king of France,
by the concordat between Pope Leo X. and Francis I. (1516),
to appoint abbes commendataires to most of the abbeys in
France.  The expectation of obtaining these sinecures drew
young men towards the church in considerable numbers, and
the class of abbes so formed ---abbes de cour they were
sometimes called, and sometimes (ironically) abbes de sainte
esperance, abbes of St Hope---came to hold a recognized
position.  The connexion many of them had with the church
was of the slenderest kind, consisting mainly in adopting
the name of abbe, after a remarkably moderate course of
theological study, practising celibacy and wearing a distinctive
dress--a short dark-violet coat with narrow collar.  Being
men of presumed learning and undoubted leisure, many of the
class found admission to the houses of the French nobility
as tutors or advisers.  Nearly every great family had its
abbe.  The class did not survive the Revolution; but the
courtesy title of abbe, having long lost all connexion in
people's minds with any special ecclesiastical function, remained
as a convenient general term applicable to any clergyman.

In the German Evangelical church the title of abbot (Abt) is
sometimes bestowed, like abbe, as an honorary distinction,
and sometimes survives to designate the heads of monasteries
converted at the Reformation into collegiate foundations.  Of
these the most noteworthy is the abbey of Lokkum in Hanover,
founded as a Cistercian house in 1163 by Count Wilbrand of
Hallermund, and reformed in 1593.  The abbot of Lokkum, who
still carries a pastoral staff, takes precedence of all the
clergy of Hanover, and is ex officio a member of the consistory
of the kingdom.  The governing body of the abbey consists of
abbot, prior and the ``convent'' of canons (Stiftsherren).

See Joseph Bingham, Origines ecclesiasticae (1840); Du
Cange, Glossarium med. et inf.  Lat. (ed. 1883); J. Craigie
Robertson, Hist. of the Christian Church (1858-1873); Edmond
Martene, De antiquis ecclesiae ritibus (Venice, 1783); C.
F. R. de Montalembert, Les moines d'occident depuis S. Benoit
jusqu'a S. Bernard (1860--1877); Achille Luchaire, Manuel
des institutions francaises (Par. 1892). (E.V.; W.A.P.)

1 The Architectural History of the Conventual Buildings of
the Monastery of Christ Church in Canterbury. By the Rev. Robert
Willis.  Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, 1869.

ABBOTSFORD, formerly the residence of Sir Walter Scott,
situated on the S. bank of the Tweed, about 3 m.  W. of Melrose,
Roxburghshire, Scotland, and nearly 1 m. from Abbotsford Ferry
station on the North British railway, connecting Selkirk and
Galashiels.  The nucleus of the estate was a small farm of 100
acres, called Cartleyhole, nicknamed Clarty (i.e. muddy)
Hole, and bought by Scott on the lapse of his lease (1811)
of the neighbouring house of Ashestiel.  It was added to
from time to time, the last and principal acquisition being
that of Toftfield (afterwards named Huntlyburn), purchased in
1817.  The new house was then begun and completed in 1824. 
The general ground-plan is a parallelogram, with irregular
outlines, one side overlooking the Tweed; and the style is
mainly the Scottish Baronial.  Into various parts of the fabric
were built relics and curiosities from historical structures,
such as the doorway of the old Tolbooth in Edinburgh.  Scott
had only enjoyed his residence one year when (1825) he met
with that reverse of fortune which involved the estate in
debt.  In 1830 the library and museum were presented to him
as a free gift by the creditors.  The property was wholly
disencumbered in 1847 by Robert Cadell, the publisher, who
cancelled the bond upon it in exchange for the family's share
in the copyright of Sir Walter's works.  Scott's only son Walter
did not live to enjoy the property, having died on his way
from India in 1847.  Among subsequent possessors were Scott's
son-in-law, J. G. Lockhart, J. R. Hope Scott, Q.C., and his
daughter (Scott's great-granddaughter), the Hon. Mrs Maxwell
Scott.  Abbotsford gave its name to the ``Abbotsford Club,''
a successor of the Bannatyne and Maitland clubs, founded
by W. B. D. D. Turnbull in 1834 in Scott's honour, for
printing and publishing historical works connected with his
writings.  Its publications extended from 1835 to 1864.

See Lockhart, Life of Scott; Washington Irving, Abbotsford
and Newstead Abbey; W. S. Crockett, The Scott Country.

ABBOTT, EDWIN ARROTT (1838- ), English schoolmaster and
theologian, was born on the 20th of December 1838.  He
was educated at the City of London school and at St John's
College, Cambridge, where he took the highest honours in the
classical, mathematical and theological triposes, and became
fellow of his college.  In 1862 he took orders.  After holding
masterships at King Edward's School, Birmingham, and at
Clifton College, he succeeded G. F. Mortimer as headmaster
of the City of London school in 1865 at the early age of
twenty-six.  He was Hulsean lecturer in 1876.  He retired
in 1889, and devoted himself to literary and theological
pursuits.  Dr Abbott's liberal inclinations in theology
were prominent both in his educational views and in his
books.  His Shakespearian Grammar (1870) is a permanent
contribution to English philology.  In 1885 he published a
life of Francis Bacon.  His theological writings include three
anonymously published religious romances--Philochristus
(1878), Onesimus (1882), Sitanus (1906).  More weighty
contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The
Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book
on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article
``The Gospels'' in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia
Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable
stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St
Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898),
Johannine Vocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).

His brother, Evelyn Abbott (1843-1901), was a well-known tutor of
Balliol, Oxford, and author of a scholarly History of Greece.

ABBOTT, EMMA (1849-1891), American singer, was born at
Chicago and studied in Milan and Paris.  She had a fine soprano
voice, and appeared first in opera in London under Colonel
Mapleson's direction at Covent Garden, also singing at important
concerts.  She organized an opera company known by her name,
and toured extensively in the United States, where she had
a great reputation.  In 1873 she married E. J. Wethereil. 
She died at Salt Lake City on the 5th of January 1891.

ABBOTT, JACOB (1803-1879), American writer of books for the
young, was born at Hallowell, Maine, on the 14th of November
1803.  He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1820; studied at
Andover Theological Seminary in 1821, 1822, and 1824; was
tutor in 1824-1825, and from 1825 to 1829 was professor of
mathematics and natural philosophy in Amherst College; was
licensed to preach by the Hampshire Association in 1826;
founded the Mount Vernon School for young ladies in Boston in
1829, and was principal of it in 1829--1833; was pastor of
Eliot Congregational Church (which he founded), at Roxbury,
Mass., in 1834-1835; and was, with his brothers, a founder,
and in 1843--1851 a principal of Abbott's Institute, and in
1845--1848 of the Mount Vernon School for boys, in New York
City.  He was a prolific author, writing juvenile stories,
brief histories and biographies, and religious books for
the general reader, and a few works in popular science. 
He died on the 31st of October 1879 at Farmington, Maine,
where he had spent part of his time since 1839, and where
his brother Samuel Phillips Abbott founded in 1844 the Abbott
School, popularly cailed ``Little Blue.'' Jacob Abbott's
``Rollo Books''-Rollo at Work, Rollo at Play, Rollo in
Europe, &c. (28 vols.)---are the best known of his writings,
having as their chief characters a representative boy and his
associates.  In them Abbott did for one or two generations
of young American readers a service not unlike that performed
earlier, in England and America, by the authors of Evenings at
Home, Sandford and Merton, and the Parent's Assistant. Of
his other writings (he produced more than two hundred volumes
in all), the best are the Franconia Stories (10 vols.),
twenty-two volumes of biographical histories in a series of
thirty-two volumes (with his brother John S. C. Abbott), and
the Young Christian,---all of which had enormous circulations.

His sons, Benjamin Vaughan Abbott (1830-1890), Austin Abbott
(1831-1896), both eminent lawyers, Lyman Abbott (q.v.), and
Edward Abbott (1841-1908), a clergyman, were also well-known
authors.  See his Young Christian, Memorial Edition, with
a Sketch of the Author by one of his sons, i.e. Edward
Abbott (New York, 1882), with a bibliography of his works.

ABBOTT, JOHN STEVENS CABOT (1805-1877), American writer,
was born in Brunswick, Maine, on the 18th of September
1805.  He was a brother of Jacob Abbott, and was associated
with him in the management of Abbott's Institute, New York
City, and in the preparation of his series of brief historical
biographies.  He is best known, however, as the author of
a partisan and unscholarly, but widely popular and very
readable History of Napoleon Bonaparte (1855), in which
the various elements and episodes in Napoleon's career are
treated with some skill in arrangement, but with unfailing
adulation.  Dr Abbott graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825,
prepared for the ministry at Andover Theological Seminary,
and between 1830 and 1844, when he retired from the ministry,
preached successively at Worcester, Roxbury and Nantucket,
Massachusetts.  He died at Fair Haven, Connecticut, on the 17th
of June 1877.  He was a voluminous writer of books on Christian
ethics, and of histories, which now seem unscholarly and
untrustworthy, but were valuable in their time in cultivating
a popular interest in history.  In general, except that
he did not write juvenile fiction, his work in subject and
style closely resembles that of his brother, Jacob Abbott.

ABBOTT, LYMAN (1835- ), American divine and author, was
born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, on the 18th of December 1835,
the son of Jacob Abbott.  He graduated at the University
of New York in 1853, studied law, and was admitted to the
bar in 1856; but soon abandoned the legal profession, and,
after studying theology with his uncle, J. S. C. Abbott,
was ordained a minister of the Congregational Church in
1860.  He was pastor of a church in Terre Haute, Indiana, in
1860-1865, and of the New England Church in New York City in
1865--1869.  From 1865 to 1868 he was secretary of the American
Union (Freedman's) Commission.  In 1869 he resigned his pastorate
to devote himself to literature.  He was an associate editor of
Harper's Magazine, was editor of the Illustrated Christian
Weekly, and was co-editor (1876-1881) of The Christian
Union with Henry Ward Beecher, whom he succeeded in 1888 as
pastor of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn.  From this pastorate he
resigned ten years later.  From 1881 he was editor-in-chief
of The Christian Union, renamed The Outlook in 1893; this
periodical reflected his efforts toward social reform, and, in
theology, a liberality, humanitarian and nearly unitarian. 
The latter characteristics marked his published works also.

His works include Jesus of Nazareth (1869); Illustrated
Commentary on the New Testament (4 vols., 1875); A Study
in Human Nature (1885); Life of Christ (1894); Evolution
of Christianity (Lowell Lectures, 1896); The Theology of
an Evolutionist (1897); Christianity and Social Problems
(1897); Life and Letters of Paul, (1898); The Life that
Really is (1899); Problems of Life (1900); The Rights
of Man (1901); Henry Ward Beecher (1903); The Christian
Ministry (1905); The Personality of God (1905); Industrial
Problems (1905); and Christ's Secret of Happiness (1907). 
He edited Sermons of Henry Ward Beecher (2 vols., 1868).

ABBOTTADAD, a town of British India, 4120 ft. above
sealevel, 63 m. from Rawalpindi, the headquarters of the
Hazara district in the N.W. Frontier Province, called after
its founder, Sir James Abbott, who settled this wild district
after the annexation of the Punjab.  It is an important
military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of
a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps. 
In 1901 the population of the town and cantonment was 7764.

ABBREVIATION (Lat. brevis, short), strictly a shortening;
more particularly, an ``abbreviation'' is a letter or group
of letters, taken from a word or words, and employed to
represent them for the sake of brevity.  Abbreviations, both
of single words and of phrases, having a meaning more or
less fixed and recognized, are common in ancient writings
and inscriptions (see PALAEOGRAPHY and DIPLOMATIC), and
very many are in use at the present time.  A distinction is
to be observed between abbreviations and the contractions
that are frequently to be met with in old manuscripts, and
even in early printed books, whereby letters are dropped
out here and there, or particular collocations of letters
represented by somewhat arbitrary symbols.  The commonest
form of abbreviation is the substitution for a word of its
initial letter; but, with a view to prevent ambiguity, one
or more of the other letters are frequently added.  Letters
are often doubled to indicate a plural or a superlative.

I. CLASSICAL ABBREVIATIONS.---The following list
contains a selection from the abbreviations that occur
in the writings and inscriptions of the Romans:--

A.         Absolvo, Aedilis, Aes, Ager, Ago, Aio, Amicus, Annus, Antiquo,
Auctor, Auditor, Augustus, Aulus, Aurum, Aut.
A.A.       Aes alienum, Ante audita, Apud agrum, Aurum argentum.
AA.        Augusti. AAA. Augusti tres.
A.A.A.F.F. Auro argento acre flando feriundo.1
A.A.V.     Alter ambove.
A.C.       Acta causa, Alins civis.
A.D.       Ante diem; e.g. A.D.V. Ante diem quintum.
A.D.A.     Ad dandos agros.
AEO.       Aedes, Aedilis, Aedilitas.
AEM. and AIM.        Aemilius, Aemilia.
AER.       Aerarium. AER.P. Aere publico.
A.F.       Acture fide, Auli filius.
AG.        Ager, Ago, Agrippa.
A.G.       Ammo grato, Aulus Gellius.
A.L.AE. and A.L.E.  Arbitrium litis aestimandae.
A.M. and A.MILL.    Ad milliarium.
AN.        Aniensis, Annus, Ante.
ANN.       Annales, Anni, Annona.
ANT.       Ante, Antonius.
A.O.       Alii omnes, Amico optimo.
AP.        Atppius, Apud.
A.P.       Ad pedes, Aedilitia potestate.
A.P.F.     Auro (or argento) publico feriundo.
A.P.M.     Amico posuit monumentum, Annorum plus minus.
A.P.R.C.   Anno post Romam conditam.
ARG.       Argentum.
AR.V.V.D.D.Aram votam volens dedicavit, Arma votiva dono dedit.
AT         A tergo. Also A TE. and A TER.
A.T.M.D.O. Aio te mihi dare oportere.
AV.        Augur, Augustus, Aurelius.
A.V.       Annos vixit.
A.V.C.     Ab urbe condita.
AVG.       Augur, Augustus.
AVGG.      Augusti (generally of two). AVGGG. Augusti tres.
AVT.PR.R.  Auctoritas provinciae Romanorum.

B.         Balbius, Balbus, Beatus, Bene, Beneficiarius, Beneficium,
Bonus, Brutus, Bustum.
B.for V.      Berna Bivus, Bixit.
B.A.       Bixit anos, Bonis auguriis, Bonus amabilis.
BB.or B.B.    Bene bene, i.e. optime, Optimus.
B.D.       Bonae deae, Bonum datum.
B.DD.      Bonis deabus.
B.D.S.M. Bene de se merenti.
B.F.       Bona femina, Bona fides, Bona fortuna, Bonum factum.
B.F.       Bona femina, Bona filia.
B.H.       Bona hereditaria, Bonorum heres.
B.I.       Bonum judicium. B.I.I. Boni judicis judicium.
B.M.       Beatae memoriae, Bene merenti.
B.N.       Bona nostra, Bonum nomen.
BN.H.I.    Bona hic invenies.
B.P.       Bona paterna, Bonorum potestas, Bonum publicum.
B.Q.       Bene quiescat, Bona quaesita.
B.RP.N.    Boho reipublicae natus.
BRT.       Britannicus.
B.T.       Bonorum tutor, Brevi tempore.
B.V.       Bene vale, Bene vixit, Bonus vir.
B.V.V.     Balnea vina Venus.
BX.        Bixit, for vixit.

C.         Caesar, Cains, Caput, Causa, Censor, Civis, Conors, Colonia,
Comitialis (dies), Condemno, Consul, Cum, Curo, Custos.
C.         Caia, Centuria, Cum, the prefix Con.
C.B.       Civis bonus, Commune bonum, Conjugi benemerenti, Cui bono.
C.C.       Calumniae causa, Causa cognita, Conjugi carissimae, Consilium
cepit, Curiae consulto.
C.C.C.     Calumniae cavendae causa.
C.C.F.     Caesar (or Caius) curavit faciendum, Cains Caii filius.
CC.VV.     Clarissimi viri.
C.D.       Caesaris decreto, Cains Decius, Comitialibus diebus.
CES.       Censor, Censores. CESS. Censores.
C.F.       Causa fiduciae, Conjugi fecit, Curavit faciendum.
C.H.       Custos heredum, Custos hortorum.
C.I.       Caius Julius, Consul jussit, Curavit judex. .
CL.        Clarissimus, Claudius, Clodius, Colonia.
CL.V.      Clarissimus vir, Clypeum vovit.
C.M.       Caius Marius, Causa mortis.
CN.        Cnaeus.
COH.       Coheres, Conors.
COL.       Collega, Collegium, Colonia, Columna.
COLL.      Collega, Coloni, Coloniae.
COM.       Comes, Comitium, Comparatum.
CON.       Conjux, Consensus, Consiliarius, Consul, Consularis.
COR.       Cornelia (tribus), Cornelius, Corona, Corpus.
COS.       Consiliarius, Consul, Consulares. COSS. Consules.
C.P.       Carissimus or Clarissimus puer, Civis publicus, Curavit
C.R.       Cains Rufus, Civis Romanus, Curavit reficiendum.
CS.        Caesar, Communis, Consul.
C.V.       Clarissimus or Consularis vir.
CVR.       Cura, Curator, Curavit, Curia.

D.         Dat, Dedit, &c., De, Decimus, Decius, Decretum, Decurio,
Deus, Dicit, &c., Dies, Divus, Dominus, Domus, Donum.
D.C.       Decurio coloniae, Diebus comitialibus, Divus Caesar.
D.D.       Dea Dia, Decurionum decreto, Dedicavit, Deo dedit, Dono dedit.
D.D.D.     Datum decreto decurionum, Dono dedit dedicavit.
D.E.R.     De ea re.
DES.       Designatus.
D.I.       Dedit imperator, Diis immortalibus, Diis inferis.
D.l.M.     Deo invicto Mithrae, Diis inferis Manibus.
D.M.       Deo Magno, Dignus memoria, Diis Manibus, Dolo malo.
D.O.M.     Deo Optimo Maximo.
D.P.S.     Dedit proprio sumptu, Deo perpetuo sacrum, De pecunia

E.         Ejus, Eques, Erexft, Ergo, Est, Et, Etiam, Ex.
EG.        Aeger, Egit, Egregius.
E.M.       Egregiae memoriae, Ejusmodi, Erexit monumentum.
EQ.M.      Equitum magister.
E.R.A.     Ea res agitur.

F.         Fabius, Facere, Fecit, &c., Familia, Fastus (dies), Felix,
Femina, Fides, Filius, Flamen, Fortuna, Frater, Fuit, Functus.
F.C.       Faciendum curavit, Fidei commissume, Fiduciae causa.
F.D.       Fidem dedit, Flamen Dialis, Fraude donavit.
F.F.F.     Ferro flamma fame, Fortior fortuna fato.
FL.        Filius, Flamen, Flaminius, Flavius.
F.L.       Favete linguis, Fecit libens, Felix liber.
FR.        Forum, Fronte, Frumentarius.
F.R.       Forum Romanum.

G.         Gaius (=Caius), Gallia, Gaudium, Gellius, Gemma, Gens,
Gesta, Gratia.
G.F.       Gemma fidelis (applied to a legion). So G.P.F. Gemma
pia fidelis.
GL.        Gloria.
GN.        Genius, Gens, Genus, Gnaeus (=Cnaeus).
G.P.R.     Genro populi Romani.

H.         Habet, Heres, Hic, Homo, Honor, Hora.
HER. Heres, Herennius. HER. and HERC. Hercules.
H.L.       Hac lege, Hoc loco, Honesto loco.
H.M.       Hoc monumentum, Honesta mulier, Hora mala.
H.S.E.     Hic sepultus est, Hic situs est.
H.V.       Haec urbs, Hic vivit, Honeste vixit, Honestus vir.

I.         Immortalis, Imperator, In, Infra, Inter, Invictus, Ipse, Isis,
Judex, Julius, Junius, Jupiter, Justus.
IA.        Jam, Intra.
I.C.       Julius Caesar, Juris Consultum, Jus civile.
ID.        Idem, Idus, Interdum.
l.D.       Inferis diis, Jovi dedicatnm, Jus dicendum, Jussu Dei.
I.D.M.     Jovi deo magno.
I.F.       In foro, In fronte.
I.H.       Jacet hic, In honestatem, Justus homo.
IM.        Imago, Immortalis, Immunis, Impensa.
IMP.       Imperator, Imperium.
I.O.M.     Jovi optimo maximo.
I.P.       In publico, Intra provinciam, Justa persona.
I.S.V.P.   Impensa sua vivus posuit.

K.         Kaeso, Caia, Calumnia, Caput, Carus, Castra.
K., KAL. and KL.   Kalendae.

L.         Laelius, Legio, Lex, Libens, Liber, Libra, Locus, Lollius,
Lucius, Ludus.
LB.        Libens, Liberi, Libertus.
L.D.D.D.   Locus datus decreto decurionum.
LEG.       Legatus, Legio.
LIB.       Liber, Liberalitas, Libertas, Libertus, Librarius.
LL.        Leges, Libentissime, Liberti.
L.M.       Libens merito, Locus monumenti.
L.S.       Laribus sacrum, Libens solvit, Locus sacer.
LVD.       Ludus.
LV.P.F.    Ludos publicos fecit.

M.         Magister, Magistratus, Magnus, Manes, Marcus, Marins,
Marti, Mater, Memoria, Mensis, Miles, Monumentum, Mortuus,
Mucius, Mulier.
M'.        Manius.
M.D.       Magno Deo, Manibus diis, Matri deum, Merenti dedit.
MES.       Mensis. MESS. Menses.
M.F.       Mala fides, Marci filius, Monumentum fecit.
M.I.       Matri Idaeae, Matii Isidi, Maximo Jovi.
MNT. and      MON. Moneta.
M.P.       Male positus, Monumentum posuit.
M.S.       Manibus sacrum, Memoriae sacrum, Manu scriptum.
MVN.       Municeps, or municipium; so also MN., MV. and MVNIC.
M.V.S.     Marti ultori sacrum, Merito votum solvit.

N.         Natio, Natus, Nefastus (dies), Nepos, Neptunus, Nero,
Nomen, Non, Nonae, Noster, Novus, Numen, Numerius,
Numerus, Nummus.
NEP.       Nepos, Neptunus.
N.F.C.     Nostrae fidei commissum.
N.L.       Non licet, Non liquet, Non longe.
N.M.V.     Nobilis memoriae vir.
NN.        Nostri. NN., NNO. and NNR. Nostrorum.
NOB.       Nobilis. NOB., NOBR. and NOV. Novembris.
N.P.       Nefastus primo (i.e. priore parto diei), Non potest.

O.         Ob, Officium, Omnis, Oportet, Optimus, Opus, Ossa.
OB.        Obiit, Obiter, Orbis.
O.C.S.     Ob cives servatos.
O.H.F.     Omnibus honoribus functus.
O.H.S.S.   Ossa hic sita sunt.
OR. Hora,  Ordo, Ornamentum.
O.T.B.Q.   Ossa tua bene quiescant.

P.         Pars, Passus, Pater, Patronus, Pax, Perpetuus, Pes, Pius,
Plebs, Pondo, Populus, Post, Posuit, Praeses, Praetor,
Primus, Pro, Provincia, Publicus, Publius, Puer.
P.C.       Pactum conventum, Patres conscripti, Pecunia constituta,
Ponendum curavit, Post consulatum, Potestate censoria.
P.F.       Pia fidelis, Pius felix, Promissa fides, Publii filius.
P.M.       Piae memoriae, Pius minus, Pontifex maximus.
P.P.       Pater patratus, Pater patriae, Pecunia publica, Praepositus,
Primipilus, Propraetor.
PR.        Praeses, Praetor, Pridie, Princeps.
P.R.       Permissu reipublicae, Populus Romanus.
P.R.C.     Post Romam conditam.
PR.PR.     Praefectus praetorii, Propraetor.
P.S.       Pecunia sua, Plebiscitum, Proprio sumptu, Publicae saluti.
P.V.       Pia victrix, praefectus urbi, Praestantissimus vir.

Q.         Quaestor, Quando, Quantus, Que, Qui, Quinquennalis,
Quintus, Quirites.
Q.D.R.     Qua de re.
Q.I.S.S.   Quae infra scripta sunt; so Q.S.S.S. Quae supra, &c.
QQ.        Quaecunque, Quinquennalis, Quoque.
Q.R.       Quaestor reipublicae.

R.         Recte, Res, Respublica, Retro, Rex, Ripa, Roma, Romanus,
Rufus, Rursus.
R.C.       Romana civitas, Romanus civis.
RESP. and RP.       Respublica.
RET.P. and RP.      Retro pedes.

S.         Sacrum, Scriptus, Semis, Senatus, Sepultus, Servius,
Servus, Sextus, Sibi, Sine, Situs, Solus, Solvit, Sub, Suus.
SAC.       Sacerdos, Sacrificium, Sacrum.
S.C.       Senatus consultum.
S.D.       Sacrum diis, Salutem dicit, Senatus decreto, Sententiam
S.D.M.       Sacrum diis Manibus, Sine dolo malo.
SER.       Servius, Servus.
S.E.T.L.   Sit ei terra levis.
SN.        Senatus, Sententia, Sine.
S.P.       Sacerdos perpetua, Sine pecunia, Sua pecunia.
S.P.Q.R.   Senatus populusque Romanus.
S.S.       Sanctissimus senatus, Supra scripture.
S.V.B.E.E.Q.V.          Si vales bene est, ego quidem valeo.

T.         Terminus, Testamentum, Titus, Tribunus, Tu, Turma, Tutor.
TB., TI. and TIB.   Tiberius.
TB., TR. and TRB.   Tribunus.
T.F.       Testamentum fecit, Titi filius, Titulum fecit, Titus Flavius.
TM.        Terminus, Testamentum, Thermae.
T.P.       Terminum posuit, Tribunicia potestate, Tribunus plebis.
TVL.       Tullius, Tunus.

V.         Urbs, Usus, Uxor, Vale, Verba, Vestalis, Vester, Vir, Vivus,
Vixit, Volo, Votum.
VA.        Veterano assignatus, Vixit annos.
V.C.       Vale conjux, Vir clarissimus, Vir consularis.
V.E.       Verum etiam, Vir egregius, Visum est.
V.F.       Usus fructus, Verba fecit, Vivus fecit.
V.P.       Urbis praefectus, Vir perfectissimus, Vivus posuit.
V.R.       Urbs Roma, Uti rogas, Votum reddidit.

II. MEDIEVAL ABBREVIATIONS.--Of the different kinds of
abbreviations in use in the middle ages, the following are
A.M.       Ave Maria.
B.P.       Beatus Paulus, Beatus Petrus. .
CC.        Carissimus (atso plur. Carissimi), Clarissimus, Circum.
D.         Deus, Dominicus, Dux.
D.N.PP.    Dominus hoster Papa.
U.F.       Felicissimus, Fratres, Pandectae (prob. for Gr. II).
I.C. or I.X.    Jesus Christus.
I.D.N.     In Dei nomine.
KK.        Karissimus (or-mi).
MM.        Magistri, Martyres, Matrimonium, Meritissimus.
O.S.B.     Ordinis Sancti Benedicti.
PP.        Papa, Patres, Piissimus.
R.F.       Rex Francorum.
R.P.D.     Reverendissimus Pater Dominus.
S.C.M.     Sacra Caesarea Majestas.
S.M.E.     Sancta Mater Ecclesia.
S.M.M.     Sancta Mater Maria.
S.R.I.     Sanctum Romanum Imperium.
S.V.       Sanctitas Vestra, Sancta Virgo.
V.         Venerabilis, Venerandus. .
V.R.P.     Vestra Reverendissima Paternitas.

III. ABBREVIATIONS NOW IN USE.--The import of these
will often be readily understood from the connexion in which
they occur. There is no occasion to explain here the common
abbreviations used for Christian names, books of Scripture,
months of the year, points of the compass, grammatical and
mathematical terms, or familiar titles, like ``Mr,'' &c.

The ordinary abbreviations, now or recently in use, may
be conveniently classified under the following headings:-

A.A.       Associate of Arts.
A.B.       Able-bodied seaman; (in America) Bachelor of Arts.
A.D.C.     Aide-de-Camp.
A.M.       (Artium Magister), Master of Arts.
A.R.A.     Associate of the Royal Academy.
A.R.I.B.A. Associate of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
A.R.S.A.   Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy.
B.A.       Bachelor of Arts.
Bart.      Baronet.
B.C.L.     Bachelor of Civil Law.
B.D.       Bachelor of Divinty.
B.LL.      Bachelor of Laws.
B.Sc.      Bachelor of Science.
C.         Chairman.
C.A.       Chartered Accountant.
C.B.       Companion of the Bath.
C.E.       Civil Engineer.
C.I.E.     Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire.
C.M.       (Chirurgiae Magister), Master in Surgery.
C.M.G.     Companion of St Michael and St George.
C.S.I.     Companion of the Star of India.
D.C.L.     Doctor of Civil Law.
D.D.       Doctor of Divinity.
D.Lit. or Litt. D.   Doctor of Literature.
D.M.       Doctor of Medicine (Oxford).
D.Sc.      Doctor of Science.
D.S.O.     Distinguished Service Order.
Ebor.      (Eboracensis) of York.2
F.C.S.     Fellow of the Chemical Society.
F.D.       (Fidei Defensor), Defender of the Faith.
F.F.P.S.   Fellow of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons (Glasgow)
F.G.S.     Fellow of the Geological Society.
F.K.Q.C.P.I.             Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians
in Ireland.
F.L.S.     Fellow of the Linnaean Society.
F.M.       Field Marshal.
F.P.S.     Fellow of the Philological Society.
F.R.A.S.   Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
F.R C.P.   Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians.
F.R.C.P.E. Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.
F.R.C.S.   Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.
F.R.G.S.   Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
F.R.H.S.   Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society.
F.R.Hist.Soc.            Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.
F.R.I.B.A. Fellow of the Royal Institution of British Architects.
F.R.S.     Fellow of the Royal Society.
F.R.S.E.   Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh.
F.R.S.L.   Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature.
F.S.A.     Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries.
F.S.S.     Fellow of the Statistical Society.
F.Z.S.     Fellow of the Zoological Society.
G.C.B.     Knight Grand Cross of the Bath.
G.C.H.     Knight Grand Cross of Hanover.
G.C.I.E.   Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian
G.C.M.G.   Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George.
G.C.S.I.   Knight Grand Commander of the Star of india.
G.C.V.O.   Knight Grand Commander of the Victorian Order.
H.H.       His or Her Highness.
H.I.H.     His or Her Imperial Highness.
H.I.M.     His or Her Imperial Majesty.
H.M.       His or Her Majesty.
H.R.H.     His or Her Royal Highness.
H.S.H.     His or Her Serene Highness.
J.         Judge.
J.C.D.     (Juris Canonici Doctor, or Juris Civilis Doctor),
Doctor of Canon or Civil Law.
J.D.       (Juris utriusque Doctor), Doctor of Civil and Canon Law.
J.P.       Justice of the Peace.
K.C.       King's Counsel.
K.C.B.     Knight Commander of the Bath.
K.C.I.E.   Knight Commander of the Order of the Indian Empire.
K.C.M.G.   Knight Commander of St Michael and St George.
K.C.S.I.   Knight Commander of the Star of India.
K.C.V.O.   Knight Commander of the Victorian Order.
K.G.       Knight of the Garter.
K.P.       Knight of St Patrick.
K.T.       Knight of the Thistle.
L.A.H.     Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Hall.
L.C.C.     London County Council, or Councillor.
L.C.J.     Lord Chief Justice
L.J.       Lord Justice.
L.L.A.     Lady Literate in Arts.
LL.B.      (Legum Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Laws.
LL.D.      (Legum Doctor), Doctor of Laws.
LL.M.      (Legum Magister), Master of Laws.
L.R.C.P.   Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians.
L.R.C.S.   Licentiate of the Royal College of Surgeons.
L.S.A.     Licentiate of the Apothecaries' Society.
M.A.       Master of Arts.
M.B.       (Medicinae Baccalaureus), Bachelor of Medicine
M.C.       Member of Congress.
M.D.       (Medicinae Doctor), Doctor of Medicine.
M.Inst.C.E.             Member of the Institute of Civil Engineers.
M.P.       Member of Parliament.
M.R.       Master of the Rolls.
M.R.C.P.   Member of the Royal College of Physicians.
M.R.C.S.   Member of the Royal College of Surgeons.
M.R.I.A.   Member of the Royal Irish Academy.
Mus.B.     Bachelor of Music.
Mus.D.     Doctor of Music.
M.V.O.     Member of the Victorian Order.
N.P.       Notary Public.
O.M.       Order of Merit.
P.C.       Privy Councillor.
Ph.D.      (Philosophiae Doctor), Doctor of Philosophy.
P.P.       Parish Priest.
P.R.A.     President of the Royal Academy.
R.         (Rex, Regina), King, Queen.
R. & I.    Rex et Imperator.
R.A.       Royal Academician, Royal Artillery.
R.A.M.     Royal Academy of Music.
R.E.       Royal Engineers.
Reg. Prof. Regius Professor.
R.M.       Royal Marines, Resident Magistrate.
R.N.       Royal Navy.
S. or St.             Saint.
S.S.C.     Solicitor before the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
S.T.P.     (Sacrosanctae Theologiae Professor), Professor of Sacred
V.C.       Vice-Chancellor, Victoria Cross.
V.G.       Vicar-General.
V.S.       Veterinary Surgeon.
W.S.       Writer to the Signet [in Scotland]. Equivalent to Attorney

ac.    acre.                  lb. or lb.  (libra), pound (weight).
bar.   barrel.                 m. or mi. mile, minute.
bus.   bushel.                 m. minim.
c.     cent.                  mo. month.
c. (or cub.) ft. &c. cubic foot,&c.   na. nail.
cwt.   hundredweight.         oz. ounce.
d.     (denarius), penny. pk. peck.
deg.   degree.                po. pole.
dr.    drachm or dram.    pt. pint.
dwt.   pennyweight.            q. (quadrans), farthing.
f.     franc.                 qr. quarter.
fl.    florin.                qt. quart.
ft.    foot.                  ro. rood.
fur.   furlong.               Rs.4 rupees.
gal.   gallon.                 s. or / (solidus), shilling.
gr.    grain.                  s. or sec. second.
h. or hr. hour.           sc. or scr. scruple.
hhd.   hogshead.          sq. ft. &c, square foot, &c.
in.    inch.                  st. stone.
kilo.  kilometre.             yd. yard.
L.,3 L. ,2 or l. (libra), pound (money).


A.         Accepted.
A.C.       (Ante Christum), Before Christ.
acc., a/c. or acct.        Account.
A.D.       (Anno Domini), In the year of our Lord.
A.E.I.O.U. Austriae est imperare orbi universo,5 or
Alles Erdreich Ist Oesterreich Unterthan.
Aet. or Aetat.            (Aetatis, [anno]), In the year of his age.
A.H.       (Anno Hegirae), In the year of the Hegira (the Mohammedan
A.M.       (Anno Mundi), In the year of the world.
A.M.       (Ante meridiem), Forenoon.
Anon.      Anonymous.
A.U.C.     (Anno urbis conditae), In the year from the building
of the city (i.e. Rome).
A.V.       Authorized version of the Bible.
b.         born.
B.V.M.     The Blessed Virgin Mary.
B.C.       Before Christ.
c.         circa, about.
C.         or Cap. (Caput), Chapter.
C.         Centigrade (or Celsius's) Thermometer.
cent.6 (Centnim), A hundred, frequently L. 100.
Cf. or cp.       (Confer), Compare.
Ch. or Chap.     Chapter.
C.M.S.     Church Missionary Society.
Co.        Company, County.
C.O.D.     Cash on Delivery.
Cr.        Creditor.
curt.      Current, the present month.
d.         died.
D.G.       (Dei gratia), By the grace of God.
Do.        Ditto, the same.
D.O.M.     (Deo Optimo Maximo), To God the Best and Greatest.
Dr.        Debtor.
D.V.       (Deo volente), God willing.
E.& O.E.   Errors and omissions excepted.
e.g.       (Exempti gratia), For example.
etc. or &c.     (Et caetera), And the rest; and so forth.
Ex.        Example.
F. or Fahr.     Fahrenheit's Thermometer.

fec. (Fecit),   He made (or did) it.
fl.        Flourished.
Fo. or Fol.     Folio.
f.o.b.     Free on board.
G.P.O.     General Post Office.
H.M.S.     His Majesty's Ship, or Service.
Ib. or Ibid.    (Ibidem), In the same place.
Id.        (Idem), The same.
ie. (Id est),   That is.
I.H.S.     A symbol for ``Jesus,', derived from the first three letters
of the Greek (I E S); the correct origin was lost
sight of, and the Romanized letters were then interpreted
erroneously as standing for Jesus, Hominum Salvator,
the Latin ``h'' and Greek long ``e'' being confused.
I.M.D.G.   (In majorem Dei gloriam), To the greater glory of God.
Inf. (Infra),   Below.
Inst.      Instant, the present month.
I.O.U.     I owe you.
i.q.       (Idem quod), The same as.
k.t.l.      (gr kai ta loipa) Et caetera, and the rest.
L. or Lib. (Liber),      Book.
Lat.       Latitude.
l.c.       (Loco citato), In the place cited.
Lon. or Long.       Longitude.
L.S.       (Locus sigilli), The place of the seal.
Mem.       (Memento), Remember, Memorandum.
MS.        Manuscript. MSS. Manuscripts.
N.B.       (Nota bene), Mark well; take notice.
N.B.       North Britain (i.e. Scotland).
N.D.       No date.
nem. con.       (Nemine contradicente), No one contradicting.
No.        (Numero), Number.
N.S.       New Style.
N.T.       New Testament.
ob.        (Obiit), Died.
Obs.       Obsolete.
O.H.M.S.   On His Majesty's Service.
O.S.       Old Style.
O.S.B.     Ordo Sancti Benedicti (Benedictines).
O.T.       Old Testament.
P.         Page. Pp. Pages.
@        (Per), For; e.g. @ lb., For one pound.
Pinx.      (Pinxit), He painted it.
P.M.       (Post Meridiem), Afternoon.
P.O.       Post Office, Postal Order.
P.O.O.     Post Office Order.
P.P.C.     (Pour prendre conge), To take leave.
P.R.       Prize-ring.
prox.      (Proximo [mense]), Next month.
P.S.       Postscript.
Pt.        Part.
p.t. or pro tem.   (Pro tempore), For the time.
P.T.O.     Please turn over.
Q., Qu., or Qy.    Query; Question.
q.d.       (Quasi dicat), As if he should say: as much as to say.
Q.E.D.     (Quod erot demonstrandum), Which was to be demonstrated.
Q.E.F.     (Quod erat faciendum), Which was to be done.
q.s. or quant. suff.      (Quantum sufficit), As much as is
q.v.       (Quod vide), Which see.
R. or @.      (Recipe), Take.
sqrt.  (=r. for radix), The sign of the square root.
R.I.P.     (Requiescat in pace!), May he rest in peace!
R.S.V.P.   (i Respondes s'il vous plait), please reply.
sc.        (Scilicet), Namely; that is to say.
Sc. or Sculp.  (Sculpsit), He engraved it.
S.D.U.K.   Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
seq. or sq., seqq. or sqq.   (Sequens, sequenitia), The following.
S.J.       Society of Jesus.
sp.        (Sine prole), Without offspring.
S.P.C.K.   Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge
S.P.G.     Society for the Propagation of the Gospel.
S.T.D.    }
S.T.B.    }Doctor, Bachelor, Licentiate of Theology.
S.T.L.    }
Sup.       (Supra), Above.
s.v.       (Sub voce), Under the word (or heading).
T.C.D.     Trinity College, Dublin.
ult.       (Ultimo [mense]), Last month.
U.S.       United States.
U.S.A.     United States of America.
v.         (versus), Against.
v. or vid:      (Vide), See.
viz.       (Videlicet), Namely.
Xmas.      Christmas. This X is a Greek letter, corresponding to Ch.

See also Graevius's Thesaurus Antiquitatum (1694, sqq.);
Nicolai's Tractatus de Sigils Veterum; Mommsen's Corpus
Inscriptionum Latinarum (1863, sqq.); Natalis de Wailly's
Paleographie (Paris, 1838); Alph.  Chassant's Paleographie
(1854), and Dictionnaire des Abreviations (3rd ed.
1866); Campelli, Duzionario di Abbreviature (1899).

1 Describing the function of the triumviri monetales.

2 An archbishop or bishop, in writing his signature, substitutes
for his surname the name of his see; thus the prelates of
Canterbury, York, Oxford, London, &c., subscribe themselves
with their initials (Christian names only), followed by
Cantuar., Ebor., Oxon., Londin. (sometimes London.), &c.

3 Characters, not properly abbreviations, are used in the same
way; e.g. `` deg. '' for ``degrees, minutes, seconds'' (circular
measure); @, @, @ for ``ounces, drachms, scruples.'' @ is
probably to be traced to the written form of the z in ``oz.''

4 These forms (as well as $, the symbol for the
American dollar) are placed before the amounts.

5It is given to Austria to rule the whole earth.
The device of Austria, first adopted by Frederick III.

6``Per cent.'' is often signified by %, a form traceable to "100."

ABBREVIATORS, a body of writers in the papal chancery,
whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the
pope's bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are
written out in extenso by the scriptores. They are first
mentioned in Extravagantes of John XXII. and of Benedict
XII. Their number was fixed at seventy-two by Sixtus IV.
From the time of Benedict XII. (1334-1342) they were classed
as de Parco majori or Praesidentiae majoris, and de
Parco minnori. The name was derived from a space in the
chancery, surrounded by a grating, in which the officials sat,
which is called higher or lower (major or minor) according to
the proximity of the seats to that of the vice-chancellor. 
After the protonotaries left the sketching of the minutes
to the abbreviators, those de Parco majori, who ranked as
prelates, were the most important officers of the apostolic
chancery.  By Martin V. their signature was made essential to
the validity of the acts of the chancery; and they obtained in
course of time many important privileges.  They were suppressed
in 1908 by Pius X. and their duties were transferred to the
protonotarii apostolici participantes. (See CURIA ROMANA.)

ABDALLATIF, or ABD-UL-LATIF (1162-1231), a celebrated
physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers
of the East, was born at Bagdad in 1162.  An interesting
memoir of Abdallatif, written by himself, has been preserved
with additions by Ibn-Abu-Osaiba (Ibn abi Usaibia), a
contemporary.  From that work we learn that the higher education
of the youth of Bagdad consisted principally in a minute and
careful study of the rules and principles of grammar, and in
their committing to memory the whole of the Koran, a treatise
or two on philology and jurisprudence, and the choicest Arabian
poetry.  After attaining to great proficiency in that kind of
learning, Abdallatif applied himself to natural philosophy and
medicine.  To enjoythe society of the learned, he went first
to Mosul (1189), and afterwards to Damascus.  With letters of
recommendation from Saladin's vizier, he visited Egypt, where
the wish he had long cherished to converse with Maimonides,
``the Eagle of the Doctors,'' was gratified.  He afterwards
formed one of the circle of learned men whom Saladin gathered
around him at Jerusalem.  He taught medicine and philosophy at
Cairo and at Damascus for a number of years, and afterwards,
for a shorter period, at Aleppo.  His love of travel led him
in his old age to visit different parts of Armenia and Asia
Minor, and he was setting out on a pilgrimage to Mecca when
he died at Bagdad in 1231.  Abdallatif was undoubtedly a
man of great knowledge and of an inquisitive and penetrating
mind.  Of the numerous works--mostly on medicine---which
Osaiba ascribes to bim, one only, his graphic and detailed
Account of Egypt (in two parts), appears to be known in
Europe.  The manuscript, discovered by Edward Pococke the
Orientalist, and preserved in the Bodleian Library, contains
a vivid description of a famine caused, during the author's
residence in Egypt, by the Nile failing to overflow its banks. 
It was translated into Latin by Professor White of Oxford in
1800, and into French, with valuable notes, by De Sacy in 1810.

ABD-AR-RAHMAN, the name borne by five princes of the Omayyad dynasty,
amirs and caliphs of Cordova, two of them being rulers of great capacity.

ABD-AR-RAHMAN I. (756-788) was the founder of the branch of
the family which ruled for nearly three centuries in Mahommedan
Spain.  When the Omayyads were overthrown in the East by the
Abbasids he was a young man of about twenty years of age.
together with his brother Yahya, he took refuge with Bedouin
tribes in the desert.  The Abbasids hunted their enemies
down without mercy.  Their soldiers overtook the brothers;
Yahya was slain, and Abd-ar-rahman saved himself by fleeing
first to Syria and thence to northern Africa, the common
refuge of all who endeavoured to get beyond the reach of the
Abbasids.  In the general confusion of the caliphate produced
by the change of dynasty, Africa had fallen into the hands
of local rulers, formerly amirs or lieutenants of the Omayyad
caliphs, but now aiming at independence.  After a time
Abd-ar-rahman found that his life was threatened, and he
fled farther west, taking refuge among the Berber tribes of
Mauritania.  In the midst of all his perils, which read like
stories from the Arabian Nights, Abd-ar-rahman had been
encouraged by reliance on a prophecy of his great-uncle Maslama
that he would restore the fortune of the family.  He was
followed in all his wanderings by a few faithful clients of the
Omayyads.  In 755 he was in hiding near Ceuta, and thence
he sent an agent over to Spain to ask for the support of
other clients of the family, descendants of the conquerors of
Spain, who were numerous in the province of Elvira, the modern
Granada.  The country was in a state of confusion under the
weak rule of the amir Yusef, a mere puppet in the hands of a
faction, and was torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs
and by race conflicts between the Arabs and Berbers.  It
offered Abd-ar-rahman the opportunity he had falled to find in
Africa.  On the invitation of his partisans he landed at
Almunecar, to the east of Malaga, in September 755. For a
time he was compelled to submit to be guided by his supporters,
who were aware of the risks of their venture.  Yusef opened
negotiations, and offered to give Abdar-rahman one of his
daughters in marriage and a grant of land.  This was far less
than the prince meant to obtain, but he would probably have
been forced to accept the offer for want of a better if the
insolence of one of Yusef's messengers, a Spanish renegade,
had not outraged a chief partisan of the Omayyad cause.  He
taunted this gentleman, Obeidullah by name, with being unable
to write good Arabic.  Under this provocation Obeidullah drew
the sword.  In the course of 756 a campaign was fought in
the valley of the Guadalquivir, which ended, on the 16th of
May, in the defeat of Yusef outside Cordova.  Abdar-rahman's
army was so ill provided that he mounted almost the only good
war-horse in it; he had no banner, and one was improvised by
unwinding a green turban and binding it round the head of a
spear.  The turban and the spear became the banner of the Spanish
Omayyads.  The long reign of Abd-arrahman I. was spent in a
struggle to reduce his anarchical Arab and Berber subjects to
order.  They had never meant to give themselves a master, and
they chafed under his hand, which grew continually heavier. 
The details of these conflicts belong to the general history of
Spain.  It is, however, part of the personal history of
Abd-ar-rahman that when in 763 he was compelled to fight at the
very gate of his capital with rebels acting on behalf of the
Abbasids, and had won a signal victory, he cut off the heads
of the leaders, filled them with salt and camphor and sent
them as a defiance to the eastern caliph.  His last years were
spent amid a succession of palace conspiracies, repressed with
cruelty.  Abd-ar-rahman grew embittered and ferocious.  He was
a fine example of an oriental founder of a dynasty, and did his
work so well that the Omayyads lasted in Spain for two centuries
and a half.

ABD-AR-RAHMAN II. (822-852) was one of the weaker of
the Spanish Omayyads.  He was a prince with a taste for
music and literature, whose reign was a time of confusion. 
It is chiefly memorable for having included the story of
the ``Martyrs of Cordova,'' one of the most remarkable
passages in the religious history of the middle ages.

ABD-AR-RAHMAN III. (912-961) was the greatest and the most
successful of the princes of his dynasty in Spain (for the
general history of his reign see SPAIN, History). He
ascended the throne when he was barely twenty-two and reigned
for half a century.  His life was so completely identified
with the government of the state that he offers less material
for biography than his ancestor Abd-ar-rahman I. Yet it
supplies some passages which show the real character of an
oriental dynasty even at its best.  Abd-ar-rahman III. was
the grandson of his predecessor, Abdallah, one of the weakest
and worst of the Spanish Omayyads.  His father, Mahommed,
was murdered by a brother Motarrif by order of Abdallah The
old sultan was so far influenced by humanity and remorse
that he treated his grandson kindly.   Abd-ar-rahman III.
came to the throne when the country was exhausted by more
than a generation of tribal conflict among the Arabs, and
of strife between them and the Mahommedans of native Spanish
descent.  Spaniards who were openly or secretly Christians
had acted with the renegades.  These elements, which formed
the bulk of the population, were not averse from supporting
a strong ruler who would protect them against the Arab
aristocracy.  These restless nobles were the most serious
of Abd-ar-rahman's enemies.  Next to them came the Fatimites
of Egypt and northern Africa, who claimed the caliphate,
and who aimed at extending their rule over the Mahommedan
world, at least in the west.  Abd-ar-rahman subdued the nobles
by means of a mercenary army, which included Christians. 
He repelled the Fatimites, partly by supporting their
enemies in Africa, and partly by claiming the caliphate for
himself.  His ancestors in Spain had been content the the
title of sultan.  The caliphate was thought only to belong
to the prince who ruled over the sacred cities of Mecca and
Medina.  But the force of this tradition had been so far
weakened that Abd-ar-rahman could proclaim himself caliph on
the 16th of January 929, and the assumption of the title gave
him increased prestige with his subjects, both in Spain and
Africa.  His worst enemies were always his fellow Mahommedans.
After he was defeated by the Christians at Alhandega
in 939 through the treason of the Arab nobles in his
army (see SPAIN, History) he never again took the
field.  He is accused of having sunk in his later years
into the self-indulgent habits of the harem.  When the
undoubted prosperity of his dominions is quoted as an
example of successful Mahommedan rule, it is well to remember
that he administered well not by means of but in spite of
Mahommedans.  The high praise given to his administration may
even excite some doubts as to its real excellence.  We are
told that a third of his revenue sufficed for the ordinary
expenses of government, a third was hoarded and a third spent on
buildings.  A very large proportion of the surplus must
have been wasted on the palace-town of Zahra, built three
miles to the north of Cordova, and named after a favourite
concubine.  Ten thousand workmen are said to have been employed
for twenty-five years on this wonder, of which no trace now
remains.  The great monument of early Arabic architecture in
Spain, the mosque of Cordoya, was built by his predecessors,
not by him.  It is said that his harem included six thousand
women.  Abd-ar-rahman was tolerant, but it is highly probable
that he was very indifferent in religion, and it is certain
that he was a thorough despot.  One of the most authentic
sayings attributed to him is his criticism of Otto I. of
Germany, recorded by Otto's ambassador, Johann, abbot of
Gorze, who has left in his Vita an incomplete account
of his embassy (in Pertz, Mon. Germ. Scriptores, iv.
355-377).  He blamed the king of Germany for trusting his nobles,
which he said could only increase their pride and leaning to
rebellion.  His confession that he had known only twenty happy
days in his long reign is perhaps a moral tale, to be classed
with the ``omnia fui, et nil expedit'' of Septimius Severus.

In the agony of the Omayyad dynasty in Spain, two princes
of the house were proclaimed caliphs for a very short time,
Abd-ar-rahman IV. Mortada (1017), and Abd-ar-rahman V. Mostadir
(1023-1024).  Both were the mere puppets of factions, who
deserted them at once.  Abd-ar-rahman IV. was murdered
in the year in which he was proclaimed, at Guadiz, when
fleeing from a battle in which he had been deserted by his
supporters.  Abd-ar-rahman V. was proclaimed caliph in
December 1023 at Cordova, and murdered in January 1024 by a
mob of unemployed workmen, headed by one of his own cousins.

The history of the Omayyads in Spain is the subject of the Histoire
des Musulmans d'Espagne, by R. Dozy (Leiden, 1861). (D. H.)

ABD-EL-AZIZ IV. (1880- ), sultan of Morocco, son of Sultan
Mulai el Hasan III. by a Circassian wife.  He was fourteen
years of age on his father's death in 1894.  By the wise action
of Si Ahmad bin Musa, the chamberlain of El Hasan, Abd-el
Aziz's accession to the sultanate was ensured with but little
fighting.  Si Ahmad became regent and for six years showed
himself a capable ruler.  On his death in 1900 the regency
ended, and Abd-el-Aziz took the reins of government into his own
hands, with an Arab from the south, El Menebhi, for his chief
adviser.  Urged by his Circassian mother, the sultan sought
advice and counsel from Europe and endeavoured to act up to
it.  But disinterested advice was difficult to obtain, and
in spite of the unquestionable desire of the young ruler to
do the best for the country, wild extravagance both in action
and expenditure resulted, leaving the sultan with depleted
exchequer and the confidence of his people impaired.  His
intimacy with foreigners and his imitation of their ways were
sufficient to rouse fanaticism and create dissatisfaction. 
His attempt to reorganize the finances by the systematic levy
of taxes was hailed with delight, but the government was not
strong enough to carry the measures through, and the money
which should have been used to pay the taxes was employed
to purchase firearms.  Thus the benign intentions of Mulai
Abdel-Aziz were interpreted as weakness, and Europeans were
accused of having spoiled the sultan and of being desirous of
spoiling the country.  When British engineers were employed
to survey the route for a railway between Mequinez and
Fez, this was reported as indicating an absolute sale of the
country.  The fanaticism of the people was aroused, and a
revolt broke out near the Algerian frontier.  Such was the
condition of things when the news of the Anglo-French Agreement
of 1904 came as a blow to Abd-el-Aziz, who had relied on
England for support and protection  against the inroads of
France.  On the advice of Germany he proposed the assembly of
an international conference at Algeciras in 1906 to consult
upon methods of reform, the sultan's desire being to ensure
a condition of affairs which would leave foreigners with no
excuse for interference in the control of the country, and
would promote its welfare, which Abd-el-Aziz had earnestly
desired from his accession to power.  The sultan gave his
adherence to the Act of the Algeciras Conference, but the
state of anarachy into which Morocco fell during the latter
half of 1906 and the beginning of 1907 showed that the young
ruler lacked strength sufficient to make his will respected
by his turbulent subjects.  In May 1907 the southern tribes
invited Mulai Hafid, an elder brother of Abd-el-Aziz, and
viceroy at Marrakesh, to become sultan, and in the following
August Hafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual
formalities.  In the meantime the murder of Europeans
at Casablanca had led to the occupation of that port by
France.  In September Abd-el-Aziz arrived at Rabat from Fez
and endeavoured to secure the support of the European powers
against his brother.  From France he accepted the grand cordon
of the Legion of Honour, and was later enabled to negotiate a
loan.  His leaning to Christians aroused further opposition
to his rule, and in January 1908 he was declared deposed by
the ulema of Fez, who offered the throne to Hafid.  After
months of inactivity Abd-el-Aziz made an effort to restore
his authority, and quitting Rabat in July he marched on
Marrakesh.  His force, largely owing to treachery, was
completely overthrown (August 19th) when near that city,
and Abd-el-Aziz fled to Settat within the French lines
round Casablanca.  In November he came to terms with his
brother, and thereafter took up his residence in Tangier
as a pensioner of the new sultan.  He declared himself more
than reconciled to the loss of the throne, and as looking
forward to a quiet peaceful life. (See MOROCCO, History.)

ABD-EL-KADER (c. 1807-1883), amir of Mascara, the great
opponent of the conquest of Algeria by France, was born near
Mascara in 1807 or 1808.  His family were sherifs or descendants
of Mahomet, and his father, Mahi-ed-Din, was celebrated
throughout North Africa for his piety and charity.  Abd-el
Kader received the best education attainable by a Mussulman
of princely rank, especially in theology and philosophy, in
horsemanship and in other manly exercises.  While still a
youth he was taken by his father on the pilgrimage to Mecca
and Medina and to the tomb of Sidi Abd-el-Kader El Jalili at
Bagdad--events which stimulated his natural tendency to religious
enthusiasm.  While in Egypt in 1827, Abd-el-Kader is stated
to have been impressed, by the reforms then being carried out
by Mehemet Ali with the value of European civilization, and
the knowledge he then gained affected his career.  Mahi-ed-Din
and his son returned to Mascara shortly before the French
occupation of Algiers (July 1830) destroyed the government
of the Dey. Coming forward as the champion of Islam against
the infidels, Abd-el-Kader was proclaimed amir at Mascara in
1832.  He prosecuted the war against France vigorously and
in a short time had rallied to his standard all the tribes
of western Algeria.  The story of his fifteen years' struggle
against the French is given under ALGERIA. To the beginning
of 1842 the contest went in favour of the amir; thereafter
he found in Marshal Bugeaud an opponent who proved, in the
end, his master.  Throughout this period Abd-el-Kader showed
himself a born leader of men, a great soldier, a capable
administrator, a persuasive orator, a chivalrous opponent. 
His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned,
and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure
to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose
Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause
with the Arabs against the French.  On the 21st of December
1847, the amir gave himself up to General Lamoriciere at Sidi
Brahim.  On the 23rd, his submission was formally made to the
duc d'Aumale, then governor of Algeria.  In violation of the
promise that he would be allowed to go to Alexandria or St Jean
d'Acre, on the faith of which he surrendered, Abd-el-Kader and
his family were detained in France, first at Toulon, then at
Pau, being in November 1848 transferred to the chateau of
Amboise.  There Abd-el-Kader remained until October 1852, when
he was released by Napoleon III. on taking an oath never again
to disturb Algeria.  The amir then took up his residence in
Brusa, removing in 1855 to Damascus.  In July 1860, when the
Moslems of that city, taking advantage of disturbances among
the Druses of Lebanon, attacked the Christian quarter and
killed over 3000 persons, Abd-el-Kader helped to repress the
outbreak and saved large numbers of Christians.  For this
action the French government, which granted the amir a pension
of L. 4000, bestowed on him the grand cross of the Legion of
Honour.  In 1865, he visited Paris and London, and was again in
Paris at the exposition of 1867.  In 1871, when the Algerians
again rose in revolt, Abd-el-Kader wrote to them counselling
submission to France.  After his surrender in 1847 he devoted
himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a
philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was
published in 1858 under the title of Rappel a l'intelligent. 
Avis a l'indifferent. He also wrote a book on the Arab
horse.  He died at Damascus on the 26th of May 1883.

See Commdt.  J. Pichon, Abd el Kader, 1807--1883
(Paris [1899]): Alex.  Bellemare, Abd-el-Kader: sa
vie politique et militaire (Paris, 1863); Col. C. H.
Churchill, The Life of Abdel Kader (London, 1867). 

ABDERA, an ancient seaport town on the south coast of Spain,
between Malaca and New Carthage, in the district inhabited by the
Bastuli.  It was founded by the Carthaginians as a trading
station, and after a period of decline became under the Romans
one of the more important towns in the province of Hispania
Baetica.  It was situated on a hill above the modern Adra
(q.v.).  Of its coins the most ancient bear the Phoenician
inscription abdrt with the head of Heracles (Melkarth) and
a tunny-fish; those of Tiberius (who seems to have made the
place a colony) show the chief temple of the town with two
tunny-fish erect in the form of columns.  For inscriptions
relating to the Roman municipality see C.I.L. ii. 267.

ABDERA, a town on the coast of Thrace near the mouth of the
Nestos, and almost opposite Thasos.  Its mythical foundation
was attributed to Heracles, its historical to a colony from
Clazomenae in the 7th century B.C. But its prosperity
dates from 544 B.C., when the majority of the people of
Teos migrated to Abdera after the Ionian revolt to escape
the Persian yoke (Herod. i. 168); the chief coin type, a
gryphon, is identical with that of Teos; the coinage is
noted for the beauty and variety of its reverse types.  The
town seems to have declined in importance after the middle
of the 4th century.  The air of Abdera was proverbial as
causing stupidity; but among its citizens was the philosopher
Democritus.  The ruins of the town may still be seen on
Cape Balastra; they cover seven small hills, and extend
from an eastern to a western harbour; on the S.W. hills
are the remains of the medieval settlement of Polystylon.

Mittheil. d. deutsch.  Inst.  Athens, xii. (1887),
p. 161 (Regel); Mem. de l'Acad. des Inscriptions,
xxxix. 211; K. F. Hermann, Ges. Abh. 90-111, 370 in.

ABDICATION (Lat. abdicatio, disowning, renouncing,
from ab, from, and dicare, to declare, to proclaim as
not belonging to one), the act whereby a person in office
renounces and gives up the same before the expiry of the time
for which it is held.  In Roman law, the term is especially
applied to the disowning of a member of a family, as the
disinheriting of a son, but the word is seldom used except
in the sense of surrendering the supreme power in a state. 
Despotic sovereigns are at liberty to divest themselves of
their powers at any time, but it is otherwise with a limited
monarchy.  The throne of Great Britain cannot be lawfully
abdicated unless with the consent of the two Houses of
Parliament.  When James II., after throwing the great
seal into the Thames, fled to France in 1688, he did not
formally resign the crown, and the question was discussed
in parliament whether he had forfeited the throne or had
abdicated.  The latter designation was agreed on, for in a
full assembly of the Lords and Commons, met in convention,
it was resolved, in spite of James's protest, ``that King
James II. having endeavoured to subvert the constitution of
the kingdom, by breaking the original contract between king
and people, and, by the advice of Jesuits and other wicked
persons, having violated the fundamental laws, and having
withdrawn himself out of this kingdom, has abdicated the
government, and that the throne is thereby vacant.'' The
Scottish parliament pronounced a decree of forfeiture and
deposition.  Among the most memorable abdications of
antiquity may be mentioned that of Sulla the dictator, 79
B.C., and that of the Emperor Diocletian, A.D. 305. The
following is a list of the more important abdications of later

Benedict IX., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1048
Stephen II. of Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1131
Albert (the Bear) of Brandenburg . . . . . . . . . . 1169
Ladislaus III. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1206
Celestine V., pope . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dec. 13, 1294
John Baliol of Scotland  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296
John Cantacuzene, emperor of the East  . . . . . . . 1355
Richard II. of England . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 29, 1399
John XXIII., pope  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1415
Eric VII; of Denmark and XIII. of Sweden . . . . . . 1439
Murad II., Ottoman Sultan  . . . . . . . . .1444 and 1445
Charles V., emperor  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556
Christina of Sweden  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1654
John Casimir of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1618
James II. of England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1688
Frederick Augustus of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . 1704
Philip V. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1724
Victor Amadeus II. of Sardinia . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
Ahmed III., Sultan of Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . 1730
Charles of Naples (on accession to throne of Spain). 1759
Stanislaus II. of Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1795
Charles Emanuel IV. of Sardinia  . . . . . . June 4, 1802
Charles IV. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 19, 1808
Joseph Bonaparte of Naples . . . . . . . . . June 6, 1808
Gustavus IV. of Sweden . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 29, 1809
Louis Bonaparte of Holland . . . . . . . . . July 2, 1810
Napoleon I., French Emperor. . . . . . . . .April 4, 1814, and June 22, 1815
Victor Emanuel of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 13, 1821
Charles X. of France . . . . . . . . . . . . Aug. 2, 1830
Pedro of Brazil 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .April 7, 1831
Miguel of Portgual . . . . . . . . . . . . . May 26, 1834
William I. of Holland  . . . . . . . . . . . Oct. 7, 1840
Louis Philippe, king of the French . . . . .Feb. 24, 1848
Louis Charles of Bavaria . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 21, 1848
Ferdinand of Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . Dec. 2, 1848
Charles Albert of Sardinia . . . . . . . . .Mar. 23, 1849
Leopold II. of Tuscany . . . . . . . . . . .July 21, 1859
Isabella II. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . June 25, 1870
Amadeus I. of Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . Feb. 11, 1873
Alexander of Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . Sept. 7, 1886
Milan of Servia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mar. 6, 1889

1 Pedro had succeeded to the throne of Portugal in
1826, but abdicated it at once in favour of his daughter.

ABDOMEN (a Latin word, either from abdere, to hide,
or from a form adipomen, from adeps, fat), the belly,
the region of the body containing most of the digestive
organs. (See for anatomical details the articles ALIMENTARY
CANAL, and ANATOMY, Superficial and Artistic.)

ABDOMINAL SURGERY.---The diseases affecting this region
are dealt with generally in the article DIGESTIVE ORGANS,
and under their own names (e.g. APPENDICITIS). The term
``abdominal surgery'' covers generally the operations which
involve opening the abdominal cavity, and in modern times this
field of work has been greatly extended.  In this Encyclopaedia
the surgery of each abdominal organ is dealt with, for the
most part, in connexion with the anatomical description of
that organ (see STOMACH, KIDNEY, LIVER, &c.); but here the
general principles of abdominal surgery may be discussed.

Exploratory Laparotomy.---In many cases of serious intra-abdominal
disease it is impossible for the surgeon to say exactly
what is wrong without making an incision and introducing his
finger, or, if need be, his hand among the intestines.  With
due care this is not a perilous or serious procedure, and the
great advantage appertaining to it is daily being more fully
recognized.  It was Dr Oliver Wendell Holmes, the American
physiologist and poet, who remarked that one cannot say of
what wood a table is made without lifting up the cloth; so
also it is often impossible to say what is wrong inside the
abdomen without making an opening into it.  When an opening
is made in such circumstances---provided only it is done soon
enough--the successful treatment of the case often becomes a
simple matter.  An exploratory operation, therefore, should
be promptly resorted to as a means of diagnosis, and not left
as a last resource till the outlook is well-nigh hopeless.

It is probable that if the question were put to any experienced
hospital surgeon if he had often had cause to regret having
advised recourse to an exploratory operation on the abdomen,
his answer would be in the negative, but that, on the other
hand, he had not infrequently had cause to regret that he
had not resorted to it, post-mortem examination having
shown that if only he had insisted on an exploratioui being
made, some band, some adhesion, some tumour, some abscess
might have been satisfactorily dealt with, which, left
unsuspected in the dark cavity, was accountable for the
death.  A physician by himself is helpless in these cases.

Much of the rapid advance which has of late been made in
the results of abdominal surgery is due to the improved
relationship which exists between the public and the surgical
profession.  In former days it was not infrequently said, ``If
a surgeon is called in he is sure to operate.'' Not only have
the public said this, but even physicians have been known to
suggest it, and have indeed used the equivocal expression,
the ``apotheosis of surgery,'' in connexion with the operative
treatment of a serious abdominal lesion.  But fortunately
the public have found out that the surgeon, being an honest
man, does not advise operation unless he believes that it is
necessary or, at any rate, highly advisable.  And this happy
discovery has led to much more confidence being placed in his
decision.  It has truly been said that a surgeon is a physician
who can operate, and the public have begun to realize the fact
that it is useless to try to relieve an acute abdominal lesion
by diet or drugs.  Not many years ago cases of acute, obscure
or chronic affections of the abdomen which were admitted into
hospital were sent as a matter of course into the medical
wards, and after the effect of drugs had been tried with
expectancy and failure, the services of a surgeon were called
in.  In acute cases this delay spoilt all surgical chances, and
the idea was more widely spread that surgery, after all, was
a poor handmaid to medicine.  But now things are different. 
Acute or obscure abdominal cases are promptly relegated to
the surgical wards; the surgeon is at once sent for, and if
operation is thought desirable it is performed without any
delay.  The public have found that the surgeon is not a reckless
operator, but a man who can take a broad view of a case in all
its bearings.  And so it has come about that the results of
operations upon the interior of the abdomen have been improving
day by day.  And doubtless they will continue to improve.

A great impetus was given to the surgery of wounded, mortified
or diseased pieces of intestine by the introduction from
Chicago of an ingenious contrivance named, after the inventor,
Murphy's button. This consists of a short nickel-plated
tube in two pieces, which are rapidly secured in the divided
ends of the bowel, and in such a manner that when the
pieces are subsequently ``married'' the adjusted ends of
the bowel are securely fixed together and the canal rendered
practicable.  In the course of time the button loosens itself
into the interior of the bowel and comes away with the alvine
evacuation.  In many other cases the use of the button has
proved convenient and successful, as in the establishment of
a permanent communication between the stomach and the small
intestine when the ordinary gateway between these parts of
the alimentary canal is obstructed by an irremovable malignant
growth; between two parts of the small intestine so that
some obstruction may be passed; betw:en smal' and large
intestine.  The operative procedure goes by the name of
short-circuiting; it enables the contents of the bowel to get
beyond an obstruction.  In this way also a permanent working
communication can be set up between the gallbladder, or a
dilated bile-duct, and the neighbouring small intestine---the
last-named operation bears the precise but very clumsy name
of choledocoduodenostomy. By the use of Murphy's ingenious
apparatus the communication of two parts can be secured in
the shortest possible space of time, and this, in many of
the cases in which it is resorted to, is of the greatest
importance.  But there is this against the method---that
sometimes ulceration occurs around the rim of the metal button,
whilst at others the loosened metal causes annoyance in its
passage along the alimentary canal.  Some surgeons therefore
prefer to use a bobbin of decalcified bone or similar soft
material, while others rely upon direct suturing of the
parts.  The last-named method is gradually increasing in
popularity, and of course, when time and circumstances permit,
it is the ideal method of treatment.  The cause of death
in the case of intestinal obstruction is usually due to the
blood being poisoned by the absorption of the products of
decomposition of the fluid contents of the bowel above the
obstruction.  It is now the custom, therefore, for the surgeon to
complete his operation for the relief of obstruction by drawing
out a loop of the distended bowel, incising and evacuating
it, and then carefully suturing and returning it.  The surgeon
who first recognized the lethal effect of the absorption of
this stagnant fluid---or, at any rate, who first suggested the
proper method of treating it---was Lawson Tait of Birmingham,
who on the occurrence of grave symptoms after operating on
the abdomen gave small, repeated doses of Epsom salts to wash
away the harmful liquids of the bowel and to enable it at the
same time to empty itself of the gas, which, by distending the
intestines, was interfering with respiration and circulation.

Amongst still more recent improvements in abdominal surgery
may be mentioned the placing of the patient in the sitting
position as soon as practicable after the operation, and
the slow administration of a hot saline solution into the
lower bowel, or, in the more desperate cases, of injecting
pints of this ``normal saline'' fluid into the loose
tissue of the armpit.  Hot water thus administered or
injected is quickly taken into the blood, increasing its
volume, diluting its impurities and quenching the great
thirst which is so marked a symptom in this condition.

Gunshot wounds of the Abdomen.---If a revolver bullet passes
through the abdomen, the coils of intestine are likely to be
traversed by it in several places.  If the bullet be small and,
by chance, surgically clean, it is possible that the openings
may tightly close up behind it so that no leakage takes place
into the general peritoneal cavity.  If increasing collapse
suggests that serious bleeding is occurring within the abdomen,
the cavity is opened forthwith and a thorough exploration
made.  When it is uncettain lf the bowel has been traversed
or not, it is well to wait before opening the abdomen, due
preparation being made for performing that operation on the
first appearance of symptoms indicative of perforation having
occurred.  Small perforating wounds of the bowel are treated
by such suturing as the circumstances may suggest, the interior
of the abdominal cavity being rendered as free from septic
micro-organisms as possible.  It is by the malign influence of
such germs that a fatal issue is determined in the case of an
abdominal wound, whether inflicted by firearms or by a pointed
weapon.  If aseptic procedure can be promptly resorted
to and thoroughly carried out, abdominal wounds do well,
but these essentials cannot be obtained upon the field of
battle.  When after an action wounded men come pouring into
the field-hospital, the many cannot be kept waiting whilst
preparations are being made for the thorough carrying out
of a prolonged aseptic abdominal operation upon a solitary
case.  Experience in the South African war of 1899-1902 showed
that Mauser bullets could pierce coils of intestine and leave
the soldiers in such a condition that, if treated by mere
``expectancy,'' more than 50% recovered, whereas if operations
were resorted to, fatal septic peritonitis was likely to ensue. 
In the close proximity of the fight, where time, assistants,
pure water, towels, lotions and other necessaries for carrying
out a thoroughly aseptic operation cannot be forthcoming,
gunshot wounds of the abdomen had best not be interfered with.

Stabs of the abdomen are serious if they have penetrated the
abdominal wall, as, at the time of injury, septic germs may
have been introduced, or the bowel may have been wounded.  In
either case a fatal inflammation of the peritoneum may be set
up.  It is inadvisable to probe a wound in order to find out
if the belly-cavity has been penetrated, as the probe itself
might carry inwards septic germs.  In case of doubt it is
better to enlarge the wound in order to determine its depth,
and to disinfect and close it if it be non-penetrating.  If,
however, the bellycavity has been opened, the neighbouring
pieces of bowel should be examined, cleansed and, if need be,
sutured.  Should there have been an escape of the contents of
the bowel the ``toilet of the peritoneum'' would be duly made,
and a drainage-tube would be left in.  If the stab had injured
a large blood-vessel either of the abdominal cavity, or of the
hiver or of some other organ, the bleeding would be arrested
by ligature or suture, and the extravasated blood sponged
out.  Before the days of antiseptic surgery, and of exploratory
abdominal operations, these cases were generally allowed
to drift to almost certain death, unrecognized and almost
untreated: at the present time a large number of them are saved.

Intussusception.---This is a terribly fatal disease of
infants and children, in which a piece of bowel slips into,
and is gripped by, the piece next below it.  Formerly it was
generally the custom to endeavour to reduce the invagination
by passing air or water up the rectum under pressure--a
speculative method of treatment which sometimes ended in a
fatal rupture of the distended bowel, and often---one might
almost say generally--failed to do what was expected of
it.  The teaching of modern surgery is that a small incision
into the abdomen and a prompt withdrawal of the invaginated
piece of bowel can be trusted to do all that, and more than,
infection can effect, without blindly risking a rupture of the
bowel.  It is certain that when the surgeon is unable to
unravel the bowel with his fingers gently applied to the parts
themselves, no speculative distension of the bowel could
have been effective.  But the outlook in these distressing
cases, even when the operation is promptly resorted to, is
extremely grave, because of the intensity of the shock which
the intussusception and resulting strangulation entail. 
Still, every operation gives them by far the best chance.

Cancer of the Intestine.---With the introduction of aseptic
methods of operating, it has been found that the surgeon can
reach the bowel through the peritoneum easily and safely. 
With the peritoneum opened, moreover, he can explore the
diseased bowel and deal with it as circumstances suggest. 
If the cancerous mass is fairly movable the affected piece
of bowel is excised and the cut ends are spliced together,
and the continuity of the alimentary canal is permanently
re-established.  Thus in the case of cancer of the large
intestine which is not too far advanced, the surgeon expects
to be able not only to relieve the obstruction of the bowel,
but actually to cure the patient of his disease.  When the
lowest part of the bowel was found to be occupied by a cancerous
obstruction, the surgeon used formerly to secure an easy escape
for the contents of the bowel by making an opening into the
colon in the left loin.  But in recent years this operation of
lumbar colotomy has been almost entirely replaced by opening
the colon in the left groin.  This operation of iniguinal
colotomy is usually divided into two stages: a loop of the
large intestine is first drawn out through the abdominal
wound and secured by stitches, and a few days afterwards,
when it is firmly glued in place by adhesive inflammation,
it is cut across, so that subsequently the motions can no
longer find their way into the bowel below the artificial
anus.  If at the first stage of the operation symptoms of
obstruction are urgent, one of the ingenious glass tubes
with a rubber conduit, which Mr F. T. Paul has invented,
may be forthwith introduced into the distended bowel, so
that the contents may be allowed to escape without fear of
soiling the peritoneum or even the surface-wound. (E. O.*)

ABDUCTION (Lat. abductio, abducere, to lead away), a
law term denoting the forcible or fraudulent removal of a
person, limited by custom to the case where a woman is the
victim.  In the case of men or children, it has been usual
to substitute the term kidnapping (q.v.).  The old English
laws against abduction, generally contemplating its object
as the possession of an heiress and her fortune, have been
repealed by the Offences against the Person Act 1861, which
makes it felony for any one from motives of lucre to take
away or detain against her will with intent to marry or
carnally know her, &c., any woman of any age who has any
interest in any real or personal estate, or is an heiress
presumptive, or co-heiress, or presumptive next of kin to
any one having such an interest; or for any one to cause
such a woman to be married or carnally known by any other
person; or for any one with such intent to allure, take
away, or detain any such woman under the age of twenty-one,
out of the possession and against the will of her parents or
guardians.  By s. 54, forcible taking away or detention
against her will of any woman of any age with like intent is
felony.  The same act makes abduction without eyen any such
intent a misdemeanour, where an unmarried girl under the
age of sixteen is unlawfully taken out of the possession and
against the will of her parents or guardians.  In such a case
the girl's consent is immaterial, nor is it a defence that the
person charged reasonably believed that the girl was sixteen or
over.  The Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885 made still more
stringent provisions with reference to abduction by making
the procuration or attempted procuration of any virtuous
female under the age of twenty-one years a misdemeanour, as
well as the abduction of any girl under eighteen years of
age with the intent that she shall be carnally known, or the
detaining of any female against her will on any premises,
with intent to have, or that another person may have, carnal
knowledge of her.  In Scotland, where there is no statutory
adjustment, abduction is similarly dealt with by practice.

ABD-UL-AZIZ (1830-1876), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan
Mahmud II., was born on the 9th of February 1830, and
succeeded his brother Abd-ul-Mejid in 1861.  His personal
interference in government affairs was not very marked, and
extended to little more than taking astute advantage of the
constant issue of State loans during his reign to acquire
wealth, which was squandered in building useless palaces
and in other futile ways: he is even said to have profited,
by means of ``bear'' sales, from the default on the Turkish
debt in 1875 and the consequent fall in prices.  Another
source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive
of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of
1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made
hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order
of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of
1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.  It
is, however, only fair to add that the sultan was doubtless
influenced by the desire to bring about a similar change
in the succession to the Ottoman throne and to ensure the
succession after him of his eldest son, Yussuf Izz-ed-din. 
Abd-ul-Aziz visited Europe in 1867, being the first Ottoman
sultan to do so, and was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen
Victoria.  In 1869 he received the visits of the emperor of
Austria, the Empress Eugenie and other foreign princes, on their
way to the opening of the Suez Canal, and King Edward VII.,
while prince of Wales, twice visited Gonstantinople during his
reign.  The mis-government and financial straits of the
country brought on the outbreak of Mussulman discontent and
fanaticism which eventually culminated in the murder of two
consuls at Salonica and in the ``Bulgarian atrocities,'' and
cost Abd-ul-Aziz his throne.  His deposition on the 30th of
May 1876 was hailed with joy throughout Turkey; a fortnight
later he was found dead in the palace where he was confined,
and trustworthy medical evidence attributed his death to
suicide.  Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din,
born 1857; Princess Salina, wife of Kurd Ismall Pasha;
Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid,
born 1869; Prince Self-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine,
wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.

ABD-UL-HAMID I.,(1725-1789), sultan of Turkey, son of Ahmed
III., succeeded his brother Mustafa III. in 1773.  Long
confinement in the palace aloof from state affairs had left
him pious, God-fearing and pacific in disposition.  At his
accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that
the usual donative could not be given to the janissaries.  War
was, however, forced on him, and less than a year after his
accession the complete defeat of the Turks at Kozluja led
to the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji ( 21st July 1774), the most
disastrous, especially in its after effects, that Turkey
has ever been obliged to conclude. (See TURKEY.) Slight
successes in Syria and the Morea against rebellious outbreaks
there could not compensate for the loss of the Crimea, which
Russia soon showed that she meant to absorb entirely.  In
1787 war was again declared against Russia, joined in the
following year by Austria, Joseph II. being entirely won over to
Catherine, whom he accompanied in her triumohal progress in the
Crimea.  Turkey held her own against the Austrians, but in
1788 Ochakov fell to the Russians.  Four months later, on
the 7th of April 1789, the sultan died, aged sixty-four.

ABD-UL-HAMID II. (1842- ), sultan of Turkey, son of Sultan
Abd-ul-Mejid, was born on the 21st of September 1842, and
succeeded to the throne on the deposition of his brother Murad
V., on the 31st of August 1876.  He accompanied his uncle
Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz on his visit to England and France in
1867.  At his accession spectators were struck by the fearless
manner in which he rode, practically unattended, on his way
to be girt with the sword of Eyub.  He was supposed to be of
liberal principles, and the more conservative of his subjects
were for some years after his accession inclined to regard him
with suspicion as a too ardent reformer.  But the circumstances
of the country at his accession were ill adapted for liberal
developments.  Default in the public funds and an empty
treasury, the insurrection in Bosnia and the Herzegovina, the
war with Servia and Montenegro, the feeling aroused throughout
Europe by the methods adopted in stamping out the Bulgarian
rebellion, all combined to prove to the new sultan that he
could expect little aid from the Powers.  But, still clinging
to the groundless belief, for which British statesmen had, of
late at least, afforded Turkey no justification, that Great
Britain at all events would support him, he obstinately refused
to give ear to the pressing requests of the Powers that the
necessary reforms should be instituted.  The international
Conference which met at Constantinople towards the end of
1876 was, indeed, startled by the salvo of guns heralding
the promulgation of a constitution, but the demands of the
Conference were rejected, in spite of the solemn warnings
addressed to the sultan by the Powers; Midhat Pasha, the
author of the constitution, was exiled; and soon afterwards
his work was suspended, though figuring to this day on the
Statute-Book.  Early in 1877 the disastrous war with Russia
followed.  The hard terms, embodied in the treaty of San
Stefano, to which Abd-ul-Hamid was forced to consent, were
to some extent amended at Berlin, thanks in the main to
British diplomacy (see EUROPE, History); but by this
time the sultan had lost all confidence in England, and
thought that he discerned in Germany, whose supremacy was
evidenced in his eyes by her capital being selected as the
meeting-place of the Congress, the future friend of Turkey. 
He hastened to employ Germans for the reorganization of his
finances and his army, and set to work in the determination to
maintain his empire in spite of the difficulties surrounding
him, to resist the encroachments of foreigners, and to take
gradually the reins of absolute power into his own hands,
being animated by a profound distrust, not unmerited, of his
ministers.  Financial embarrassments forced him to consent to
a foreign control over the Debt, and the decree of December
1881, whereby many of the revenues of the empire were handed
over to the Public Debt Administration for the benefit of the
bondholders, was a sacrifice of principle to which he could
only have consented with the greatest reluctance.  Trouble in
Egypt, where a discredited khedive had to be deposed, trouble
on the Greek frontier and in Montenegro, where the Powers were
determined that the decisions of the Berlin Congress should
be carried into effect, were more or less satisfactorily got
over.  In his attitude towards Arabi, the would-be saviour of
Egypt, Abd-ul-Hamid showed less than his usual astuteness, and
the resulting consolidation of England's hold over the country
contributed still further to his estrangement from Turkey's old
ally.  The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the
severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin
Congress, was another blow.  Few people south of the Balkans
dreamed that Bulgaria could be anything but a Russian province,
and apprehension was entertained of the results of the union
until it was seen that Russia really and entirely disapproved of
it.  Then the best was made of it, and for some years the sultan
preserved towards Bulgaria an attitude skilfully calculated
so as to avoid running counter either to Russian or to German
wishes.  Germany's friendship was not entirely disinterested,
and had to be fostered with a railway or loan concession from
time to time, until in 1899 the great object aimed at, the
Bagdad railway, was conceded.  Meanwhile, aided by docile
instruments, the sultan had succeeded in reducing his ministers
to the position of secretaries, and in concentrating the
mhole administration of the country into his own hands at
Yildiz.  But internal dissension was not thereby lessened. 
Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied,
and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation
with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at
Berlin.  Minor troubles had occurred in 1892 and 1893 at
Marsovan and Tokat.  In 1894 a more serious rebellion in
the mountainous region of Sassun was ruthlessly stamped
out; the Powers insistently demanded reforms, the eventual
grant of which in the autumn of 1895 was the signal for a
series of massacres, brought on in part by the injudicious
and threatening acts of the victims, and extending over many
months and throughout Asia Minor, as well as in the capital
itself.  The reforms became more or less a dead letter. 
Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges,
but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early
in 1897 a Greek expedition salled to unite the island to
Greece.  War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful
and gained a small rectification of frontier; then .a few
months later Crete was taken over ``en depot'' by the Four
Powers---Germany and Austria not participating,---and Prince
George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.  In the next year
the sultan received the visit of the German emperor and empress.

Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European
Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only
to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam
against aggressive Christendom.  The Panislamic propaganda
was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman
Empire-often an obstacle to government--were curtailed; the
new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries
were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the
caliph's supremacy.  This appeal to Moslem sentiment was,
however, powerless against the disaffection due to perennial
misgovernment.  In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was
endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained
in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system
of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while,
obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew
himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.

The national humiliation of the situation in Macedonia
(q.v.), together with the resentment in the army against
the palace spies and informers, at last brought matters to a
crisis.  The remarkable revolution associated with the names
of Niazi Bey and Enver Bey, the young Turk leaders, and
the Committee of Union and Progress is described elsewhere
(see TURKEY: History); here it must suffice to say that
Abd-ul-Hamid, on learning of the threat of the Salonica troops
to march on Constantinople (July 23), at once capitulated. 
On the 24th an irade announced the restoration of the
suspended constitution of 1875; next day, further irades
abolished espionage and the censorship, and ordered the
release of political prisoners.  On the 10th of December
the sultan opened the Turkish parliament with a speech
from the throne in which he said that the first parliament
had been ``temporarily dissolved until the education of
the people had been brought to a sufficiently high level
by the extension of instruction throughout the empire.''

The correct attitude of the sultan did not save him from
the suspicion of intriguing with the powerful reactionary
elements in the state, a suspicion confirmed by his attitude
towards the counter-revolution of the 13th of April, when
an insurrection of the soldiers and the Moslem populace of
the capital overthrew the committee and the ministry.  The
comittee, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on
Abdul-Hamid's deposition, and on the 27th of April his brother
Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V. The
ex-sultan was conveyed into dignified captivity at Salonica.

ABD-UL-MEJID (1823-.1861), sultan of Turkey, was born on
the 23rd of April 1823, and succeeded his father Mahmud II.
on the 2nd of July 1839.  Mahmud appears to have been unable
to effect the reforms he desired in the mode of educating
his children, so that his son received no better education
than that given, according to use and wont, to Turkish
princes in the harem.  When Abd-ul-Mejid succeeded to the
throne, the affairs of Turkey were in an extremely critical
state.  At the very time his father died, the news was on
its way to Constantinople that the Turkish army had been
signally defeated at Nezib by that of the rebel Egyptian
viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was at the same
time on its way to Alexandria, where it was handed over by its
commander, Ahmed Pasha, to the same enemy, on the pretext
that the young sultan's advisers were sold to Russia.  But
through the intervention of the European Powers Mehemet Ali
was obliged to come to terms, and the Ottoman empire was saved.
(See MEHEMET ALI.) In compliance with his father's express
instructions, Abd-ul-Mejid set at once about carrying out
the reforms to which Mahmud had devoted himself.  In November
1839 was proclaimed an edict, known as the Hatt-i-sherif of
Dulhane, consolidating and enforcing these reforms, which
was supplemented at the close of the Crimean war by a similar
statute issued in February 1856.  By these enactments it was
provided that all classes of the sultan's subjects should
have security for their lives and property; that taxes should
be fairly imposed and justice impartially administered; and
that all should have full religious liberty and equal civil
rights.  The scheme met with keen opposition from the Mussulman
governing classes and the ulema, or privileged religious
teachers, and was but partially put in force, especially in
the remoter parts of the empire; and more than one conspiracy
was formed against the sultan's life on account of it.  Of
the other measures of reform promoted by Abd-ul-Mejid the more
important were---the reorganization of the army (1843-1844),
the institution of a council of public instruction (1846),
the abolition of an odious and unfairly imposed capitation
tax, the repression of slave trading, and various provisions
for the better administration of the public service and for
the advancement of commerce.  For the public history of his
times--the disturbances and insurrections in different parts of
his dominions throughout his reign, and the great war successfully
carried on against Russia by Turkey, and by England, France and
Sardinia, in the interest of Turkey(1853-1856)-- see TURKEY,
and CRIMEAN WAR. When Kossuth and others sought refuge in
Turkey, after the failure of the Hungarian rising in 1849,
the sultan was called on by Austria and Russia to surrender
them, but boldly and determinedly refused.  It is to his
credit, too, that he would not allow the conspirators against
his own life to be put to death.  He bore the character of
being a kind and honourable man, if somewhat weak and easily
led.  Against this, however, must be set down his excessive
extravagance, especially towards the end of his life.  He
died on the 25th of June 1861, and was succeeded by his
brother, Abd-ul-Aziz, as the oldest survivor of the family of
Osman.  He left several sons, of whom two, Murad V. and
Abd-ul-Hamid II., eventually succeeded to the throne.  In his
reign was begun the reckless system of foreign loans, carried
to excess in the ensuing reign, and culminating in default,
which led to the alienation of European sympathy from Turkey
and, indirectly, to the dethronement and death of Abd-ul-Aziz.

ABDUR RAHMAN KHAN, amir of Afghanistan (c. 1844-1901),
was the son of Afzul Khan, who was the eldest son of Dost
Mahomed Khan, the famous amir, by whose success in war the
Barakzai family established their dynasty in the rulership of
Afghanistan.  Before his death at Herat, 9th June 1863, Dost
Mahomed had nominated as his successor Shere Ali, his third
son, passing over the two elder brothers, Afzul Khan and Azim
Khan; and at first the new amir was quietly recognized.  But
after a few months Afzul Khan raised an insurrection in the
northern province, between the Hindu Kush mountains and the
Oxus, where he had been governing when his father died; and
then began a fierce contest for power among the sons of Dost
Mahomed, which lasted for nearly five years.  In this war,
which resembles in character, and in its striking vicissitudes,
the English War of the Roses at the end of the 15th century,
Abdur Rahman soon became distinguished for ability and daring
energy.  Although his father, Afzul Khan, who had none of
these qualities, came to terms with the Amir Shere Ali, the
son's behaviour in the northern province soon excited the
amir's suspicion, and Abdur Rahman: when he was summoned to
Kabul, fled across the Oxus into Bokhara.  Shere Ali threw
Afzul Khan into prison, and a serious revolt followed in
south &fghanistan; but the amir had scarcely suppressed it by
winning a desperate battle, when Abdur Rahman's reapearance
in the north was a signal for a mutiny of the troops
stationed in those parts and a gathering of armed bands to his
standard.  After some delay and desultory fighting, he and
his uncle, Azim Khan, occupied Kabul (March 1866).  The amir
Shere All marched up against them from Kandahar; but in the
battle that ensued at Sheikhabad on 10th May he was deserted
by a large body of his troops, and after his signal defeat
Abdur Rahman released his father, Afzul Elian, from prison
in Ghazni, and installed him upon the throne as amir of
Afghanistan.  Notwithstanding the new amir's incapacity, and
some jealousy between the real leaders, Abdur Rahman and his
uncle, they again routed Shere All's forces, and occupied
Kandahar in 1867; and when at the end of that year Afzul Khan
died, Azim Khan succeeded to the rulership, with Abdur Rahman
as his governor in the northern province.  But towards the end
of 1868 Shere Ali's return, and a general rising in his favour,
resulting in their defeat at Tinah Khan on the 3rd of January
1869, forced them both to seek refuge in Persia, whence Abdur
Rahman proceeded afterwards to place himself under Russian
protection at Samarkand.  Azim died in Persia in October 1869.

This brief account of the conspicuous part taken by Abdur
Rahman in an eventful war, at the beginning of which he was
not more than twenty years old, has been given to show the
rough school that brought out his qualities of resource and
fortitude, and the political capacity needed for rulership in
Afghanistan.  He lived in exile for eleven years, until on the
death, in 1879, of Shere Ali, who had retired from Kabul when the
British armies entered Afghanistan, the Russian governorgeneral
at Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman, and pressed him to try his
fortunes once more across the Oxus.  In March 1880 a report
reached India that he was in northern Afghanistan; and the
governor-general, Lord Lytton, opened communications with him
to the effect that the British government were prepared to
withdraw their troops, and to recognize Abdur Rahman as amir of
Afghanistan, with the exception of Kandahar and some districts
adjacent.  After some negotiations, an interview took place
between him and Mr (afterwards Sir) Lepel Griffin, the
diplomatic representative at Kabub of the Indian government,
who described Abdur Rahman as a man of middle height, with
an exceedingly intelligent face and frank and courteous
manners, shrewd and able in conversation on the business in
hand.  At the durbar on the 22nd of July 1880, Abbdur Rahman
was officially recognized as amir, granted assistance in
arms and money, and promised, in case of unprovoked foreign
aggression, such further aid as might be necessary to repel
it, provided that he followed British advice in regard to
his external relations.  The evacuation of Afghanistan was
settled on the terms proposed, and in 1881 the British troops
also made over Kandahar to the new amir; but Ayub Khan,
one of Shere Ali's sons, marched upon that city from Herat,
defeated Abdur Rahman's troops, and occupied the place in
July.  This serious reverse roused the amir, who had not
at first displayed much activity.  He led a force from
Kabul, met Ayub's army close to Kandahar, and the complete
victory which he there won forced Ayub Khan to fly into
Persia.  From that time Abdur Rahman was fairly seated on the
throne at Kabul, and in the course of the next few years he
consolidated his dominion over all Afghanistan, suppressing
insurrections by a sharp and relentless use of his despotic
authority.  Against the severity of his measures the powerful
Ghilzai tribe revolted, and were crushed by the end of 1887. 
In that year Ayub Khan made a,fruitless inroad from Persia;
and in 1888 the amir's cousin, Ishak Khan, rebelled against
him in the north; but these two enterprises came to nothing.

In 1885, at the moment when (see AFGHANISTAN) the amir
was in conference with the British viceroy, Lord Dufferin,
in India, the news came of a collision between Russian
and Afghan troops at Panjdeh, over a disputed point in the
demarcation of the north-western frontier of Afghanistan. 
Abdur Rahman's attitude at this critical juncture is a good
example of his political sagacity.  To one who had been a man
of war from his youth up, who had won and lost many fights,
the rout of a detachment and the forcible seizure of some
debateable frontier lands was an untoward incident; but it
was no sufficent reason for calling upon the British, although
they had guaranteed his territory's integrity, to vindicate
his rights by hostilities which would certainly bring upon
him a Russian invasion from the north, and would compel his
British allies to throw an army into Afghanistan from the
south-east.  His interest lay in keeping powerful neighbours,
whether friends or foes, outside his kingdom.  He knew this
to be the only policy that would be supported by the Afghan
nation; and although for some time a rupture with Russia seemed
imminent, while the Indian government made ready for that
contingency, the amir's reserved and circumspect tone in the
consultations with him helped to turn the balance between
peace and war, and substantially conduced towards a pacific
solution.  Abdur Rahman left on those who met him in India
the impression of a clear-headed man.of action, with great
self-reliance and hardihood, not without indications of the
implacable severity that too often marked his administration. 
His investment with the insignia of the highest grade of the
Order of the Star of India appeared to give him much pleasure.

From the end of 1888 the amir passed eighteen months in
his northern provinces bordering upon the Oxus, where
he was engaged in pacifying the country that had been
disturbed by revolts, and in punishing with a heavy hand
all who were known or suspected to have taken any part in
rebellion.  Shortly afterwards (1892) he succeeded in
finally beating down the resistance of the Hazara tribe, who
vainly attempted to defend their immemorial independence,
within their highlands, of the central authority at Kabul.

In 1893 Sir Henry Durand was deputed to Kabul by the government
of India for the purpose of settling an exchange of territory
required bu the demarcation of the boundary between north-eastern
Afghanistan and the Russian possessions, and in order to discuss
with the amir other pending questions.  The amir showed his
usual ability in diplomatic argument, his tenacity where his
own views or claims were in debate, with a sure underlying
insight into the real situation.  The territorial exchanges
were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and
Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and
an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult
subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards
India.  In 1895 the amir found himself unable, by reason of
ill-health, to accept an invitation from Queen Victoria to visit
England; hut his second son Nasrullah Khan went in his stead.

Abdur Rahman died on the 1st of October 1901, being succeeded
by his son Habibullah.  He had defeated all enterprises by
rivals against his throne; he had broken down the power of
local chiefs, and tamed the refractory tribes; so that his
orders were irresistible throughout the whole dominion. 
His government was a military despotism resting upon a
well-appointed army; it was administered through officials
absolutely subservient to an inflexible will and controlled
by a widespread system of espionage; while the exercise
of his personal authority was too often stained by acts of
unnecessary cruelty.  He held open courts for the receipt
of petitioners and the dispensation of justice; and in the
disposal of business he was indefatigable.  He succeeded in
imposing an organized government upon the fiercest and most
unruly population in Asia; he availed himself of European
inventions for strengthening his armament, while he sternly
set his face against all innovations which, like railways
and telegraphs, might give Europeans a foothold within his
country.  His adventurous life, his forcible character,
the position of his state as a barrier between the Indian
and the Russian empires, and the skill with which he held
the balance in dealing with them, combined to make him a
prominent figure in contemporary Asiatic politics and will
mark his reign as an epoch in the history of Afghanistan.

The amir received an annual subsidy from the British
government of 18-1/2 lakhs of rupees.  He was allowed to
import munitions of War. In 1896 he adopted the title of
Tia-ul-hlillat-ud Din (Light of the nation and religion);
and his zeal for the cause of Islam induced him to publish
treatises on Jehad.  His eldest son Habibullah Khan, with
his brother Nasrullah Khan, was born at Samarkand.  His
youngest son, Mahomed Omar Jan, was born in 1889 of an Afghan
mother, connected by descent with the Barakzai family.

See also S. Wheeler, F.R.G.S., The Amir Abdur Rahman (London,
1895); The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, G.C.B.,
G.C.S.L, edited by Mir Munshi, Sultan Mahommed Khan (2 vols.,
London, 1900); At the Court of the Amir, by J. A. Grey (1895).
(A. C. L.)
ABECEDARIANS, a nickname given to certain extreme
Anabaptists (q.v.), who regarded the teaching of the Holy
Spirit as all that was necessary, and so despised all human
learning and even the power of reading the written word.

A BECKETT, GILBERT ARBOTT (1811-1856), English writer, was
born in north London on the 9th of January 1811.  He belonged
to a family claiming descent from the father of St Thomas
Becket.  His elder brother, Sir William a Beckett (1806-1869),
became chief justice of Victoria (Australia).  Gilbert Abbott
a Beckett was educated at Westminster school, and was called
to the bar at Gray's Inn in 1841.  He edited Figaro in
London, and was one of the original staff of Punch and
a contributor all his life.  He was an active journalist on
The Times and The Morning Herald, contributed a series
of light articles to The Illustrated London News, conducted
in 1846 The Almanack of the Month and found time to produce
some fifty or sixty plays, among them dramatized versions of
Dickens's shorter stories in collaboration with Mark Lemon. 
As poor-law commissioner he presented a valuable report to the
home secretary regarding scandals in connexion with the Andover
Union, and in 1849 he became a metropolitan pouce magistrate. 
He died at Boulogne on the 30th of August 1856 of typhus fever.

His eldest son GILBERT ARTHUR A BECKETT (1837-1891) was born
at Hammersmith on the 7th of April 1837.  He went up to Christ
Church, Oxford, as a Westminster scholar in 1855, graduating in
1860.  He was entered at Lincoln's Inn, but gave his attention
chiefly to the drama, producing Diamonds and Hearts at
the Haymarket in 1867, which was followed by other light
comedies.  His pieces include numerous burlesques and
pantomimes, the libretti of Savonarola (Hamburg, 1884) and
of The Canterbury Pilgrims (Drury Lane, 1884) for the music
of Dr (afterwards Sir) C. V. Stanford. The Happy Land (Court
Theatre, 1873), a political burlesque of W. S. Gilbert's Wicked
World, was written in collaboration with F. L. Tomline. 
For the last ten years of his life he was on the regular staff
of Punch. His health was seriously affected in 1889 by the
death of his only son, and he died on the 15th of October 1891.

A younger son, ARTHUR WILLIAM A BECKETT (1844--1909), a
well-known journalist and man of letters, was also on the
staff of Punch from 1874 to 1902, and gave an account of his
father and his own reminiscences in The A Becketts of Punch
(1903).  He died in London on the 14th of January 1909.

See also M. H. Spielmann, The History of Punch (1895).

ABEDNEGO, the name given in Babylon to Azariah, one of
the companions of Daniel (Dan. i. 7, &c.).  It is probably a
corruption, perhaps deliberate, of Abednebo, ``servant of
Nebo,'' though G. Hoffmann thinks that the original form was
Abednergo, for Abednergal, ``servant of the god Nergal.'' C.
H. Toy compares Barnebo, ``son of Nebo''; of which he regards
Barnabas as a slightly disguised form (Jewish Encyclopaedia).

ABEKEN, HEINRICH (1809-1872), German theologian and
Prussian official, was born at Berlin on the 8th of August
1809.  He studied theology at Berlin and in 1834 became
chaplain to the Prussian embassy in Rome.  In 1841 he visited
England, being commissioned by King Frederick William IV.
to make arrangements for the establishment of the Protestant
bishopric of Jerusalem.  In 1848 he received an appointment
in the Prussian ministry for foreign affairs, and in 1853
was promoted to be privy councillor of legation (Geheimer
Legationsrath).  He was much employed by Bismarck in the
writing of official despatches, and stood high in the favour
of King William, whom he often accompanied on his journeys
as representative of the foreign office.  He was present with
the king during the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71.  In 1851 he
published anonymously Babylon unnd Jerusalem, a slashing
criticism of the views of the Countess von Hahn-Hahn (q.v.).

See Heinrich Abeken, ein schlichtes Leben in bewegter Zeit
(Berlin, 1898), by his widow.  This is valuable by reason
of the letters written from the Prussian headquarters.

ABEL (Hebrew for breath), the second son of Adam, slain
by Cain, his elder brother (Gen. iv. 1-16).  The narrative
in Genesis which tells us that ``the Lord had respect unto
Abel and to his offering, but unto Cain and to his offering
he had not respect,'' is supplemented by the statement of the
New Testament, that ``by faith Abel offered unto God a more
excellent sacrifice than Cain'' (Heb. xi. 4), and that Cain
slew Abel ``because his own works were evil and his brother's
righteous'' (1 John iii. 12). See further under CAIN.  The
name has been identified with the Assyrian ablu, ``son,'' but
this is far from certain.  It more probably means ``herdsman''
(cf. the name Jabal), and a distinction is drawn between the
pastoral Abel and the agriculturist Cain.  If Cain is the eponym
of the Kenites it is quite possible that Abel was originally
a South Judaean demigod or hero; on this, see Winckler,
Gesch.  Israels, ii. p. 189; E. Meyer, Israelitein, p.
395. A sect of Abelitae, who seem to have lived in North
Africa, is mentioned by Augustine (De Haeresibus, lxxxvi.).

chemist, was born in London on the 17th of July 1827.  After
studying chemistry for six years under A. W. von Hofmann at the
Royal College of Chemistry (established in London in 1845), he
became professor of chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in
1851, and three years later was appointed chemist to the War
Department and chemical referee to the government.  During
his tenure of this office, which lasted until 1888, he carried
out a large amount of work in connexion with the chemistry of
explosives.  One of the most important of his investigations
had to do with the manufacture of guncotton, and he developed
a process, consisting essentially of reducing the nitrated
cotton to fine pulp, which enabled it to be prepared with
practically no danger and at the same time yielded the
product in a form that increased its usefulness.  This work
to an important extent prepared the way for the ``smokeless
powders'' which came into general use towards the end of the
19th century; cordite, the particular form adopted by the
British government in 1891, was invented jointly by him and
Professor James Dewar.  Our knowledge of the explosion of
ordinary black powder was also greatly added to by him, and
in conjunction with Sir Andrew Noble he carried out one of
the most complete inquiries on record into its behaviour when
fired.  The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for
the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another
piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official
position.  His first instrument, the open-test apparatus, was
prescribed by the act of 1868, but, being found to possess
certain defects, it was superseded in 1879 by the Abel close-test
instrument (see PETROLEUM).  In electricity Abel studied
the construction of electrical fuses and other applications
of electricity to warlike purposes, and his work on problems
of steel manufacture won him in 1897 the Bessemer medal of the
Iron and Steel Institute, of which from 1891 to 1893 he was
president.  He was president of the Institution of Electrical
Engineers (then the Society of Telegraph Engineers) in
1877.  He became a member of the Royal Society in 1860,
and received a royal medal in 1887.  He took an important
part in the work of the Inventions Exhibition (London) in
1885, and in 1887 became organizing secretary and first
director of the Imperial Institute, a position he held till
his death, which occurred in London on the 6th of September
1902.  He was knighted in 1891, and created a baronet in 1893.

Among his books were--Handbook of Chemistry (with C. L.
Bloxam), Modern History of Gunpowder (1866), Gun-cotton
(1866), On Explosive Agents (1872), Researches in
Explosives (1875), and Electricity applied to Explosive
Purposes (1884).  He also wrote several important articles
in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

ABEL, KARL FRIEDRICH (1725-1787), German musician, was
born in Kothen in 1725, and died on the 20th of June 1787 in
London.  He was a great player on the viola da gamba,
and composed much music of importance in its day for that
instrument.  He studied under Johann Sebastian Bach at
the Leipzig Thomasschule; played for ten years (1748-1758)
under A. Hasse in the band formed at Dresden by the elector
of Saxony; and then, going to England, became (in 1759)
chamber-musician to Queen Charlotte.  He gave a concert
of his own compositions in London, performing on various
instruments, one of which, the pentachord, was newly
invented.  In 1762 Johann Christian Bach, the eleventh son
of Sebastian, came to London, and the friendship between
him and Abel led, in 1764 or 1765, to the establishment of
the famous concerts subsequently known as the Bach and Abel
concerts.  For ten years these were organized by Mrs Comelys,
whose enterprises were then the height of fashion.  In 1775
the concerts became independent of her, and were continued
by Abel unsuccessfully for a year after Bach's death in
1782.  At them the works of Haydn were first produced in
England.  After the failure of his concert undertakings
Abel still remained in great request as a player on various
instruments new and old, but he took to drink and thereby
hastened his death.  He was a man of striking presence, of whom
several fine portraits, including two by Gainsborough, exist.

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK (1802-1829), Norwegian mathematician,
was born at Findoe on the 25th of August 1802.  In 1815 he
entered the cathedral school at Christiania, and three years
later he gave proof of his mathematical genius by his brilliant
solutions of the original problems proposed by B. Holmboe. 
About this time, his father, a poor Protestant minister,
died, and the family was left in straitened circumstances;
but a small pension from the state allowed Abel to enter
Christiania University in 1821.  His first notable work was a
proof of the impossibility of solving the quintic equation by
radicals.  This investigation was first published in 1824
and in abstruse and difficult form, and afterwards (1826)
more elaborately in the first volume of Crelle's Journal. 
Further state aid enabled him to visit Germany and France in
1825, and having visited the astronomer Heinrich Schumacher
(178-1850) at Hamburg, he spent six months in Berlin, where
he became intimate with August Leopold Crelle, who was then
about to publish his mathematical journal.  This project
was warmly encouraged by Abel, who contributed much to the
success of the venture.  From Berlin he passed to Freiberg,
and here he made his brilliant researches in the theory of
functions, elliptic, hyperelliotic and a new class known as
Abelians being particularly studied.  In 1826 he moved to
Paris, and during a ten months' stay he met the leading
mathematicians of France; but he was little appreciated, for
his work was scarcely known, and his modesty restrained him
from proclaiming his researches.  Pecuniary embarrassments,
from which he had never been free, finally compelled him
to abandon his tour, and on his return to Norway he taught
for some time at Christiania.  In 1829 Crelle obtained a
post for him at Berlin, but the offer did not reach Norway
until after his death near Arendal on the 6th of April.

The early death of this talented mathematician, of whom
Legendre said ``quelle tete celle du jeune Norvegien!'',
cut short a career of extraordinary brilliance and promise. 
Under Abel's guidance, the prevailing obscurities of analysis
began to be cleared, new fields were entered upon and the
study of functions so advanced as to provide mathematicians
with numerous ramifications along which progress could be
made.  His works, the greater part of which originally
appeared in Crelle's Journal, were edited by Holmbor and
published in 1839 by the Swedish government, and a more
complete edition by L. Sylow and S. Lie was published in 1881.

For further details of his mathematical investigations see the

See C. A. Bjerknes, Niels Henrik Abel: Tableau de sa
vie et son action scientifique (Paris, 1885); Lucas
de Peslouan, Niels Henrik Abel (Paris, 1906).

ABEL (better ABELL), THOMAS (d. 1540), an English priest
who was martyred during the reign of Henry VIII.  The place
and date of his birth are unknown.  He was educated at Oxford
and entered the service of Queen Catherine some time before
1528, when he was sent by her to the emperor Charles V. on a
mission relating to the proposed divorce.  On his return he
was presented by Catherine to the living of Bradwell, in Essex,
and remained to the last a staunch supporter of the unfortunate
queen.  In 1533, he published his Invicta Veritas (with
the fictitious pressmark of Luneberge, to avoid suspicion),
which contained an answer to the numerous tracts supporting
Henry's ecclesiastical claims.  After an imprisonment of more
than six years, Abel was sentenced to death for denying the
royal supremacy in the church, and was executed at Smithfield
on the 30th of July 1540.  There is still to be seen on the
wall of his prison in the Tower the symbol of a bell with
an A upon it and the name Thomas above, winch he carved
during his confinement.  He was beatified by Pope Leo XIII.

See J. Gillow's Bibl.  Dictionary of Eng. Catholics, vol. i.;
Calendar of State Papers of Henry VIII., vols. iv.-vii. passim.

ABELARD, PETER (1079-1142), scholastic philosopher, was born
at Pallet (Palais), not far from Nantes, in 1079.  He was the
eldest son of a noble Breton house.  The name Abaelardus
(also written Abailardus, Abaielardus, and in many other
ways) is said to be a corruption of Habelardus, substituted
by himself for a nickname Bajolardus given to him when a
student.  As a boy, he showed an extraordinary quickness of
apprehension, and, choosing a learned life instead of the
knightly career natural to a youth of his birth, early became
an adept in the art of dialectic, under which name philosophy,
meaning at that time chiefly the logic of Aristotle transmitted
through Latin channels, was the great subject of liberal
study in the episcopal schools.  Roscellinus, the famous
canon of Compiegne, is mentioned by himself as his teacher;
but whether he heard this champion of extreme Nominalism in
early youth, when he wandered about from school to school
for instruction and exercise, or some years later, after he
had already begun to teach for himself, remains uncertain. 
His wanderings finally brought him to Paris, still under
the age of twenty.  There, in the great cathedral school of
Notre-Dame, he sat for a while under the teaching of William
of Champeaux, the disciple of St Anselm and most advanced of
Realists, but, presently stepping forward, he overcame the
master in discussion, and thus began a long duel that issued
in the downfall of the philosophic theory of Realism, till
then dominant in the early Middle Age. First, in the teeth
of opposition from the metropolitan teacher, while yet only
twenty-two, he proceeded to set up a school of hs own at
Melun, whence, for more direct competition, he removed to
Corbeil, nearer Paris.  The success of his teaching was
signal, though for a time he had to quit the field, the
strain proving too great for his physical strength.  On his
return, after 1108, he found William lecturing no longer at
Notre-Dame, but in a monastic retreat outside the city, and
there battle was again joined between them.  Forcing upon
the Realist a material change of doctrine, he was once more
victorious, and thenceforth he stood supreme.  His discomfited
rival still had power to keep him from lecturing in Paris, hut
soon failed in this last effort also.  From Melun, where he
had resumed teaching, Abelard passed to the capital, and set
up his school on the heights of St Genevieve, looking over
Notre-Dame.  From his success in dialectic, he next turned to
theology and attended the lectures of Anselm at Laon.  His triumph
over the theologian was complete; the pupil was able to give
lectures, without previous training or special study, which
were acknowledged superior to those of the master.  Abelard
was now at the height of hs fame.  He stepped into the chair at
Notre-Dame, being also nominated canon, about the year 1115.

Few teachers ever held such sway as Abelard now did for a
time.  Distinguished in figure and manners, he was seen
surrounded by crowds--it is said thousands of students,
drawn from all countries by the fame of hs teaching, in which
acuteness of thought was relieved by simplicity and grace of
exposition.  Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and
feasted with universal admiration, he came, as he says,
to think himself the only philosopher standing in the
world.  But a change in his fortunes was at hand.  In his
devotion to science, he had hitherto lived a very regular
life, varied only by the excitement of conflict: now, at
the height of his fame, other passions began to stir within
him.  There lived at that time, within the precincts of
Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle, the canon Fulbert, a
young girl named Heloise, of noble extraction, and born about
1101.  Fair, but still more remarkable for her knowledge,
which extended beyond Latin, it is said, to Greek and Hebrew,
she awoke a feeling of love in the breast of Abelard; and
with intent to win her, he sought and gained a footing in
Fulbert's house as a regular inmate.  Becoming also tutor to
the maiden, he used the unlimited power which he thus obtained
over her for the purpose of seduction, though not without
cherishing a real affection which she returned in unparalleled
devotion.  Their relation interfering with his public work, and
being, moreover, ostentatiously sung by himself, soon became
known to all the world except the too-confiding Fulbert; and,
when at last it could not escape even his vision, they were
separated only to meet in secret.  Thereupon Heloise found
herself pregnant, and was carried off by her lover to Brittany,
where she gave birth to a son.  To appease her furious uncle,
Abelard now proposed a marriage, under the condition that it
should be kept secret, in order not to mar his prospects of
advancement in the church; but of marriage, whether public
or secret, Heloise would hear nothing.  She appealed to him
not to sacrifice for her the independence of his life, nor
did she finally yield to the arrangement without the darkest
forebodings, only too soon to be reallzed.  The secret of
the marriage was not kept by Fulbert; and when Heloise, true
to her singular purpose, boldly denied it, life was made so
unsupportable to her that she sought refuge in the convent of
Argenteuil.  Immediately Fulbert, believing that her husband,
who aided in the flight, designed to be rid of her, coinceived
a dire revenge.  He and some others broke into Abelard's
chamber by night, and perpetrated on him the most brutal
mutilation.  Thus cast down from his pinnacle of greatness
into an abyss of shame and misery, there was left to the
brilliant master only the life of a monk.  The priesthood
and ecclesiastical office were canonically closed to him. 
Heloise, not yet twenty, consummated her work of self-sacrifice
at the call of his jealous love, and took the veil.

It was in the abbey of St Denis that Abelard, now aged
forty, sought to bury himself with his woes out of sight. 
Finding, however, in the cloister neither calm nor solitude,
and having gradually turned again to study, he yielded after
a year to urgent entreaties from without and within, and
went forth to reopen his school at the priory of Maisonceile
(1120).  His lectures, now framed in a devotional spirit, were
heard again by crowds of students, and all his old influence
seemed to have returned; but old enmities were revived
also, against which he was no longer able as before to make
head.  No sooner had he put in writing his theological
lectures (apparently the Introductio and Theolo giam
that has come down to us), than his adversaries fell foul of
his rationalistic interpretation of the Trinitarian dogma. 
Charging him with the heresy of Sabellius in a provincial
synod held at Soissons in 1121, they procured by irregular
practices a condemnation of his teaching, whereby he was made
to throw his book into the flames and then was shut up in
the convent of St Medard at Soissons.  After the other, it
was the bitterest possible experience that could befall him,
nor, in the state of mental desolation into which it plunged
him, could he find any comfort from being soon again set free. 
The life in his own monastery proved no more congenial than
formerly.  For this Abelard himself was partly responsible. 
He took a sort of malicious pleasure in irritating the monks.
Quasijocando, he cited Bede to prove that Dionysius the
Areopagite had been bishop of Corinth, while they relied upon
the statement of the abbot Hilduin that he had been bishop of
Athens.  When this historical heresy led to the inevitable
persecution, Abelard wrote a letter to the abbot Adam in
which he preferred to the authority of Bede that of Eusebius'
Historia Ecelesiastica and St Jerome, according to whom
Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was distinct from Dionysius
the Areopagite, bishop of Athens and founder of the abbey,
though, in deference to Bede, he suggested that the Areopagite
might also have beeit bishop of Corinth.  Life in the
monastery was intolerable for such a troublesome spirit, and
Abelard, who had once attempted to escape the persecution
he had called forth by flight to a monastery at Provins,
was finally allowed to withdraw.  In a desert place near
Nogent-sur-Seine, he built himself a cabin of stubble and
reeds, and turned hermit.  But there fortune came back to him
with a new surprise.  His retreat becoming known, students
flocked from Paris, and covered the wilderness around him
with their tents and huts.  When he began to teach again he
found consolation, and in gratitude he consecrated the new
oratory they built for him by the name of the Paraclete.

Upon the return of new dangers, or at least of fears, Abelard
left the Paraclete to make trial of another refuge, accepting
an invitation to preside over the abbey of St Gildas-de-Rhuys,
on the far-off shore of Lower Brittany.  It proved a wretched
exchange.  The region was inhospitable, the domain a prey to
lawless exaction, the house itself savage and disorderly. 
Yet for nearly ten years he continued to struggle with fate
before he fled from his charge, yielding in the end only under
peru of violent death.  The misery of those years was not,
however, unrelieved; for he had been able, on the breaking
up of Heloise's convent at Argenteuil, to establish her as
head of a new religious house at the deserted Paraclete, and
in the capacity of spiritual director he often was called to
revisit the spot thus made doubly dear to him.  All this time
Heloise had lived amid universal esteem for her knowledge and
character, uttering no word under the doom that had fallen upon
her youth; hut now, at last, the occasion came for expressing
all the pent-up emotions of her soul.  Living on for some time
apart (we do not know exactly where), after his flight from St
Gildas, Abelard wrote, among other things, his famous Historia
Calamitatum, and thus moved her to peu her first Letter,
which remains an unsurpassed utterance of human passion and
womanly devotion; the first being followed by the two other
Letters, in which she finally accepted the part of resignation
which, now as a brother to a sister, Abelard commended to
her.  He not long after was seen once more upon the field
of his early triumphs lecturing on Mount St Genevieve in
1136 (when he was heard by John of Salisbury), but it was
only for a brief space: no new triumph, but a last great
trial, awaited him in the few years to come of his chequered
life.  As far back as the Paraclete days, he had counted
as chief among his foes Bernard of Clairvaux, in whom was
incarnated the principle of fervent and unhesitating faith,
from which rational inquiry like his was sheer revolt, and
now this uncompromising spirit was moving, at the instance of
others, to crush the growing evil in the person of the boldest
offender.  After preliminary negotiations, in which Bernard
was roused by Abelard's steadfastness to put forth all his
strength, a council met at Sens (1141), before which Abelard,
formally arraigned upon a number of heretical charges, was
prepared to plead his cause.  When, however, Bernard, not without
foregone terror in the prospect of meeting the redoubtable
dialectician, had opened the case, suddenlly Abelard appealed to
Rome.  The stroke availed him nothing; for Bernard, who had
power, notwithstanding, to get a condemnation passed at the
council, did not rest a moment till a second condemnation was
procured at Rome in the following year.  Meanwhile, on his way
thither to urge his plea in person, Abelard had broken down
at the abbey of Cluny, and there, an utterly fallen man, with
spirit of the humblest, and only not bereft of his intellectual
force, he lingered but a few months before the approach of
death.  Removed by friendly hands, for the relief of his
sufferings, to the priory of St Marcel, near Chalon-sur-Saone,
he died on the 21st of April 1142.  First buried at St Marcel,
his remains soon after were carried off in secrecy to the
Paraclete, and given over to the loving care of Heloise, who
in time came herself to rest beside them (1164).  The bones
of the pair were shifted more than once afterwards, but they
were marvellously preserved even through the vicissitudes
of the French Revolution, and now they lie united in the
well-known tomb in the cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise at Paris.

Great as was the influence exerted by Abelard on the minds of
his contemporaries and the course of medieval thought, he has
been little known in modern times but for his connexion with
Heloise.  Indeed, it was not till the 19th century, when Cousin
in 1836 issued the collection entitled Ouvrages inedits
d'Abelard, that his philosophical performance could be judged
at first hand; of his strictly philosophical works only one,
the ethical treatise Scito te ipsum, having been published
earlier, namely, in 1721.  Cousin's collection, besides giving
extracts from the theological work Sic et Non (an assemblage
of opposite opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the
Fathers as a basis for discussion, the main interest in which
lles in the fact that there is no attempt to reconcile the
different opinions), includes the Dialectica, commentaries
on logical works of Aristotle, Porphyry and Boothius, and a
fragment, De Generibus et Speciebus.  The last-named
work, and also the psychological treatise De Inteilectibus,
published apart by Cousin (in Fragmens Philosophiques,
vol. ii.), are now considered upon internal evidence not to
be hy Abelard himself, but only to have sprung out of his
school.  A genuine work, the Glossulae super Porphyrium,
from which Charles de Remusat, in his classical monograph
Abelard (1845), has given extracts, remains in manuscript.

The general importance of Abelard lles in his having fixed
more decisively than any one before him the scholastic manner
of philosophizing, with its object of giving a formally
rational expression to the received ecclesiastical doctrine
. However his own particular interpretations may have been
condemned, they were conceived in essentially the same spirit
as the general scheme of thought afterwards elaborated in
the 13th century with approval from the heads of the church. 
Through him was prepared in the Middle Age the ascendancy
of the philosophical authority of Aristotle, which became
firmly established in the half-century after his death, when
first the completed Organon, and gradually ail the other
works of the Greek thinker, came to be known in the schools:
before his time it was rather upon the authority of Plato
that the prevailing Realism sought to lean.  As regards his
so-called Conceptualism and his attitude to the question of
Universals, see SCHOLASTICISM.  Outside of his dialectic,
it was in ethics that Abelard showed greatest activity of
philosophical thought; laying very particular stress upon
the subjective intention as determining, if not the moral
character, at least the moral value, of human action.  His
thought in this direction, wherein he anticipated something
of modern speculation, is the more remarkable because his
scholastic successors accomplished least in the field of
morals, hardly venturing to bring the principles and rules of
conduct under pure philosophical discussion, even after the
great ethical inquiries of AAstotle became fully known to them.

BIBLIOGRAPHY --Abelard's own works remain the best sources
for his life, especially his Historia Culamitatum, an
autobiography, and the correspondence with Heloise.  The
literature on Abelard is extensive, but consists principally
of monographs on different aspects of his philosophy. 
Charles de Remusat's Abelard (2 vols., 1845) remains an
authority; it must be distinguished from his drama Abelard
(1877), which is an attempt to give a picture of medieval
life.  McCabe's life of Abelard is written closely from
the sources. eee also the valuable analysis by Nitsch
in the article ``Abalard'' There is a comprehensive
bibliograohy in U. Chevalier, Repertoire des sources
hist. du moyen age, s. ``Abailard.'' (G. C. R.; J. T. S.*)

ABELIN, JOHANN PHILIPP, an early 16th-century German
chronicler, was born, probably, at Strasburg, and died there
between the years 1634 and 1637.  He wrote numerous histories
over the pseudonyms of Philipp Arlanibaus, Abeleus and Johann
Eudwighottfaed or Gotofredus, his earliest works of importance
being his history of the German wars of Gustavus Adolphus,
entitled Arma Suecica (pub. 1631-1634, in 12 parts), and the
Inventarium Sueciae (1632)---both compilations from existing
records.  His best known work is the Theatrum Europaeum, a
series of chronicles of the chief events in the history of the
world down to 1619.  He was himself responsible for the first two
volumes.  It was continued by various writers and grew to
twenty-one volumes (Frankf. 1633-1738).  The chief interest
of the work is, however, its illustration by the beautiful
copperplate engravings of Matthaus Meriah (1593-1650).  Abelin
also wrote a history of the antipodes, Historia Antipodum
(posthumously pub.  Frankf. 1655), and a history of India.

See G. Droysen, Arlanibaeus, Godofredus, Abelinus (Berlin,
1864); and notice in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographic.

ABENCERRAGES, a family or faction that is said to have held a
prominent position in the Moorish kingdom of Granada in the 15th
century.  The name appears to have been derived from the Yussuf
ben-Serragh, the head of the tribe in the time of Mahommed
VII., who did that sovereign good service in his struggles
to retain the crown of which he was three times deprived. 
Nothing is known of the family with certainty; but the name
is familiar from the interesting romance of Gines Perez de
Hita, Guerras civiles de Granada, which celebrates the feuds
of the Abencerrages and the rival family of the Zegris, and
the cruel treatment to which the former were subjected.  J.
P. de Florian's Gonsalve de Cordoue and Chateaubriand's Le
dernier des Abencerrages are imitations of Perez de Hita's
work.  The hall of the Abencerrages in the Alhambra takes its
name from being the reputed scene of the massacre of the family.

ABENDANA, the name of two Jewish theologians. (1) JACOB
(1630-i695), rabbi (Hakham) of the Spanish Jews in London
from 1680.  Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had
a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to
the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian
theologians. (2) ISAAC (c. 1650-1710), his brother,
taught Hebrew at Cambridge and afterwards at Oxford.  He
compiled a Jewish Calendar and wrote Discourses on the
Ecclesiastical and Civil Polity of the Jews (1706).

ABENEZRA (IBN EZRA), or, to give him his full name,
ABRAHAM BEN MEIR IBN Ezra (1092 or 1093-1167), one of the
most distinguished Jewish men of letters and writers of the
Middle Ages.  He was born at Toledo, left his native land of
Spain before 1140 and led until his death a life of restless
wandering, which took him to North Africa, Egypt, Italy (Rome,
Lucca, Mantua,Verona), Southern France(Narbonne, Beziers),
Northern France (Dreux), England (London), and back again to
the South of France.  At several of the above-named places he
remained for some time and developed a rich literary activity. 
In his native land he had already gained the reputation of a
distinguished poet and thinker; but, apart from his poems, his
works, which were all in the Hebrew language, were written
in the second period of his life.  With these works, which
cover in the first instance the field of Hebrew philology and
Biblical exegesis, he fulfilled the great mission of making
accessible to the Jews of Christian Europe the treasures of
knowledge enshrined in the works written in Arabic which he
had brought with him from Spain.  His grammatical writings,
among which Moznayim (``the Scales,'' written in 1140)
and Zahot (``Correctness,'' written in 1141) are the most
valuable, were the first expositions of Hebrew grammar in the
Hebrew language, in which the system of Hayyuj and his school
prevailed.  He also translated into Hebrew the two writings
of Hayyuj in which the foundations of the system were laid
down.  Of greater original value than the grammatical works of
Ibn Ezra are his commentaries on most of the books of the Bible,
of which, however, a part has been lost.  His reputation as an
intelligent and acute expounder of the Bible was founded on his
commentary on the Pentateuch, of which the great popularity is
evidenced by the numerous commentaries which were written upon
it.  In the editions of this commentary (ed. princ.  Naples
1488) the commentary on the book of Exodus is replaced by a
second, more complete commentary of Ibn Ezra, while the
first and shorter commentary on Exodus was not printed until
1840.  The great editions of the Hebrew Bible with rabbinical
commentaries contained also commentaries of Ibn Ezra's on the
following books of the Bible: Isaiah, Minor Prophets, Psalms,
Job, Pentateuch, Daniel; the commentaries on Proverbs, Ezra
and Nehemiah which bear his name are really those of Moses
Kimhi.  Ibn Ezra wrote a second commentary on Genesis as he
had done on Exodus, but this was never finished.  There are
second commentaries also by him on the Song of Songs, Esther and
Daniel.  The importance of the exegesis of Ibn Ezra consists
in the fact that it aims at arriving at the simple sense of
the text, the so-called ``Pesohat,'' on solid grammatical
principles.  It is in this that, although he takes a great
part of his exegetical material from his predecessors, the
originality of his mind is everywhere apparent, an originality
which displays itself also in the witty and lively language of his
commentaries.  To judge by certain signs, of which Spinoza
in his Tractatus Theologico Politicus makes use, Ibn
Ezra belongs to the earliest pioneers of the criticism of the
Pentateuch.  His commentaries, and especially some of the longer
excursuses, contain numerous contributions to the philosophy of
religion.  One writing in particular, which belongs to this
province (Vosod Mera), on the division and the reasons
for the Biblical commandments, he wrote in 1158 for a London
friend, Joseph b.  Jacob.  In his philosophical thought
neo-platonic ideas prevail; and astrology also had a place
in his view of the world.  He also wrote various works on
mathematical and astronomical subjects.  Ibn Ezra died on the
28th of January 1167, the place of his death being unknown.

Among the literature on Ibn Ezra may be especially mentioned:
M. Friedlander, Essays on the Writings of Ibn Ezra
(London, 1877); W. Bacher, Abraham Ibn Ezra als Grammatiker
(Strasburg, 1882); M. Steinschneider, Abraham Ibn Ezra, in
the Zeitschrift fur Mathematik und Physik, Band xxv.,
Supplement; D. Rosin, Die Religions philosophie Abraham
Ibn Ezra's in vols. xiii. and xliii. of the Monatschrift
fur Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums; his Diwan
was edited by T. Egers (Berlin, 1886): a collection of his
poems, Reime und Gedichte, with translation and commentary,
were published by D. Rosin in several annual reports of the
Jewish theological Seminary at Breslau (1885--1894). (W. BA.)

ABENSBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the
Abens, a tributary of the Danube, 18 m.  S.W. of Regensburg,
with which it is connected by rail.  Pop. 2202.  It has a small
spa, and its sulphur baths are resorted to for the cure of
rheumatism and gout.  The town is the Castra Abusina of the
Romans, and Roman remains exist in the neighbourhood.  Here,
on the 20th of April 1809, Napoleon gained a signal victory
over the Austrians under the Archduke Louis and Genegal Hiller.

ABEOKUTA, a town of British West Africa in the Egba
division of the Yoruba country, S. Nigeria Protectorate.  It
is situated in 7 deg.  8' N., 3 deg.  25' E., on the Ogun river, 64
m.  N. of Lagos by railway, or 81 m. by water.  Population,
approximately 60,000.  Abeokuta lies in a beautiful and fertile
country, the surface of which is broken by masses of grey
granite.  It is spread over an extensive area, being surrounded
by mud walls 18 miles in extent.  Abeokuta, under the reforming
zeal of its native rulers, was largely transformed during
the early years of the 20th century.  Law courts, government
offices, prisons and a substantial bridge were built, good roads
made, and a large staff of sanitary inspectors appointed. 
The streets are generally narrow and the houses built of
mud.  There are numerous markets in which a considerable
trade is done in native products and articles of European
manufacture.  Palm-oil, timber, rubber, yams and shea-butter
are the chief articles of trade.  An official newspaper is
published in the Yoruba and English languages.  Abeokuta is
the headquarters of the Yoruba branch of the Church Missionary
Societyi and British and American, missionaries have met
with some success in their civilizing work.  In their schools
about 2000 children are educated.  The completion in 1899
of a railway from Lagos helped not only to develop trade
but to strengthen generally the influence of the white man.

Abeokuta (a word meaning ``under the rocks,''), dating
from 1825, owes its origin to the incessant inroads of the
slavehunters from Dahomey and Ibadan, which compelled the
village populations scattered over the open country to take
refuge in this rocky stronghold against the common enemy. 
Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many
distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs,
religious rites and even the very names of their original
villages.  Yet this apparently incoherent aggregate held
its ground successfully against the powerful armies often
sent against the place both by the king of Dahomey from the
west, and by the people of Ibadan from the north-east.

The district of Egba, of which Abeokuta is the capital, has
an estimated area of 3000 sq. m. and a population of some
350,000.  It is officially known as the Abeokuta province
of the Southern Nigeria protectorate.  It contains luxuriant
forests of palmtrees, which constitute the chief wealth of the
people.  Cotton is indigenous and is grown for export. 
The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted
European methods of cultivation.  They are very tenacious
of their independence, but accepted without opposition the
establishment of a British protectorate, which, while putting
a stop to inter-tribal warfare, slave-raiding and human
sacrifices, and exercising control over the working of the
laws, left to the people executive and fiscal autonomy.  The
administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which
exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial
functions.  The president of this council, or ruling chief
---chosen from among the members of the two recognized
reigning families--is called the alake, a word meaning
``Lord of Ake,'' Ake being the name of the principal quarter
of Abeokuta, after the ancient capital of the Egbas.  The
alake exercises little authority apart from his councili
the form of government being largely democratic.  Revenue
is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.  A visit
of the alake to England in 1904 evoked considerable public
interest.  The chief was a man of great intelligence, eager
to study western civilization, and an ardent agriculturist.

See the publications of the Church Missionary Society
dealing mith the Voruba Mission; Col. A. B. Ellis's The
Yoruba-speaking Peoples (London, 1894); and an article on
Abeokuta by Sir Wm. Macgregor, sometime governor of Lagos, in
the African Society's Journal, No. xii. (London, July 1904).

ABERAVON, a contributory parliamentary and municipal borough
of Glamorganshire, Wales, on the right bank of the Avon, near
its mouth in Swansea Bay, 11 m.  E.S.E. of Swansea and 170 m.
from London by rail.  Pop. (1901) 7553.  It has a station on the
Rhondda and Swansea Bay railway and is also on the main South
Wales line of the Great Western, whose station, however, is at
fort Talbot, half a mile distant, on the eastern side of the
Avon.  The valley of the Avon, which is only some three miles
long, has been from about 1840 a place of much metallurgical
activity.  There are tinplate and engineering works within
the borough.  At Cwmavon, 1 1/2 m. to the north-east, are
large copper-smelting works established in 1838, acquired
two years later by the governor and Company of the Copper
Miners of England, but now worked by the Rio Tinto Copper
Company.  There are also iron, steel and tinplate works
both at Cwmavon and at Port Talbot, which, when it consisted
only of docks, was appropriately known as Aberavon Port.

The town derives its name from the river Avon (corrupted from
Avan), which also gave its name to a medieval lordship.  On
the Norman conquest at Glamorgan, Caradoc, the eldest son of
the defeated prince, Lestyn ab Gwrgan, continued to hold this
lordship, and for the defence of thc passage of the river
built here a castle whose foundations are still traceable in
a field near the churchyard.  His descendants (who from the
13th century onwards styled themselves De Avan or D'Avene)
established, under line protection of the castle, a chartered
town, which in 1372 received a further charter from Edward
Le Despenser, into whose family the lordship had come on an
exchange of lands.  In modern times these charters were not
acted upon, the town being deemed a borough by prescription,
but in 1861 it was incorporated under the Municipal
Corporations Act. Since 1832 it has belonged to the Swansea
parliamentary district of boroughs, uniting with Kenfig,
Loughor, Neath and Swansea to return one member; but in 1885
the older portion of Swansea was given a separate member.

ABERCARN, an urban district in the southern parliamentary
division of Monmouthshire, England, 10 m.  N.W. of Newport
by the Great Western railway.  Pop. (1901) 12,607.  There are
collieries, ironworks and tinplate works in the district;
the town, which lies in the middle portion of the Ebbw
valley, being situated on the south-eastern flank of the
great mining region of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire.

was the eldest son of Claud Hamilton, Lord Paisley (4th son of
James, 2nd earl of Arran, and duke of Chatelherault), and of
Margaret, daughter of George, 6th Lord Seton.  He was made
sheriff of Linlithgow in 1600, received large grants of
lands in Scotland and Ireland, was created in 1603 baron of
Abercorn, and on the 10th of July 1606 was rewarded for his
services in the matter of the union by being made earl of
Abercorn, and Baron Hamilton, Mount Castle and Kilpatrick. 
He married Marion, daughter of Thomas, 5th Lord Boyd, and left
five sons, of whom the eldest, baron of Strabane, succeeded
him as 2nd earl of Abercorn.  He died on the 23rd of March
1618.  The title of Abercorn, held by the head of the Hamilton
family, became a marquessate in 1790, and a dukedom in 1868,
the 2nd duke of Abercorn (b. 1838) being a prominent Unionist
politician and chairman of the British South Africa Company.

ABERCROMRIE, JOHN (1780-1844), Scottish physician, was the son
of the Rev. George Abercrombie of Aberdeen, where he was born
on the 10th of October 1780.  He was educated at the university
of Edinburgh, and after graduating as M.D. in 1803 he settled
down to practise in that city, where he soon attained a leading
position.  From 1816 he published various papers in the
Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, which formed the basis
of his Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases
of the Brain and Spinal Cord, and of his Researches on the
Diseases of the Intestinal Canal, Liver and other Viscera
of the Abdomen, both published in 1828.  He also found time
for philosophical speculations, and in 1830 he published his
Inquiries concerning the Intellectual Powers of Man and
the Investigation of Truth, which was followed in 1833 by a
sequel, The Philosophy of the Moral Feelings.  Both works,
though showing little originality of thought, achieved wide
popularity.  He died at Edinburgh on the 14th of November 1844.

ABERCROMBY, DAVID, a 17th-century Scottish physician who
was sufficiently noteworthy a generation after the probable
date of his death to have his Nova Medicinae Praxis
reprinted at Paris in 1740.  During his lifetime his Tuta
ac efficax luis venereae saepe absque mercurio ac semper
absque salivatione mercuriali curando methodus (1684) was
translated into French, Dutch and German.  Two other works
by him were De Pulsus Variatione (London, 1685), and Ars
explorandi medicas facultates plantarum ex solo sapore
(London, 1685--1688); His Opuscula were collected in 1687. 
These professional writings gave him a place and memorial
in A. von Haller's Bibliotheca Medicinae Pract. (4 vols.
8vo, 1779, tom. iii. p. 619); but he claims notice rather by
his remarkable controversial books in theology and philosophy
than by his medical writings.  Bred up at Douai as a Jesuit,
he abjured popery, and published Protestancy proved Safer
than Popery' (London, 1686).  But the most noticeable of
his productions is A Discourse of Wit (London, 1685), which
contains some of the most characteristic and most definitely-put
metaphysical opinions of the Scottish philosophy of common
sense.  It was followed by Academia Scientiarum (1687),
and by A Moral Treatise of the Power. of Interest (1690),
dedicated to Robert Boyle. A Short Account of Scots Divines,
by him, was printed at Edinburgh in 1833, edited by James
Maidment.  The exact date of his death is unknown, but
according to Haller he was alive early in the 18th century.

ABERCROMBY, PATRICK (1656-c.1716), Scottish physician
and antiquarian, was the third son of Alexander Abercromby
of Fetterneir in Aberdeenshire, and brother of Francis
Abercromby, who was created Lord Glasford by James II. He
was born at Forfar in 1656 apparently of a Roman Catholic
family.  Intending to become a doctor of medicine he entered
the university of St Andrews, where he took his degree of M.D.
in 1685, but apparently he spent most of his youthful years
abroad.  It has been stated that he attended the university of
Paris.  The Discourse of Wit (1685), sometimes assigned to
him, belongs to Dr David Abercromby (q.v.).  On his return to
Scotland, he is found practising as a physician in Edinburgh,
where, besides his professional duties, he gave himself with
characteristic zeal to the study of antiquities.  He was
appointed physician to James II. in 1685, but the revolution
deprived him of the post.  Living during the agitations for
the union of England and Scotland, he took part in the war
of pamphlets inaugurated and sustained by prominent men on
both sides of the Border, and he crossed swords with no less
redoubtable a foe than Daniel Defoe in his Advantages of the
Act of Security compared with those of the intended Union
(Edinburgh, 1707), and A Vindication of the Same against Mr
De Foe (ibid.). A minor literary work of Abercromby's was
a translation of Jean de Beaugue's Histoire de la guerre
d'Ecosse (1556) which appeared in 1707.  But the work with
which his name is permanently associated is his Martial
Atchievements of the Scots Nation, issued in two large folios,
vol. i. 1711, vol. ii. 1716.  In the title-page and preface
to vol. i. he disclaims the ambition of being an historian,
but in vol. ii., in title-page and preface alike, he is no
longer a simple biographer, but an historian.  Even though,
read in the light of later researches, much of the first volume
must necessarily be relegated to the region of the mythical,
none the less was the historian a laborious and accomplished
reader and investigator of all available authorities, as well
manuscript as printed; while the roll of names of those who
aided him includes every man of note in Scotland at the time,
from Sir Thomas Craig and Sir George Mackenzie to Alexander
Nisbet and Thomas Ruddiman.  The date of Abercromby's death is
uncertain.  It has been variously assigned to 1715, 1716,
1720, and 1726, and it is usually added that he left a widow
in great poverty.  The Memoirs of the Abercrombys, commonly
attributed to him, do not appear to have been published.

See Robert Chambers, Eminent Scotsmen, s.v.; William Anderson,
Scottish Nation, s.v.; Alexander Chalmers, Biog.  Dict.,
s.v.; George Chalmers, Life of Ruddiman; William Lee, Defoe.

ABERCROMBY, SIR RALPH (1734-1801), British lieutenant-general,
was the eldest son of George Abercromby of Tillibody,
Clackmannanshire, and was born in October 1734.  Educated
at Rugby and Edinburgh University, in 1754 he was sent to
Leipzig to study civil law, with a view to his proceeding
to the Scotch bar.  On returning from the continent he
expressed a strong preference for the military profession,
and a cornet's commission was accordingly obtained for him
(March 1756) in the 3rd Dragoon Guards.  He served with his
regiment in the Seven Years' war, and the opportunity thus
afforded him of studying the methods of the great Frederick
moulded his military character and formed his tactical
ideas.  He rose through the intermediate grades to the rank of
lieutenant-colonel of the regiment (1773) and brevet colonel
in 1780, and in 1781 he became colonel of the King's Irish
infantry.  When that regiment was disbanded in 1783 he retired upon
half-pay.  That up to this time he had scarcely been engaged
in active service was owing mainly to his disapproval of the
policy of the government, and especially to his sympathies with
the American colonists in their struggles for independence;
and his retirement is no doubt to be ascribed to similar
feelings.  On leaving the army he for a time took up political
life as member of Parliament for Clackmannanshire.  This,
however, proved uncongenial, and, retiring in favour of his
brother, he settled at Edinburgh and devoted himself to the
education of his children.  But on France declaring war against
England in 1793, he hastened to resume his professional duties;
and, being esteemed one of the ablest and most intrepid
officers in the whole British forces, he was appointed to the
command of a brigade under the duke of York, for service in
Holland.  He commanded the advanced guard in the action at Le
Cateau, and was wounded at Nijmwegen.  The duty fell to him of
protecting the British army in its disastrous retreat out of
Holland, in the winter of 1794-1795.  In 1795 he received the
honour of a knighthood of the Bath, in acknowledgment of his
services.  The same year he was appointed to succeed Sir Charles
Grey, as commander-in-chief of the British forces in the West
Indies.  In 1796 Grenada was suddenly attacked and taken by a
detachment of the army under his orders.  He afterwards obtained
possession of the settlements of Demerara and Essequibo, in
South America, and of the islands of St Lucia, St Vincent and
Trinidad.  He returned in 1797 to Europe, and, in reward for
his important services, was appointed colonel of the regiment
of Scots Greys, entrusted with the governments of the Isle of
Wight, Fort-George and Fort-Augustus, and raised to the rank of
lieutenant-general.  He held, in 1797-1798, the chief command
of the forces in Ireland.  There he laboured to maintain the
discipline of the army, to suppress the rising rebellion,
and to protect the people from military oppression, with a
care worthy alike of a great general and an enlightened and
beneficent statesman.  When he was appointed to the command
in Ireland, an invasion of that country by the French was
confidently anticipated by the English government.  He used
his utmost efforts to restore the discipline of an army that
was utterly disorganized; and, as a first step, he anxiously
endeavoured to protect the people by re-establishing the
supremacy of the civil power, and not allowing the military
to be called out, except when it was indispensably necessary
for the enforcement of the law and the maintenance of
order.  Finding that he received no adequate support from the
head of the Irish government, and that all his efforts were
opposed and thwarted by those who presided in the councils
of Ireland, he resigned the command.  His departure from
Ireland was deeply lamented by the reflecting portion of the
people, and was speedily followed by those disastrous results
which he had anticipated, and which he so ardently desired
and had so wisely endeavoured to prevent.  After holding for
a short period the office of commander-in-chief in Scotland,
Sir Ralph, when the enterprise against Holland was resolved
upon in 1799, was again called to command under the duke of
York.  The campaign of 1799 ended in disaster, but friend and
foe alike confessed that the most decisive victory could not
have more conspicuously proved the talents of this distinguished
officer.  His country applauded the choice when, in 1801, he
was sent with an army to dispossess the French of Egypt.  His
experience in Holland and the West Indies particularly fitted
him for this new command, as was proved by his carrying his
army in health, in spirits and with the requisite supplies,
in spite of very great difficulties, to the destined scene of
action.  The debarkation of the troops at Aboukir, in
the face of strenuous opposition, is justly ranked among
the most daring and brilliant exploits of the English
army.  A battle in the neighbourhood of Alexandria (March
21, 1801) was the sequel of this successful landing, and it
was Abercromby's fate to fall in the moment of victory.  He
was struck by a spent ball, which could not be extracted,
and died seven days after the battle.  His old friend and
commander the duke of York paid a just tribute to the great
soldier's memory in general orders: ``His steady observance
of discipline, his ever-watchful attention to the health
and wants of his troops, the persevering and unconquerable
spirit which marked his military career, the splendour of
his actions in the field and the heroism of his death, are
worthy the imitation of all who desire, like him, a life of
heroism and a death of glory.'' By a vote of the House of
Commons, a monument was erected in his honour in St Paul's
cathedral.  His widow was created Baroness Abercromby of
Tullibody and Aboukir Bay, and a pension of L. 2000 a year
was settled on her and her two successors in the title.

A memoir of the later years of his life (1793-1801) by his
third son, James (who was Speaker of the House of Commons,
1835-1839, and became Lord Dunfermline), was published in
1861.  For a shorter account of Sir Ralph Abercromby see
Wilkinson, Twelve British Soldiers (London, 1899).

statesman, was born at Duffryn, Aberdare, Glamorganshire, on
the 16th of April 1815, the son of John Bruce, a Glamorganshire
landowner.  John Bruce's original family name was Knight,
but on coming of age in 1805 he assumed the name of Bruce,
his mother, through whom he inherited the Duffryn estate,
having been the daughter of William Bruce, high sheriff of
Glamorganshire.  Henry Austin Bruce was educated at Swansea
grammar school, and in 1837 was called to the bar.  Shortly
after he had begun to practise, the discovery of coal beneath
the Duffryn and other Aberdare Valley estates brought the
family great wealth.  From 1847 to 1852 he was stipendiary
magistrate for Merthyr Tydvil and Aberdare, resigning the
position in the latter year, when he entered parliament
as Liberal member for Merthyr Tydvil.  In 1862 he became
under-secretary for the home department, and in 1869, after
losing his seat at Merthyr Tydvil, but being re-elected
for Renfrewshire, he was made home secretary by W. E.
Gladstone.  His tenure of this office was conspicuous for a
reform of the licensing laws, and he was responsible for the
Licensing Act of 1872, which constituted the magistrates the
licensing authority, increased the penalties for misconduct in
public-houses and shortened the number of hours for the sale of
drink.  In 1873 he relinquished the home secretaryship, at
Gladstone's request, to become lord president of the council,
and was almost simultaneously raised to the peerage as Baron
Aberdare.  The defeat of the Liberal government in the following
year terminated Lord Aberdare's official political life, and
he subsequently devoted himself to social, educational and
economic questions.  In 1876 he was elected F.R.S.; from 1878
to 1892 he was president of the Royal Historical Society;
and in 1881 he became president of the Royal Geographical
Society.  In 1882 he began a connexion with West Africa which
lasted the rest of his life, by accepting the chairmanship
of the National African Company, formed by Sir George Taubman
Goldie, which in 1886 received a charter under the title of the
Royal Niger Company and in 1899 was taken over by the British
government, its territories being constituted the protectorate of
Nigeria.  West African affairs, however, by no means exhausted
Lord Aberdare's energies, and it was principally through his
efforts that a charter was in 1894 obtained for the university
of Wales at Cardiff.  Lord Aberdare, who in 1885 was made a
G.C.B., presided over several Royal Commissions at different
times.  He died in London on the 25th of February 1895. 
His second wite was the daughter of Sir William Napier, the
historian of the Peninsular war, whose Life he edited.

ABERDARE, a market town of Glamorganshire, Wales, situated (as
the name implies) at the confluence of the Dar and Cynon, the
latter being a tributary of the Tain.  Pop. of urban district
(1901), 43,365.  It is 4 m.  S.W. of Merthyr Tydvil, 24 from
Cardiff and 160 from London by rail.  It has a station on the
Pontypool and Swansea section of the Great Western railway,
and is also served by the Llwydcoed and Abernant stations
which are on a branch line to Merthyr.  The Tain Vale line
(opened 1846) has a terminus in the town.  The Glamorgan canal
has also a branch (made in 1811) running from Abercynon to
Aberdare.  From being, at the beginning of the 19th century,
a mere village in an agricultural district, the place grew
rapidly in population owing to the abundance of its coal and
iron ore, and the population of the whole parish (which was only
1486 in 1801) increased tenfold during the first half of the
century.  Ironworks were established at Llwydcoed and Abernant
in 1799 and 1800 respectively, followed by others at Gadlys
and Aberaman in 1827 and 1847.  These have not been worked
since about 1875, and the only metal industries remaining
in the town are an iron foundry or two and a small tinplate
works at Gadlys (established in 1868).  Previous to 1836,
most of the coal worked in the parish was consumed locally,
chiefly in the ironworks, but in that year the working of
steam coal for export was begun, pits were sunk in rapid
succession, and the coal trade, which at least since 1875
has been the chief support of the town, soon reached huge
dimensions.  There are also several brickworks and breweries. 
During the latter half Of the 19th century, considerable
public improvements were effected in the town, making it,
despite its neighbouring collieries, an agreeable place of
residence.  Its institutions included a post-graduate
theological college (opened in connexion with the Church
of England in 1892, until 1907, when it was removed to
Llandaff).  There is a public park of fifty acres with two small
lakes.  Aberdare, with the ecclesiastical parishes of St
Fagan's (Trecynon) and Aberaman carved out of the ancient
parish, has some twelve Anglican churches, one Roman Catholic
church (built in 1866 in Monk Street near the site of a
cell attached to Penrhys Abbey) and over fifty Noncoformist
chapels.  The services in the majority of the chapels are in
Welsh.  The whole parish falls within the parliamentary borough
of Merthyr Tydvil.  The urban district includes what were
once the separate villages of Aberaman, Abernant, Cwmbach,
Cwmaman, Cwmdare, Llwydcoed and Trecynon.  There are several
cairns and the remains of a circular British encampment on
the mountain between Aberdare and Merthyr.  Hirwaun moor,
4 m. to the N.W. of Aberdare, was according to tradition
the scene of a battle at which Rhys ap Jewdwr, prince of
Dyfed, was defeated by the ailied forces of the Norman Robert
Fitzhamon and Iestyn ab Gwrgan, the last prince of Glamorgan.

chancellor of Scotland, son of Sir John Gordon, 1st baronet
of Haddo, Aberdeenshire, executed by the Presbyterians in
1644, was born on the 3rd of October 1637.  He graduated
M.A., and was chosen professor at King's College, Aberdeen, in
1658.  Subsequently he travelled and studied civil law abroad. 
At the Restoration the sequestration of his father's lands was
annulled, and in 1665 he succeeded by the death of his elder
brother to the baronetcy and estates.  He returned home in
1667, was admitted advocate in 1668 and gained a high legal
reputation.  He represented Aberdeenshire in the Scottish
parliament of 1669 and in the following assemblies, during his
first session strongly opposing the projected union of the two
legislatures.  In November 1678 he was made a privy councillor
for Scotland, and in 1680 was raised to the bench as Lord
Haddo.  He was a leading member of the duke of York's
administration, was created a lord of session in June and
in November 1681 president of the court.  The same year
he is reported as moving in the council for the torture of
witnesses.1 In 1682 he was made lord chancellor of Scotland,
and was created, on the 13th of November, earl of Aberdeen,
Viscount Formartine, and Lord Haddo, Methllck, Tarves and
Kellie, in the Scottish peerage, being appointed also sheriff
principal of Aberdeenshire and Midlothian.  Burnet reflects
unfavourably upon him, calls him ``a proud and covetous man,''
and declares ``the new chancellor exceeded all that had gone
before him.''2 He executed the laws enforcing religious
conformity with severity, and filled the parish churches, but
resisted the excessive measures of tyranny prescribed by the
English government; and in consequence of an intrigue of the
duke of Queensberry and Lord Perth, who gained the duchess of
Portsmouth with a present of L. 27,000, he was dismissed in 1684. 
After his fall he was subjected to various petty prosecutions
by his victorious rivals with the view of discovering some
act of maladministration on which to found a charge against
him, but the investigations only served to strengthen his
credit.  He took an active part in parliament in 1685 and
1686, but remained a non-juror during the whole of William's
reign, being frequently fined for his non-attendance, and
took the oaths for the first time after Anne's accession, on
the 11th of May 1703.  In the great affair of the Union in
1707, while protesting against the completion of the treaty
till the act declaring the Scots aliens should be repealed,
he refused to support the opposition to the measure itself
and refrained from attending parliament when the treaty was
settled.  He died on the 20th of April 1720, after having
amassed a large fortune.  He is described by John Mackay as
``very knowing in the laws and constitution of his country and
is belleved to be the solidest statesman in Scotland, a fine
orator, speaks slow but sure.'' His person was said to be
deformed, and his ``want of mine or deportment'' was alleged
as a disqualification for the office of lord chancellor.  He
married Anne, daughter and sole heiress of George Lockhart of
Torbrecks, by whom he had six children, his only surviving
son, William, succeeding him as 2nd earl of Aberdeen.

See Letters to George, earl of Aberdeen (with memoir: Spalding
Club, 1851); Hist.  Account of the Senators of-the College
of Justice, by G. Brunton and D. Haig (1832), p. 408; G.
Crawfurd's Lives of the Officers of State (1726), p. 226;
Memoirs of Affairs in Scotland, by Sir G. Mackenzie (1821),
p. 148; Sir J. Lauder's (Lord Fountainhall) Journals (Scottish
Hist.  Society, vol. xxxvi., 1900); J. Mackay's Memoirs
(1733), p. 215; A. Lang's Hist. of Scotland, iii. 369, 376.
(P. C. Y.)
1 Sir J. Lauder's Hist.  Notices (Bannatyne Club, 1848), p. 297.

2 Hist. of his own Times, i. 523.

English statesman, was the eldest son of George Gordon, Lord
Haddo, by his wife Charlotte, daughter of William Baird of
Newbyth, Haddingtonshire, and grandson of George, 3rd earl of
Aberdeen.  Born in Edinburgh on the 28th of January 1784,
he lost his father in 1791 and his mother in 1795; and as
his grandfather regarded him with indifference, he went to
reside with Henry Dundas, afterwards Viscount Melville.  At
the age of fourteen he was permitted by Scotch law to name
his own curators, or guardians, and selecting William Pitt
and Dundas for this office he spent much of his time at their
houses, thus meeting many of the leading politicians of the
day.  He was educated at Harrow, and St John's College, Cambridge,
where he graduated as a nobleman in 1804.  Before this time,
however, he had become earl of Aberdeen on his grandfather's
death in 1801, and had travelled over a large part of the
continent of Europe, meeting on his journeys Napoleon Bonaparte
and other persons of distinction.  He also spent some time in
Greece, and on his return to England founded the Athenian
Society, membership of which was confined to those who had
travelled in that country.  Moreover, he wrote an article in
the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William
Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord
Byron to refer to him in Eniglish Bardo and Scotch Reviewers
as ``the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen.'' Having attained
his majority in 1805, he married on the 28th of July Catherine
Elizabeth Hamilton, daughter of John James, 1st marquess of
Abercorn.  In December 1806 he was elected a representative
peer for Scotland, and took his seat as a Tory in the House of
Lords, but for some years he took only a slight part in public
business.  However, by his birth, his abilities and his
connexions alike he was marked out for a high position, and
after the death of his wife in February 1812 he was appointed
ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at
Vienna, where he signed the treaty of Toplitz between Great
Britain and Austria in October 1813; and accompanying the
emperor Francis I. through the subsequent campaign against
France, he was present at the battle of Leipzig.  He was
one of the British representatives at the congress of
Chatillon in February 1814, and in the same capacity was
present during the negotiations which led to the treaty of
Paris in the following May. Returning home he was created
a peer of the United Kingdom as Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen
(1814), and made a member of the privy council.  On the 15th
of Juby 1815 he married Harriet, daughter of the Hon. John
Douglas, and widow of James, Viscount Hamilton, and thus
became doubly connected with the family of the marquess of
Abercorn.  During the ensuing thirteen years Aberdeen took a
less prominent part in public affairs, although he succeeded
in passing the Entail (Scotland) Act of 1825.  He kept in
touch, however, with foreign politics, and having refused to
join the ministry of George Canning in 1827, became a member
of the cabinet of the duke of Wellington as chancellor of the
duchy of Lancaster in January 1828.  In the following June he
was transferred to the office of secretary of state for foreign
affairs, and having acquitted himself with credit with regard
to the war between Russia and Turkey, and to affairs in Greece,
Portugal and France, he resigned with Wellington in November
1830, and shared his leader's attitude towards the Reform
Bill of 1832.  As a Scotsman, Aberdeen was interested in the
ecclesiastical controversy which culminated in the disruption of
1843.  In 1840 he introduced a bill to settle the vexed question
of patronage; but disliked by a majority in the general assembly
of the Scotch church, and unsupported by the government, it
failed to become law, and some opprobrium was cast upon its
author.  In 1843 he brought forward a similar measure ``to
remove doubts respecting the admission of ministers to
benefices.'' This Admission to Benefices Act, as it was called,
passed into law, but did not reconcile the opposing parties.

During the short administration of Sir Robert Peel in 1834
and 1835, Aberdeen had filled the office of secretary for
the colonies, and in September 1841 he took office again
under Peel, on this occasion as foreign secretary; the
five years during which he held this position were the most
fruitful and successful of his public life.  He owed his
success to the confidence placed in him by Queen Victoria,
to his wide knowledge of European politics, to his intimate
friendship with Guizot, and not least to his own conciliatory
disposition.  Largely owing to his efforts, causes of quarrel
between Great Britain and France in Tahiti, over the marriage
of Isabella II. of Spain, and in other directions, were
removed.  More important still were his services in settling
the question of the boundary between the United States and
British North America at a time when a single injudicious
word would probably have provoked a war.  In 1845 he supported
Peel when in a divided cabinet he proposed to suspend the duty
on foreign corn, and left office with that minister in July
1846.  After Peel's death in 1850 he became the recognized
leader of the Peelites, although since his resignation his
share in public business had been confined to a few speeches
on foreign affairs.  His dislike of the Ecclesiastical Titles
Assumption Bill, the rejection of which he failed to secure in
1851, prevented him from joining the government of Lord John
Russell, or from forming an administration himself in this
year.  In December 1852, however, be became first lord of
the treasury and head of a coalition ministry of Whigs and
Peelites.  Although united on free trade and in general
on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained
Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to
Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign
policy.  The strong and masterful character of these and
other colleagues made the task of the prime minister one
of unusual difficulty, a fact which was recognized by
contemporaries.  Charles Greville in his Memoirs says,
``In the present cabinet are five or six first-rate men of
equal, or nearly equal, pretensions, none of them likely to
acknowledge the superiority or defer to the opinions of any
other, and every one of these five or six considering himself
abler and more important than their premier''; and Sir James
Graham wrote, ``It is a powerful team, but it will require good
driving.'' The first year of office passed off successfully,
and it was owing to the steady support of the prime minister
that Gladstone's great budget of 1853 was accepted by the
cabinet.  This was followed by the outbreak of the dispute
between France and Turkey over the guardianship of the
holy places at Jerusalem, which, after the original cause
of quarrel had been forgotten, developed into the Crimean
war.  The tortuous negotiations which preceded the struggle
need not be discussed here, but in defence of Aberdeen
it may be said that he hoped and strove for peace to the
last.  Rightly or wrongly, however, he held that Russell was
indispensable to the cabinet, and that a resignation would
precipitate war.  His outlook, usually so clear, was blurred
by these considerations, and he lacked the strength to force
the suggestions which he made in the autumn of 1853 upon his
imperious colleagues.  Palmerston, supported by Russell and
well served by Lord Stratford de Redcllffe, British ambassador
at Constantinople, favoured a more aggressive policy, and
Aberdeen, unable to control Palmerston, and unwilling to let
Russell go, cannot be exonerated from blame.  When the war
began he wished to prosecute it vigorously; but the stories
of misery and mismanagement from the seat of war deprived
the ministry of public favour.  Russell resigned; and on
the 29th of January 1855 a motion by J. A. Roebuck, for the
appointment of a select committee to enquire into the conduct
of the War, was carried in the House of Commons by a large
majority.  Treating this as a vote of want of confidence
Aberdeen at once resigned office, and the queen bestowed
upon him the order of the Garter.  He smoothed the way for
Palmerston to succeed him, and while the earl of Clarendon
remained at the foreign office he aided him with advice and
was consulted on matters of moment.  He died in London on the
14th of December 1860, and was buried in the family vault at
Stanmore.  By his first wife he had one son and three
daughters, all of whom predeceased their father.  By his second
wife, who died in August 1833, he left four sons and one
daughter.  His eldest son, George John James, succeeded as 5th
earl; his second son was General Sir Alexander Hamilton-Gordon,
K.C.B.; his third son was the Reverend Douglas Hamilton-Gordon;
and his youngest son Arthur Hamilton, after holding various
high offices under the crown, was created Baron Stanmore in
1893.  Among the public offices held by the earl were those of
lord-lieutenant of Aberdeenshire, president of the society of
Antiquaries from 1812 to 1846 and fellow of the Royal Society.

Aberdeen was a distinguished scholar with a retentive memory
and a wide knowledge of literature and art.  His private life
was exemplary, and he impressed his contemporaries with the
loftiness of his character.  His manner was reserved, and
as a speaker he was weighty rather than eloquent.  In public
life he was remarkable for his generosity to his political
opponents, and for his sense of justice and honesty.  He
did not, however, possess the qualities which impress the
populace, and he lacked the strength which is one of the
essential gifts of a statesman.  His character is perhaps best
described by a writer who says ``his strength was not equal
to his goodness.'' His foreign policy was essentially one of
peace and non-intervention, and in pursuing it he was accused
of favouring the despotisms of Europe.  Aberdeen was a model
landlord.  By draining the land, by planting millions of trees
and by erecting numerous buildings, he greatly improved the
condition of his Aberdeenshire estates, and studied continually
the welfare of his dependants.  A bust of him by Matthew Noble
is in Westminster Abbey, and his portrait was painted by Sir
Thomas Lawrence.  He wrote An Inquiry into the Principles
of Beauty in Grecian Architecture (London, 1822), and the
Correspondence of the Earl of Aberdeen has been printed
privately under the direction of his son, Lord Stanmore.

The 6th earl, George (1841-1870), son of the 5th earl,
was drowned at sea, and was succeeded by his brother
John Campbell Gordon, 7th earl of Aberdeen, (b. 1847), a
prominent Liberal politician, who was lord-lieutenant of
Ireland in 1886, governor-general of Canada 1893--1898,
and again the lord-lieutenant of Ireland when Sir Henry
Campbell-Bannerman formed his ministry at the close of 1905.

See Lord Stanmore, The Earl of Aberdeen (London, 1893); C.
C. F. Greville, Memoirs, edited by H. Reeve (London, 1888);
Spencer Walpole, History of England (London, 1878-1886),
and Life of Lord John Russell (London, 1889); A. W.
Kinglake, Invasion of the Crimea (London, 1877-1888);
Sir T. Martin, Life of the Prince Consort (London,
1875-1880); J. Morley, Life of Gladstone (London, 1903).
(A. W. H. deg. )
ABERDEEN, a royal burgh, city and county of a city,
capital of Aberdeenshire, and chief seaport in the north of
Scotland.  It is the fourth Scottish town in population,
industry and wealth, and stands on a bay of the North
Sea, between the mouths of the Don and Dee, 130 1/2 m.  N.
E. of Edinburgh by the North British railway.  Though Old
Aberdeen, extending from the city suburbs to the southern
banks of the Dob, has a separate charter, privileges and
history, the distinction between it and New Aberdeen can no
longer be said to exist; and for parliamentary, municipal
and other purposes, the two towns now form practically one
community.  Aberdeen's popular name of the ``Granite City,'
is justified by the fact that the bulk of the town fs built
of granite, but to appreciate its more poetical designation
of the ``Silver City by the Sea,'' it should be seen after
a heavy rainfall when its stately structures and countless
houses gleam pure and white under the brilliant sunshine. 
The area of the city extends to 6602 acres, the burghs of
Old Aberdeen and Woodside, and the district of Torry (for
parliamentary purposes in the constituency of Kincardineshire)
to the south of the Dee, having been incorporated in 1891. 
The city comprises eleven wards and eighteen ecclesiastical
parishes, and is under the jurisdiction of a council with
lord provost, bailies, treasurer and dean of guild.  The
corporation owns the water (derived from the Dee at a spot 21
m.  W.S.W. of the city) and gas supplles, electric lighting and
tramways.  Since 1885 the city has returned two members to
Parliament.  Aberdeen is served by the Caledonian, Great North
of Scotland and North British railways (occupying a commodious
joint railway station), and there is regular communication by
sea with London and the chief ports on the eastern coast of
Great Britain and the northern shores of the Continent.  The mean
temperature of the city for the year is 45.8 deg.  F., for summer
56 deg.  F., and for winter 37.3 deg.  F. The average yearly rainfall
is 30.57 inches.  The city is one of the healthiest in Scotland.

Streets and Buildings.--Roughly, the extended city runs
north and south.  From the new bridge of Don to the ``auld
brig'' of Dee there is tramway communication via King
Street, Union Street and Holburn Road--a distance of over five
miles.  Union Street is one of the most imposing thoroughfares
in the British Isles.  From Castle Street it runs W. S. W.
for nearly a mile, is 70 ft. wide, and contains the principal
shops and most of the modern public buildings, all of granite. 
Part of the street crosses the Denburn ravine (utilized for
the line of the Great North of Scotland railway) by a fine
granite arch of 132 ft. span, portions of the older town
still fringing the gorge, fifty feet below the level of Union
Street.  Amongst the more conspicuous secular buildings in the
street may be mentioned the Town and County Bank, the Music
Hall, with sitting accommodation for 2000 persons, the Trinity
Hall of the incorporated trades (originating in various years
between 1398 and 1527, and having charitable funds for poor
members, widows and orphans), containing some portraits
by George Jamesone, a noteworthy set of carved oak chairs,
dating from 1574, and the shields of the crafts with quaint
inscriptions; the office of the Aberdeen Free Press, one of
the most influential papers in the north of Scotland; the Palace
Hotel; the office of the Nnrthern Assurance Company, and the
Nutional Bank of Scotland.  In Castle Street, a continuation
eastwards of Union Street, are situated the Municipnl and
County Buildings, one of the most splendid granite edifices
in Scotland, in the Franco-Scottish Gothic style, built in
1867-1878.  They are of four stories and contain the great
hall with an open timber ceiling and oak-panelled walls; the
Sheriff Court House; the Town Hall, with excellent portraits
of Prince Albert (Prince Consort), the 4th earl of Aberdeen,
the various lord provosts and other distinguished citizens. 
In the vestibule of the entrance corridor stands a suit of
black armour believed to have been worn by Provost Sir Robert
Davidson, who feh in the battle of Harlaw, near Inverurie, in
1411.  From the south-western corner a grand tower rises to
a height of 210 ft., commanding a fine view of the city and
surrounding country.  Adjoining the municipal buildings is
the North of Scotland Bank, of Greek design, with a portico
of Corinthian columns, the capitals of which are exquisitely
carved.  On the opposite side of the street is the fine
building of the Union Bank.  At the upper end of Castle Street
stands the Salvation Army Citadel, an effective castellated
mansion, the most imposing ``barracks'' possessed anywhere
by this organization.  In front of it is the Market Cross,
a beautiful, open-arched, hexagonal structure, 21 ft. in
diameter and 18 ft. high.  The original was designed in 1682
by Jnhn Montgomery, a native architect, but in 1842 it was
removed hither from its old site and rebuilt in a better
style.  On the entablature surmounting the Ionic columns are
panels containing medallions of Scots sovereigns from James
I. to James VII. From the centre rises a shaft, 12 1/2 ft.
high, with a Corinthian capital on which is the royal,unicorn
rampant.  On an eminence east of Castle Street are the military
barracks.  In Market Street are the Mechanics' Institution,
founded in 1824, with a good library; the Post and Telegraph
offices; and the Market, where provisions of all kinds and
general wares are sold.  The Fish Market, on the Albert Basin,
is a busy scene in the early morning.  The Art Gallery and
Museum at Schoolhill, built in the Italian Renaissance style
of red and brown granite, contains an excellent Collection of
pictures, the Macdonald Hall of portraits of contemporary
artists by themselves being of altogether exceptional
interest and unique of its kind in Great Britain.  The public
llbrary, magnificently housed, contains more than 60,000
volumes.  The theatre in Guild Street is the chief seat of
dramatic, as the Palace Theatre in Bridge Place is of variety
entertainment.  The new buildings of Marischal College fronting
Broad Street, opened by King Edward VII. in 1906, form one
of the most splendid examples of modern architecture in Great
Britain; the architect, Alexander Marshall Mackenzie, a native
of Aberdeen, having adapted his material, white granite, to
the design of a noble building with the originality of genius.

Churches.---Like most Scottish towns, Aberdeen is well
equipped with churches, most of them of good design, but
few of special interest.  The East and West churches of St
Nicholas, their kirkyard separated from Union Street by an Ionic
facade, 147 1/2 ft. long, built in 1830, form one continuous
building, 220ft. in length, including the Drum Aisle (the
ancient burial-place of the Irvines of Drum) and the Colllson
Aisle, which divide them and which formed the transept of the
12th-century church of St Nicholas.  The West Church was built in
1775, in the Italian style, the East originally in 1834 in the
Gothic.  In 1874 a fire destroyed the East Church and the
old central tower with its fine peal of nine bells, one of
which, Laurence or ``Lowrie,'' was 4 ft. in diameter at the
mouth, 3 1/2 ft. high and very thick.  The church was rebuilt
and a massive granite tower erected over the intervening
aisles at the cost of the municipality, a new peal of 36
bells, cast in Holland, being installed to commemorate the
Victorian jubilee of 1887.  The Roman Catholic Cathedral in
Huntly Street, a Gothic building, was erected in 1859.  The
see of Aberdeen was first founded at Mortlach in Banffshire
by Malcolm II. in 1004 to celebrate his victory there over
the Danes, but in 1137 David I. transferred the bishopric
to Old Aberdeen, and twenty years later the cathedral of
St Machar, situated a few hundred yards from the Don, was
begun.  Save during the episcopate of William Elphinstone
(1484-1511), the building progressed slowly.  Gavin Dunbar,
who followed him in 1518, was enabled to complete the
structure by adding the two western spires and the southern
transept.  The church suffered severely at the Reformation,
but is still used as the parish church.  It now consists of the
nave and side aisles.  It is chiefly built of outlayer granite,
and, though the plainest cathedral in Scotland, its stately
simplicity and severe symmetry lend it unique distinction. 
On the flat panelled ceiling of the nave are the heraldic
shields of the princes, noblemen and bishops who shared in its
erection, and the great west window contains modern painted
glass of excellent colour and design.  The cemeteries are St
Peter's in Old Aberdeen, Trinity near the links, Nellfield
at the junction of Great Western and Holburn Roads, and
Allenvale, very tastefully laid out, adjoining Duthie Park.

Education.---Aberdeen University consists of King's College
in Old Aberdeen, founded by Bishop Elphinstone in 1494,
and Marischal College, in Broad Street, founded in 1593 by
George Keith, 5th earl Marischal, which were incorporated in
1860.  Arts and divinity are taught at King's, law, medicine
and science at Marischal.  The number of students exceeds 800
yearly.  The buildings of both colleges are the glories of
Aberdeen.  King's forms a quadrangle with interior court, two
sides of which have been rebuilt, and a library wing has been
added.  The Crown Tower and the Chapel, the oldest parts, date from
1500.  The former is surmounted by a structure about 40 ft.
high, consisting of a six-sided lantern and royal crown, both
sculptured, and resting on the intersections of two arched
ornamental slips rising from the four corners of the top of the
tower.  The choir of the chapel still contains the original
oak canopied stalls, miserere seats and lofty open screens in
the French flamboyant style, and of unique beauty of design and
execution.  Their preservation was due to the enlightened
energy of the principal at the time of the Reformation, who
armed his folk to save the building from the barons of the
Mearns after they had robbed St Machar's of its bells and
lead.  Marischal College is a stately modern building, having
been rebuilt in 1836-1841, and greatly extended several years
later at a cost of L. 100,000.  The additions to the buildings
opened by King Edward VII. in 1906 have been already mentioned. 
The beautiful Mitchell Tower is so named from the benefactor (Dr
Charles Mitchell) who provided the splendid graduation hall. 
The opening of this tower in 1895 signalized the commemoration
of the four hundredth anniversary of the foundation of the
university.  The University Library comprises nearly 100,000
books.  A Botanic Garden was presented to the university in
1899.  Aberdeen and Glasgow Universities combine to return
one member to Parliament.  The United Free Church Divinity
Hall in Alford Place, in the Tudor Gothic style, dates from
1850.  The Grammar School, founded in 1263, was removed in
1861-1863 from its old quarters in Schoolhill to a large new
building, in the Scots Baronial style, off Skene Street. 
Robert Gordon's College in Schoolhill was founded in 1729
by Robert Gordon of Straloch and further endowed in 1816 by
Alexander Simpson of Collyhill.  Originally devoted (as Gordon's
Hospital) to the instruction and maintenance of the sons of poor
burgesses of guild and trade in the city, it was reorganized
in 1881 as a day and night school for secondary and technical
education, and has since been unusually successful.  Besides
a High School for Girls and numerous board schools, there are
many private higher-class schools.  Under the Endowments Act
1882 an educational trust was constituted which possesses a
capital of L. 155,000.  At Blairs, in Kincardineshire, five
miles S.W. of Aberdeen, is St Mary's Roman Catholic College
for the training of young men intended for the priesthood.

Charities.---The Royal Infimary, in Woolmanhill, established
in 1740, rebuilt in the Grecian style in 1833-1840, and
largely extended after 1887 as a memorial of Queen Victoria's
jubilee; the Royal Asylum, opened in 1800; the Female Orphan
Asylum, in Albyn Place, founded in 1840; the Blind Asylum,
in Huntly Street, established in 1843; the Royal Hospital
for Sick Children; the Maternity Hospital, founded in 1823;
the City Hospital for Infectious Diseases; the Deaf and Dumb
Institution; Mitchell's Hospital in Old Aberdeen; the East
and West Poorhouses, with lunatic wards; and hospitals devoted
to specialized diseases, are amongst the most notable of
the charitable institutions.  There are, besides, industrial
schools for boys and girls and for Roman Catholic children, a
Female School of Industry, the Seabank Rescue Home, Nazareth
House and Orphanage, St Martha's Home for Girls, St Margaret's
Convalescent Home and Sisterhood, House of Bethany, the
Convent of the Sacred Heart and the Educational Trust School.

Parks and Open Spaces.---Duthie Park, of 50 acres, the gift
of Miss Elizabeth Crombie Duthie of Ruthrieston, occupies an
excellent site on the north bank of the Dee. Victoria Park
(13 acres) and its extension Westburn Park (13 acres) are
situated in the north-western area; farther north lies Stewart
Park (11 acres), called after Sir D. Stewart, lord provost in
1893.  The capacious links bordering the sea between the
mouths of the two rivers are largely resorted to for open-air
recreation; there is here a rifle range where a ``wapinschaw,''
or shooting tournament, is held annually.  Part is laid out
as an 18-hole golf course; a section is reserved for cricket
and football; a portion has been railed off for a race-course,
and a bathing-station has been erected.  Union Terrace
Gardens are a popular rendezvous in the heart of the city.

Statues.---In Union Terrace Gardens stands a colossal statue
in bronze of Sir William Wallace, by W. G. Stevenson, R.S.A.
(1888).  In the same gardens are a bronze statue of Burns
and Baron Marochetti's seated figure of Prince Albert.  In
front of Gordon's College is the bronze statue, by T. S.
Burnett, A.R.S.A., of General Gordon (1888).  At the east
end of Union Street is the bronze statue of Queen Victoria,
erected in 1893 by the royal tradesmen of the city.  Near the
Cross stands the granite statue of the 5th duke of Gordon (d.
1836).  Here may also be mentioned the obelisk of Peterhead
granite, 70 ft. high, erected in the square of Marischal
College to the memory of Sir James M`Grigor (1778-1851), the
military surgeon and director-general of the Army Medical
Department, who was thrice elected lord rector of the College.

Bridges.--The Dee is crossed by four bridges,--the old
bridge, the Wellington suspension bridge, the railway bridge,
and Victoria Bridge, opposite Market Street.  The first, till
1832 the only access to the city from the south, consists of
seven semicircular ribbed arches, is about 30 ft. high, and
was built early in the 16th century by Bishops Elphinstone and
Dunbar.  It was nearly all rebuilt in 1718--1723, and in
1842 was widened from 14 1/2 to 26 ft.  The bridge of Don has
five granite arches, each 75 ft. in span, and was built in
1827--1832.  A little to the west is the Auld Brig o'
Balgownie, a picturesque single arch spanning the deep
black stream, said to have been built by King Robert I.,
and celebrated by Byron in the tenth canto of Don Juan.

Harbour.--A defective harbour, with a shallow sand and gravel
bar at its entrance. long retarded the trade of Aberdeen, but
under various acts since 1773 it was greatly deepened.  The
north pier, built partly by Smeaton in 1775-1781, and partly
by Telford in 1810-1815, extends nearly 3000 ft. into the North
Sea. It increases the depth of water on the bar from a few
feet to 22 or 24 ft. at spring tides and to 17 or 18 ft. at
neap.  A wet dock, of 29 acres, and with 6000 ft. of quay,
was completed in 1848 and called Victoria Dock in honour
of the queen's visit to the city in that year.  Adjoining
it is the Upper Dock.  By the Harbour Act of 1868, the Dee
near the harbour was diverted from the south at a cost of
L. 80,000, and 90 acres of new ground (in addition to 25 acres
formerly made up) were provided on the north side of the
river for the Albert Basin (with a graving dock), quays and
warehouses.  A breakwater of concrete, 1050 ft. long, was
constructed on the south side of the stream as a protection
against south-easterly gales.  On Girdleness, the southern
point of the bay, a lighthouse was built in 1833.  Near the
harbour mouth are three batteries mounting nineteen guns.

Industry.---Owing to the variety and importance of its chief
industries Aberdeen is one of the most prosperous cities in
Scotland.  Very durable grey granite has been quarried near
Aberdeen for more than 300 years, and blocked and dressed
paving ``setts,'' kerb and building stones, and monumental
and other ornamental work of granite have long been exported
from the district to all parts of the world.  This, though
once the predominant industry, has been surpassed by the
deep-sea fisheries, which derived a great impetus from
beam-trawling, introduced in 1882, and steam line fishing
in 1889, and threaten to rival if not to eclipse those of
Grimsby.  Fish trains are despatched to London daily.  Most
of the leading industries date from the 18th century, amongst
them woollens (1703), linen (1749) and cotton (1779).  These
give employment to several thousands of operatives.  The
paper-making industry is one of the most famous and oldest in
the city, paper having been first made in Aberdeen in 1694. 
Flax-spinning and jute and combmaking factories are also very
flourishing, and there are successful foundries and engineering
works.  There are large distilleries and breweries, and
chemical works employing many hands.  In the days of wooden
ships ship-building was a flourishing industry, the town being
noted for its fast clippers, many of which established records
in the ``tea races.'' The introduction of trawllng revived
this to some extent, and despite the distance of the city
from the iron fields there is a fair yearly output of iron
vessels.  Of later origin are the jam, pickle and potted
meat factories, hundreds of acres having been laid down in
strawberries and other fruits within a few miles of the city.

History.--Aberdeen was an important place as far back as the
12th century.  William the Lion had a residence in the city, to
which he gave a charter in 1179 confirming the corporate rights
granted by David I. The city received other royal charters
later.  It was burned by the English king, Edward III., in
1336, but it was soon rebuilt and extended, and called New
Aberdeen.  The burgh records are the oldest in Scotland. 
They begin in 1398 and with one brief break are complete to
the present day.  For many centuries the city was subject to
attacks by the neighbouring barons, and was strongly fortified,
but the gates were all removed by 1770.  In 1497 a blockhouse
was built at the harbour mouth as a protection against the
English.  During the struggles between the Royalists and
Covenanters the city was impartially plundered by both
sides.  In 1715 the Earl Marischal proclaimed the Old
Pretender at Aberdeen, and in 1745 the duke of Cumberland
resided for a short time in the city before attacking
the Young Pretender.  The motto on the city arms is ``Bon
Accord,'' which formed the watchword of the Aberdonians
while aiding Robert Bruce in his battles with the English.

Population.---In 1396 the population was about 3000.  By 1801 it had
become 26,992; in 1841 it was 63,262; (1891) 121,623; (1901) 153,503.

AUTHORITIES.--The charters of the burgh; extracts from
the council register down to 1625, and selections from the
letters. guildry and treasurer's accounts, forming 3 vols.
of the Spalding Club; Cosmo Innes, Registrum Episcopatus
Aberdonensis, Spalding Club; Walter Thore, The History
of Aberdeen (1811); Robert Wilson, Historical Account and
Delineation of Aberdeen (1822); William Kennedy, The Annals
of Aberdeen (1818); Orem, Descripjion of the Chanonry,
Cathedral and King's College of Old Aberdeen, 1724-1725
(1830); Sir Andrew Leith Hay of Rannes, The Castellated
Architecture of Aberdeen; Giles, Specimens of old
Castellated Houses of Aberdeen (1838); James Bryce, Lives
of Eminent Men of Aberdeen (1841); J. Gordon, Description
of Both Towns of Aberdeen (Spalding Club, 1842); Joseph
Robertson, The Book of Bon-Accord (Aberdeen, 1839); W.
Robbie, Aberdeen: its Traditions and History (Aberdeen,
1893); C. G. Burr and A. M. Munro, Old Landmarks of Aberdeen
(Aberdeen, 1886); A. M. Munro, Memorials of the Aldermen,
Provosts and Lord Provosts of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897);
P. J. Anderson, Charters, &c., illustrating the History
of Records of Marischal College (New Spalding 1890);
Selections from the Records of Marischal College (New
Spalding Club, 1889, 1898..1899); J. Cooper, Chartulary of
the Church of St Nicholas (New Spalding Club, 1888, 1892);
G. Cadenhead, Sketch of the Territorial History of the
Burgh of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1876); W. Cadenhead, Guide to
the City of Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1897); A. Smith, History
and Antiquities of New and Old Aberdeen (Aberdeen, 1882).

ABERDEEN, a city and the county-seat of Brown county, South
Dakota, U.S.A., about 125 m.  N.E. of Pierre.  Pop. (1890)
3182; (1900) 4087, of whom 889 were foreign born; (1905) 5841;
(1910) 10,753.  Aberdeen is served by the Chicago, Milwaukee
and St Paul, the Great Northern, the Minneapolis and St
Louis, and the Chicago and North Western railways.  It is
the financial and trade centre for the northern part of the
state, a fine agricultural region, and in 1908 had five banks
and a number of wholesale houses.  The city is the seat of the
Northern Normal and Industrial School, a state institution,
and has a Carnegie Library; the principal buildings are the
court house and the government buildings.  Artesian wells
furnish good water-power, and artesian-well supplies, grain
pitchers, brooms, chemicals and flour are manufactured.  The
municipality owns and operates the water-works.  Aberdeen
was settled in 1880, and was chartered as a city in 1883.

ABERDEENSHIRE, a north-eastern county of Scotland, bounded
N. and E. by the North Sea, S. by Kincardine, Forfar and
Perth, and W. by Inverness and Banff.  It has a coast-line
of 65 m., and is the sixth Scottish county in area, occupying
1261,887 acres or 1971 sq. m.  The county is generally
hilly, and from the south-west, near the centre of Scotland,
the Grampians send out various branches, mostly to the
north-east.  The shire is popularly divided into five
districts.  Of these the first is Mar, mostly between the
Dee and Don, which nearly covers the southern half of the
county and contains the city of Aberdeen.  It is mountainous,
especially Braemar (q.v.), which contains the greatest
mass of elevated land in the British Isles.  The soil on the
Dee is sandy, and on the Don loamy.  The second district,
Formartine, between the lower Don and Ythan, has a sandy
coast, which is succeeded inland by a clayey, fertile, tilled
tract, and then by low hills, moors, mosses and tilled land. 
Buchan, the third district, lies north of the Ythan, and,
comprising the north-east of the county, is next in size to
Mar, parts of the coast being bold and rocky, the interior bare,
low, flat, undulating and in places peaty.  On the coast, 6
m.  S. of Peterhead, are the Bullers of Buchan--a basin in
which the sea, entering by a natural arch, boils up violently
in stormy weather.  Buchan Ness is the most easterly point of
Scotland.  The fourth district, Garioch, in the centre of the
shire, is a beautiful, undulating, loamy, fertile valley.
formerly called the granary of Aberdeen.  Strathbogie, the
fifth district, occupying a considerable area south of the
Deveron, mostly consists of hills, moors and mosses.  The
mountains are the most striking of the physical features of the
county.  Ben Macdhui (4296 ft.), a magnificent mass, the
second highest mountain in Great Britain, Braeriach (4248),
Cairntoul (4241), Ben-na-bhuaird (3924), Ben Avon (3843),
``dark'' Lochnagar (3786), the subject of a well-known song by
Byron, Cairn Eas (3556), Sgarsoch (3402), Culardoch (2953),
are the principal heights in the division of Mar. Farther
north rise the Buck of Cabrach (2368) on the Banffshire border,
Tap o' Noth (1830), Bennachie (1698), a beautiful peak which
from its central position is a landmark visible from many
different parts of the county, and which is celebrated in John
Imlah's song, ``O gin I were where Gadie rins,'' and Foudland
(1529).  The chief rivers are the Dee, 90 m. long; the Iyon,
82 m.; the Ythan, 37 m., with mussel-beds at its mouth; the
Ugie, 20 m., and the Deveron, 62 m., partly on the boundary of
Banffshire.  The rivers abound with salmon and trout, and the
pearl mussel occurs in the Ythan and Don. A valuable pearl
in the Scottish crown is said to be from the Ythan.  Loch
Muick, the largest of the few lakes in the county, 1310 ft.
above the sea, 2 1/2 m. long and  1/3 to  1/2 m. broad, lies some
8  1/2 m.  S.W. of Ballater, and has Altnagiuthasach, a royal
shooting-box, near its south-western end.  Loch Strathbeg, 6
m.  S.E. of Fraserburgh, is only separated from the sea by
a narrow strip of land.  There are noted chalybeate springs
at Peterhead, Fraserburgh, and Pannanich near Ballater.

Geology.---The greater part of the county is composed of
crystalline schists belonging to the metamorphic rocks of
the Eastern Highlands.  In the upper parts of the valleys
of the Dee and the Don they form well-marked groups, of
which the most characteristic are (1) the black schists and
phyllites, with calcflintas, and a thin band of tremolite
limestone, (2) the main or Blair Atholl limestone, (3) the
quartzite.  These divisions are folded on highly inclined or
vertical axes trending north-east and south-west, and hence
the same zones are repeated over a considerable area.  The
quartzite is generally regarded as the highest member of the
series.  Excellent sections showing the component strata
occur in Glen Clunie and its tributary valleys above Braemar. 
Eastwards down the Dee and the Don and northwards across the
plain of Buchan towards Rattray Head and Fraserburgh there
is a development of biotite gneiss, partly of sedimentary
and perhaps partly of igneous origin.  A belt of slate which
has been quarried for roofing purposes runs along the west
border of the county from Turriff by Auchterless and the
Foudland Hills towards the Tap o' Noth near Gartly.  The
metamorphic rocks have been invaded by igneous materials, some
before, and by far the larger series after the folding of the
strata.  The basic types of the former are represented by
the sills of epidiorite and hornblende gneiss in Glen Muick
and Glen Callater, which have been permeated by granite and
pegmatite in veins and lenticles, often foliated.  The later
granites subsequent to the plication of the schists have a
wide distribution on the Ben Macdhui and Ben Avon range, and
on Lochnagar; they stretch eastwards from Ballater by Tarland
to Aberdeen and north to Bennachie.  Isolated masses appear
at Peterhead and at Strichen.  Though consisting mainly of
biotite granite, these later intrusions pass by intermediate
stages into diorite, as in the area between Balmoral and the
head-waters of the Gairn.  The granites have been extensively
quarried at Rubislaw, Peterhead and Kemnay.  Serpentine and
troctolite, the precise age of which is uncertain, occur at
the Black Dog rock north of Aberdeen, at Belhelvie and near Old
Meldrum.  Where the schists of sedimentary origin have been
pierced by these igneous intrusions, they are charged with
contact minerals such as sillimanite, cordierite, kyanite and
andalusite.  Cordierite-bearing rocks occur near Ellon, at the
foot of Bennachie, and on the top of the Buck of Cahrach.  A
banded and mottled calc-silicate hornfels occurring with the
limestone at Iyerry Falls, W. N.W. of Braemar, has yielded
malacolite, wollastonite, brown idocrase, garnet, sphene and
hornblende.  A larger list of minerals has been obtained
from an exposure of limestone and associated beds in Glen
Gairn, about four miles above the point where that river
joins the Dee. Narrow belts of Old Red Sandstone, resting
unconformably on the old platform of slates and schists, have
been traced from the north coast at Peterhead by Turriff to
Fyvie, and also from Huntly by Gartly to Kildrummy Castle. 
The strata consist mainly of conglomerates and sandstones,
which, at Gartly and at Rhyme, are associated with lenticular
bands of andesite indicating contemporaneous volcanic
action.  Small outliers of conglomerate and sandstone of this
age have recently been found in the course of excavations in
Aberdeen.  The glacial deposits, especially in the belt
bordering the coast between Aberdeen and Peterhead, furnish
important evidence.  The ice moved eastwards off the high
ground at the head of the Dee and the Don, while the mass
spreading outwards from the Moray Firth invaded the low
plateau of Buchan; but at a certain stage there was a marked
defection northwards parallel with the coast, as proved by
the deposit of red clay north of Aberdeen.  At a later date
the local glaciers laid down materials on top of the red
clay.  The committee appointed by the British Association
(Report for 1897, p. 333) proved that the Greensand, which
has yielded a large suite of Cretaceous fossils at Moreseat,
in the parish of Cruden, occurs in glacial drift, resting
probably on granite.  The strata from which the Moreseat
fossils were derived are not now found in place in that part
of Scotland, but Mr Jukes Brown considers that the horizon
of the fossils is that of the lower Greensand of the Isle of
Wight or the Aptien stage of France.  Chalk flints are widely
distributed in the drift between Fyvie and the east coast of
Buchan.  At Plaidy a patch of clay with Liassic fossils
occurs.  At several localities between Logie Coldstone and Dinnet
a deposit of diatomite (Kieselguhr) occurs beneath the peat.

Flora and Fauna.---The tops of the highest mountains have an
arctic flora.  At the royal lodge on Loch Muick, 1350 ft. above
the sea, grow larches, vegetables, currants, laurels, roses,
&c. Some ash-trees, four or five feet in girth, are growing
at 1300 ft. above the sea.  T rees, especially Scotch fir and
larch, grow well, and Braemar is rich in natural timber, said
to surpass any in the north of Europe.  Stumps of Scotch fir
and oak found in peat are sometimes far larger than any now
growing.  The mole is found at 1800 ft. above the sea, and the
squirrel at 1400.  Grouse, partridges and hares are plentiful,
and rabbits are often too numerous.  Red deer abound in
Braemar, the deer forest being the most extensive in Scotland.

Climate and Agriculture.---The climate, except in the
mountainous districts, is comparatively mild, owing to
the proximity of much of the shire to the sea.  The mean
annual temperature at Braemar is 43.6 deg.  F., and at Aberdeen
45.8 deg. .  The mean yearly rainfall varies from about 30 to 37
in.  The summer climate of the upper Dee and Don valleys is
the driest and most bracing in the British Isles, and grain
is cultivated up to 1600 ft. above the sea, or 400 to 500
ft. higher than elsewhere in North Britain.  Poor, gravelly,
clayey and peaty solis prevail, but tile-draining, bones and
guano, and the best methods of modern tillage, have greatly
increased the produce.  Indeed, in no part of Scotland has
a more productive soil been made out of such unpromising
material.  Farm-houses and steadings have much improved, and
the best agricultural implements and machines are in general
use.  About two-thirds of the population depend entirely
on agriculture . Farms are small compared with those in
the south-eastern counties.  Oats are the predominant crop,
wheat has practically gone out of cultivation, but barley
has largely increased.  The most distinctive industry is
cattle-feeding.  A great number of the home-bred crosses
are fattened for the London and local markets, and Irish
animals are imported on an extensive scale for the same
purpose, while an exceedingly heavy business in dead meat
for London and the south is done all over the county. 
Sheep, horses and pigs are also raised in large numbers.

Fisheries.---A large fishing population in villages along
the coast engage in the white and herring fishery, which is the
next most important industry to agriculture, its development
having been due almost exclusively to the introduction of steam
trawlers.  The total value of the annual catch, of which
between a half and a third consists of herrings, amounts to
L. 1,000,000.  Haddocks are salted and rock-dried (speldings)
or smoked (finnans).  The ports and creeks are divided
into the fishery rllstricts of Peterhead, Fraserburgh and
Aberdeen, the last of which includes also three Kincardineshire
ports.  The herring season for Aberdeen, Peterhead and
Fraserburgh is from June to September, at which time
the ports are crowded with boats from other Scottish
districts.  There are valuable salmon-fishings--rod, net
and stake-net--on the Dee, Don, Ythan and Ugie.  The average
annual despatch of salmon from Aberdeenshire is about 400 tons.

Other Industries.--Manufactures are mainly prosecuted in or
near the city of Aberdeen, but throughout the rural districts
there is much milling of corn, brick and tile making, smith-work,
brewing and distilling, cart and farm-implement making,
casting and drying of peat, and timber-felling, especially
on Deeside and Donside, for pit-props, railway sleepers,
laths and barrel staves.  There are a number of paper-making
establishments, most of them on the Don near Aberdeen.

The chief source of mineral wealth is the noted durable
granite, which is quarried at Aberdeen, Kemnay, Peterhead and
elsewhere.  An acre of land on being reclaimed has yielded L. 40 to
L. 50 worth of causewaying stones.  Sandstone and other rocks
are also quarried at different parts.  The imports are mostly
coal, lime, timber, iron, slate, raw materials for the textile
manufactures, wheat, cattle-feeding stuffs, bones, guano, sugar,
alcoholic liquors, fruits.  The exports are granite (roughdressed
and polished), flax, woollen and cotton goods, paper, combs,
preserved provisions, oats, barley, live and dead cattle.

Communications.---From the south Aberdeen city is approached
by the Caledonian (via Perth, Forfar and Stonehaven), and the
North British (via Dundee, Montrose and Stonehaven) railways,
and the shire is also served by the Great North of Scotland
railway, whose main line runs via Kintore and Huntly to Keith and
Elgin.  There are branch lines from various points opening up
the more populous districts, as from Aberdeen to Ballater by
Deeside, from Aberdeen to Fraserburgh (with a branch at Maud
for Peterhead and at Ellon for Cruden Bay and Boddam), from
Kintore to Alford, and from Inverurie to Old Meldrum and also to
Macduff.  By sea there is regular communication with London,
Leith, Inverness, Wick, the Orkneys and Shetlands, Iceland and the
continent.  The highest of the macadamized roads crossing the
eastern Grampians rises to a point 2200 ft. above sea-level.

Population and Government.---In 1801 the population numbered
284,036 and in 1901 it was 304,439 (of whom 159,603 were
females), or 154 persons to the sq. m.  In 1901 there were 8
persons who spoke Gaelic only, and 1333 who spoke Gaelic and
English.  The chief towns are Aberdeen (pop. in 1901, 153,503),
Bucksburn (2231), Fraserburgh (9105), Huntly (4136), Inverurie
(3624), Peterhead (11,794), Turriff (2273).  The Supreme Court
of Justiciary sits in Aberdeen to try cases from the counties of
Aberdeen, Banff and Kincardine.  The three counties are under
a sheriff, and there are two sheriffs-substitute resident in
Aberdeen, who sit also at Fraserburgh, Huntly, Peterhead and
Turriff.  The sheriff courts are held in Aberdeen and
Peterhead.  The county sends two members to parliament
--one for East Aberdeenshire and the other for West
Aberdeenshire.  The county town, Aberdeen (q.v.), returns two
members.  Peterhead, Inverurie and Kintore belong to the Elgin
group of parliamentary burghs, the other constituents being
Banff, Cullen and Elgin.  The county is under school-board
jurisdiction, and there are also several voluntary schools. 
There are higher-class schools in Aberdeen, and secondary
schools at Huntly, Peterhead and Fraserburgh, and many of
the other schools in the county earn grants for secondary
education.  The County Secondary Education Committee dispense
a large sum, partly granted by the education department and
partly contributed by local authorities from the ``residue''
grant, and support, besides the schools mentioned, local
clases and lectures in agriculture, fishery and other technical
subjects, in addition to subsidizing the agricultural department
of the university of Aberdeen.  The higher branches of
education have always been thoroughly taught in the schools
throughout the shire, and pupils have long been in the
habit of going directly from the schools to the university.

The native Scots are long-headed, shrewd, careful, canny,
active, persistent, but reserved and blunt, and without
demonstrative enthusiasm.  They have a physiognomy distinct
from the rest of the Scottish people, and have a quick,
sharp, rather angry accent.  The local Scots dialect is
broad, and rich in diminutives, and is noted for the use
of e for o or u, f for wh, d for th, &c.
So recently as 1830 Gaelic was the fireside language of
almost every family in Braemar, but now it is little used.

History.---The country now forming the shires of Aberdeen
and Banff was originally peopled by northern Picts, whom
Ptolemy called Taixall, the territory being named Taixalon. 
Their town of Devana, once supposed to be the modern Aberdeen,
has been identified by Prof.  John Stuart with a site in the
parish of Peterculter, where there are remains of an ancient
camp at Normandykes, and by Dr W. F. Skene with a station
on Loch Davan, west of Aboyne.  So-called Roman camps have
also been discovered on the upper Ythan and Deveron, but
evidence of effective Roman occupation is still to seek. 
Traces of the native inhabitants, however, are much less
equivocal.  Weems or earth-houses are fairly common in the
west.  Relics of crannogs or lake-dwellings exist at Loch
Ceander, or Kinnord, 5 m. north-east of Ballater, at Loch
Goul in the parish of New Machar and elsewhere.  Duns or forts
occur on hills at Dunecht, where the dun encloses an area
of two acres, Bnrra near Old Meldrum, Tap o' Noth, Dunnideer
near Insch and other places.  Monoliths, standing stones and
``Druidical'' circles of the pagan period abound, and there are
many examples of the sculptured stones of the early Christian
epoch.  Efforts to convert the Picts were begun by Teman
in the 5th century, aad continued by Columba (who founded
a monastery at Old Deer), Drostan, Maluog and Machar, but
it was long before they showed lasting results.  Indeed,
dissensions within the Columban church and the expulsion
of the clergy from Pictland by the Pictish king Nectan in
the 8th century undid most of the progress that had been
made.  The Vikings and Danes periodically raided the coast,
but whhen (1040) Macbeth ascended the throne of Scotland the
Northmen, under the guidance of Thorfinn, refrained from further
trouble in the north-east.  Macbeth was afterwards slain at
Lumphanan (1057), a cairn on Perkhill marking the spot.  The
influence of the Norman conquest of England was felt even in
Aberdeenshire.  Along with numerous Anglo-Saxon exiles, there
also settled in the country Flemings who introduced various
industries, Saxons who brought farming, and Scandinavians
who taught nautical skill.  The Celts revolted more than
once, but Malcolm Canmore and his successors crushed them
and confiscated their lands.  In the reign of Alexander
I. (d. 1124) mention is first made of Aberdeen (originally
called Abordon and, in the Norse sagas, Apardion), which
received its charter from William the Lion in 1179, by which
date its burgesses had alfeady combined with those of Banff,
Elgin, Inverness and other trans-Grampian communities to form
a free Hanse, under which they enjoyed exceptional trading
privileges.  By this time, too, the Church had been organized,
the bishopric of Aberdeen having been established in 1150. 
In the 12th and 13th centuries some of the great Aberdeenshire
famines arose, including the earl of Mar (c. 1122), the
Leslies, Freskins (ancestors of the dukes of Sutherland),
Durwards, Bysets, Comyns and Cheynes, and it is significant
that in most cases their founders were immigrants.  The
Celtic thanes and their retainers slowly fused with the
settlers.  They declined to take advantage of the disturbed
condition of the country during the wars of the Scots
independence, and made common cause with the bulk of the
nation.  Though John Comyn (d. 1300?), one of the competitors
for the throne, had considerable interests in the shire, his
claim received locally little support.  In 1296 Edward I. made
a triumphal march to the north to terrorize the more turbulent
nobles.  Next year Wilham Wallace surprised the English garrison
in Aberdeen, but failed to capture the castle.  In 1303 Edward
again visited the county, halting at the Castle of Kildrummy,
then in the possession of Robert Bruce, who shortly afterwards
became the acknowledged leader of the Scots and made Aberdeen
his headquarters for several months.  Despite the seizure of
Kildrummy Castle by the English in 1306, Bruce's prospects
brightened from 1308, when he defeated John Comyn, earl of
Buchan (d. 1313?), at Inverurie.  For a hundred years after
Robert Bruce's death (1329) there was intermittent anarchy
in the shire.  Aberdeen itself was burned by the English in
1336, and the re-settlement of the districts of Buchan and
Strathbogie occasioned constant quarrels On the part of the
dispossessed.  Moreover, the crown had embroiled itself
with some of the Highland chieftains, whose independence it
sought to abolish.  This policy culminated in the invasion of
Aberdeenshire by Donald, lord of the Isles, who was, however,
defeated at Harlaw, near Inverurie, by the earl of Mar in
1411.  In the 15th century two other leading county families
appeared, Sir Alexander Forbes being created Lord Eorbes
about 1442, and Sir Alexander Seton Lord Gordon in 1437 and
earl of Huntly in 1445.  Bitter feuds raged between these
families for a long period, but the Gordons reached the
height of their power in the first half of the 16th century,
when their domains, already vast, were enhanced by the
acquisition, through marriage, of the earldom of Sutherland
(1514).  Meanwhile commerce with the Low Countries, Poland
and the Baltic had grown apace, Campvere, near Flushing in
Holland, becoming the emporium of the Scottish traders, while
education was fostered by the foundation of King's College
at Aberdeen in 1497 (Marischal College followed a century
later).  At the Reformation so little intuition had the
clergy of the drift of opinion that at the very time that
religious structures were being despoiled in the south, the
building and decoration of churches went on in the shire. 
The change was acquiesced in without much tumult, though
rioting took place in Aberdeen and St Machar's cathedral in
the city suffered damage.  The 4th earl of Huntly offered
some resistance, on behalf of the Catholics, to the influence
of Lord James Stuart, afterwards the Regent Murray, but
was defeated and killed at Corrichie on the hill of Fare in
1562.  As years passed it was apparent that Presbyterianism
was less generally acceptable than Episcopacy, of which system
Aberdeenshire remained for generations the stronghold in
Scotland.  Another crisis in ecclesiastical affairs arose in
1638, when the National Covenant was ordered to be subscribed,
a demand so grudgingly responded to that the marquis of
Montrose visited the shire in the following year to enforce
acceptance.  The Cavaliers, not being disposed to yield,
dispersed an armed gathering of Covenanters in the affair
called the Trot of Turriff (1639), in which the first blood
of the civil war was shed.  The Covenanters obtained the upper
hand in a few weeks, when Montrose appeared at the bridge
of Dee and compelled the surrender of Aberdeen, which had no
choice but to cast in its lot with the victors.  Montrose,
however, soon changed sides, and after defeating the Covenanters
under Lord Balfour of Burleigh (1644), delivered the city to
rapine.  He worsted the Covenanters again after a stiff
fight on the 2nd of July 1645, at Alford, a village in the
beautiful Howe of Alford.  Peace was temporarily restored
on the ``engagement', of the Scots commissioners to assist
Charles I. On his return from Holland in 1650 Charles II.
was welcomed in Aberdeen, but in little more than a year
General Monk entered the city at the head of the Cromwellian
regiments.  The English garrison remained till 1659, and
next year the Restoration was effusively hailed, and prelacy
was once more in the ascendant.  Most of the Presbyterians
conformed, but the Quakers, more numerous in the shire
and the adjoining county of Kincardine than anywhere else
in Scotland, were systematically persecuted.  After the
Revolution (1688) episcopacy passed under a cloud, but the
clergy, yielding to force majeure, gradually accepted the
inevitable, hoping, as long as Queen Anne lived, that prelacy
might yet be recognized as the national form of Church
government.  Her death dissipated these dreams, and as George
I., her successor, was antipathetic to the clergy, it happened
that Jacobitism and episcopalianism came to be regarded in the
shire as identical, though in point of fact the non-jurors as
a body never countenanced rebellion.  The earl of Mar raised
the standard of revolt in Braemar (6th of September 1715); a
fortnight later James was proclaimed at Aberdeen cross; the
Pretender landed at Peterhead on the 22nd of December, and
in February 1716 he was back again in France.  The collapse
of the first rising ruined many of the lairds, and when the
second rebellion occurred thirty years afterwards the county
in the main was apathetic, though the insurgents held Aberdeen
for five months, and Lord Lewis Gordon won a trifling victory
for Prince Charles Edward at Inverurie (23rd of December
1745).  The duke of Cumberland relieved Aberdeen at the end
of February 1746, and in April the Young Pretender was a
fugitive.  Thereafter the people devoted themselves to
agriculture, industry and commerce, which developed by leaps
and bounds, and, along with equally remarkable progress in
education, transformed the aspect of the shire and made the
community as a whole one of the most prosperous in Scotland.

See W. Watt, History of Aberdeen and Banff (Edinburgh,
1900); Collections for a History of the Shires of Aberdeen
and Banff. (edited by Dr Joseph Robertson, Spalding Club); Sir
A. Leith-Hay, Castles of Aberdeenshire (Aberdeen, 188R);
J; Davidson, Inverurie and the Earldom of the Garioch
(Edinburgh, 1878); Pratt, Buchan (rev. by) R. Anderson),
(Aberdeen, 1900); A. I. M'Connochie, Deeside (Aberdeen, 1895).

ABERDOUR, a village of Fifeshire, Scotland.  Pleasantly
situated on the shore of the Firth of Forth, 17 1/2 m.  N.W.
of Edinburgh by the North British railway and 7 m.  N.W. of
Leith by steamer, it is much resorted to for its excellent
sea-bathing.  There are ruins of a castle and an old decayed
church, which contains some fine Norman work.  About 3
m.  S.W. is Donibristle House, the seat of the earl of Murray
(Moray), and the scene of the murder (Feb. 7, 1592) of James,
2nd (Stuart) earl of Murray.  The island of Inchcolm, or
Island of Columba,  1/4 m. from the shore, is in the parish of
Aberdour.  As its name implies, its associations date back
to the time of Columba.  The primitive stone-roofed oratory
is supposed to have been a hermit's ceil.  The Augustinian
monastery was founded in 1123 by Alexander I. The buildings
are well preserved, consisting of a low square tower, church,
cloisters, refectory and small chapterhouse.  The island
of Columba was occasionally plundered by English and other
rovers, but in the 16th century it became the property of
Sir James Stuart, whose grandson became 2nd earl of Murray
by virtue of his marriage to the elder daughter of the 1st
earl.  From it comes the earl's title of Lord St Colme (1611).

ABERDOVEY (Aberdyfi: the Dyfi is the county frontier), a
seaside village of Merionethshire, North Wales, on the Cambrian
railway.  Pop. (1901) 1466.  It lies in the midst of beautiful
scenery, 4 m. from Towyn, on the N. bank of the Dyfi estuary,
commanding views of Snowdon, Cader Idris, Arran Mawddy and
Plynllmmon.  The Dyfi, here a mile broad, is crossed by a
ferry to Borth sands, whence a road leads to Aberystwyth. 
The submerged ``bells of Aberdovey'' (since Seithennin ``the
drunkard'' caused the formation of Cardigan Bay) are famous
in a Welsh song.  Aberdovey is a health and bathing resort.

ABERFOYLE, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, 34 1/4
m.  N. by W. of Glasgow by the North British railway.  Pop.
of parish (1901) 1052.  The village is situated at the base of
Craigmore (1271 ft. high) and on the Laggan, a head-water of the
Forth.  Since 1885, when the duke of Montrose constructed a
road over the eastern shoulder of Craigmore to join the older
road at tho entrance of the Trossachs pass, Aberfoyle has become
the alternauve route to the Trossachs and Loch Katrine.  Loch
Ard, about 2 m.  W. of LIberfoyle, lies 105 ft. above the
sea.  It is 3 m. long (including the narrows at the east end)
and 1 m. broad.  Towards the west end is Eilean Gorm (the
green isle), and near the north-western shore are the falls of
Ledard.  Two m.  N.W. is Loch Chon, a90 ft. above the sea,
1 1/4 m. long, and about  1/2 m. broad.  It drains by the Avon
Dhu to Loch Ard, which is drained in turn by the Laggan.  The
slate quarries on Craigmore are the Only industry in Aberfoyle.

ABERGAVENNY, a market town and municipal borough in the
northern parliamentary division of Monmouthshire, England, 14
m.  W. of Monmouth on the Great Western and the London and
North-Western railways.  Pop. (1901) 7795.  It is situated
at the junction of a small stream cailed the Gavenny with the
river Usk; and the site, almost surrounded by lofty hills,
is very beautiful.  The town was formerly walled, and has the
remains of a castle built soon after the conquest, frequently
the scene of border strife.  The church of St Mary belonged
originally to a Benedictine monastery founded early in the 12th
century.  The existing building, however, is Decorated and
Perpendicular, and contains a fine series of memorials of dates
from the 13th to the 17th century.  There is a free grammar
school, which till 1857 had a fellowship at Jesus College,
Oxford.  Breweries, ironworks, quarries, brick fields and
collieries in the neihbourhood are among the principal industrial
establishments.  Abergavenny was incorporated in 1899, and is
governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors.  Area, 825 acres.

This was the Roman Gobannium, a small fort guarding the
road along the valley of the Usk and ensuring quiet among
the hill tribes.  There is practically no trace of this
fort.  Abergavenny (Bergavenny) grew up under the protection
of the lords of Abergavenny, whose title dated from William
I. Owing to its situation, the town was frequently embroiled
in the border warfare of the 12th and 13th centuries, and
Giraldus Cambrensis relates how in 1173 the castle was seized
by the Welsh.  Hamelyn de Baalun, first lord of Abergavenny,
founded the Benedictine priory, which was subsequently
endowed by William de Braose with a tenth of the profits
of the castle and town.  At the dissolution of the priory
part of this endowment went towards the foundation of a
free grammar school, the site itself passing to the Gunter
family.  During the Civil War prior to the siege of Ragban
Castle in 1645, Charles I. visited Abergavenny, and presided
in person over the trial of Sir Trevor Williams and other
parliamentarians.  In 1639 Abergavenny received a charter
of incorporation under the title of bailiff and burgesses. 
A charter with extended privileges was drafted in 1657, but
appears never to have been enrolled or to have come into effect. 
OV1ng to the refusal of the chief officers of the corporation
to take the oath of allegiance to William III. in 1688, the
charter was annullod, and the town subseunentlv declined in
prosperity.  The act of 27 Henry VIII., which provided that
llonmouth, as county town, should return one burgess to
parliament, further stated that other ancient Monmouthshire
boroughs were to contribute towards the payment of the
member.  In consequence of this clause Abergavenny on various
occasions shared in the election, the last instance being in
1685.  Reference to a market at Abergavenny is found in a charter
granted to the prior by William de Braose (d. r211).  The right
to hold two weekly markets and three yearly fairs, as hitherto
held, was confirmed in 1657.  Abergavenny was celebrated for
the production of Welsh flannel, and also for the manufacture,
whilst the fashion prevailed, of periwigs of goats, hair.

The title of Baron Abergavenny, in the Neville family, dates
from Edward Neville (d. 1476), who was the youngest son of
the 1st earl of Westmoreland by Joan Beaufort, daughter of
John of Gaunt.  He married the heiress of Richard, earl of
Worcester, whose father had inherited the castle and estate of
Abergavenny, and was summoned in 1392 to parliament as Lord
Bergavenny.  Edward Neville was summoned to parliament with
this title in 1450.  His direct male descendants ended in 1387
in Henry Neville, but a cousin, Edward Neville (d. 1622), was
confirmed in the barony in 1604.  From him it has descended
continuously, the title being increased to an earldom in
1784; and in 1876 William Nevill (sic) 5th earl (b. 1826),
an indefatigable and powerful supporter of the conseruative
party, was created 1st marquess of Abergavenny. (See NEVILLE.)

ABERIGH-MACKAY, GEORGE ROBERT (1848-1881), Anglo-Indian
writer, son of a Bengal chaplain, was born on the 25th
of July 1848, and was educated at Magdalen College School
and Cambridge University.  Entering the Indian education
department in 1870, he became professor of English literature
in Delhi College in 1873, tutor to the raja of Rutlam
1876, and principal of the Rajkumar College at Indore in
1877.  He is best known for his book Twenty-one Days in India
(1878--1879), a satire upon Anglo-Indian society and modes of
thought.  This book gave promise of a successful literary
Career, but the author died at the age of thirty-three.

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1680-1740), Irish Presbyterian divine,
was born at Coleraine, county Londonderry, where his father
was Nonconformist minister, on the 19th of October 1680.  In
his thirteenth year he entered the university of Glasgow, and
on concluding his course thore went on to Edinburgh, where
his intellectual and social attainments gained him a ready
entrance into the most cultured circles.  Returning home he
received licence to preach from his Presbytery before he was
twenty-one.  In 1701 he was urgently invited to accept charge
of an important congregation in Antrim; and after an interval
of two years, mostly spent in further study in Dublin, he
was ordained there on the 8th of August 1703.  Here he did
notable work, both as a debater in the synods and assemblies
of his church and as an evangelist.  In 1712 he lost his wife
(Susannah Jordan), and the loss desolated his life for many
years.  In 1717 he was invited to the congregation of Usher's
Quay, Dublin, and contemporaneously to what was called the
Old Congregation of Belfast.  The synod assigned him to
Dublin.  After careful consideration he declined to accede,
and remained at Antrim.  This refusal was regarded then as
ecclesisstical high-treason; and a controversy of the most
intense and disproportionate character followed, Abernethy
standing firm for religious freedom and repudiating the
sacerdotal assumptions of all ecclesiastical courts.  The
controversy and quarrel bears the name of the two camps in the
conflict, the ``Subscribers'' and the ``Non-subscribers.''
Out-and-out evangelical as (John Abernethy was, there can
be no question that he and his associates sowed the seeds
of that after-struggle (1821--1840) in which, under the
leadership of Dr Henry Cooke, the Arian and Socinian elements
of the Irish Presbyterian Church were thrown out.  Much of
what he contended for, and which the ``Subscribers'' opposed
bitterly, has been silently granted in the lapse of time. 
In 1726 the ``Non-subscribers,'' spite of an almost wofully
pathetic pleading against separation by Abernethy, were cut
off, with due ban and solemnity, from the Irish Presbyterian
Church.  In 1730, although a ``Non-subscriber,'' he was
invited to Wood Street, Dublin, whither he removed.  In
1731 came on the greatest controversy in which Abernethy
engaged, viz. in relation to the Test Act nominally, but
practically on the entire question of tests and disabilities. 
His stand was ``against all laws that, upon account of mere
differences of religious opinions and forms of worship,
excluded men of integrity and ability from serving their
country.'' He was nearly a century in advance of his age. 
He had to reason with those who denied that a Roman Catholic
or Dissenter could be a ``man of integrity and ability.''
His Tracts---afterwards collected--did fresh service,
generations later, and his name is honoured by all who love
freedom of conscience and opinion.  He died in December 1740.

See Dr Duchal's Life, prefixed to Sermons (1762): Diary in
MS., 6 vols. 4to; Reid's Presbyterian Church in Ireland, iii. 234.

ABERNETHY, JOHN (1764-1831), English surgeon, grandson of
John Abernethy (see above), was born in London on the 3rd of
April 1764.  His father was a London merchant.  Educated at
Wolverhampton grammar school, he was apprenticed in 1779 to
Sir Charles Blicke (1745-1815), surgeon to St Bartholomew's
Hospital, London.  He attended the anatomical lectures of
Sir William Blizard (1743-1835) at the London Hospital,
and was early employed to assist as ``demonstrator'';
he also attended Percival Pott's surgical lectures at St
Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the lectures of John
Hunter.  On Pott's resignation of the office of surgeon of St
Bartholomew's, Sir Charles Blicke, who was assistant-surgeon,
succeeded him, and Abernethy was elected assistant-surgeon in
1787.  In this capacity he began to give lectures at his
house in Bartholomew Close, which were so well attended
that the governors of the hospital built a regular theatre
(1790-1791), and Abernethy thus became the founder of the
distinguished school of St Bartholomew's.  He held the office
of assistant-surgeon of the hospital for the long period of
twenty-eight years, till, in 1815, he was elected principal
surgeon.  He had before that time been appointed lecturer in
anatomy to the Royal College of Surgeons (1814).  Abernethy
was not a great operator, though his name is associated with
the treatment of aneurism by ligature of the external iliac
artery.  His Surgical Observations on the Constitutional
Origin and Treatment of Local Diseases (1809)--known as ``My
Book,'' from the great frequency with which he referred his
patients to it, and to page 72 of it in particular, under that
name--was one of the earliest popular works on medical science,
He taught that local diseases were frequently the results
of disordered states of the digestive organs, and were to be
treated by purging and attention to diet.  As a lecturer he was
exceedingly attractive, and his success in teaching was largely
attributable to the persuasiveness with which he enunciated his
views.  It has been said, however, that the influence he exerted
on those who attended his lectures was not beneficial in this
respect, that his opinions were delivered so dogmatically,
and all who differed from him were disparaged and denounced
so contemptuously, as to repress instead of stimulating
inquiry.  The celebrity he attained in his practice was due
not only to his great professional skill, but also in part
to the singularity of his manners.  He used great plainness
of speech in his intercourse with his patients, treating them
often brusquely and sometimes even rudely.  In the circle of
his family and friends he was courteous and affectionate; and
in all his dealings he was strictly just and honourable.  He
resigned his position at St Bartholomew's Hospital in 1827,
and died at his residence at Enfield on the 20th of April 1831.

A collected edition of his works was published in 1830.  A biography,
Memoirs of John Abernethy, by George Macilwain, appeared in 1853.

ABERRATION (Lat. ab, from or away, errare, to wander),
a deviation or wandering, especially used in the figurative
sense: as in ethics, a deviation from the truth; in pathology,
a mental derangement; in zoology and botany, abnormal
development or structure.  In optics, the word has two special
applications: (1) Aberration of Light, and (2) Aberration
in Optical Systems.  These subjects receive treatment below.

I. ABERIIATION OF LIGHT This astronomical phenomenon may
be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the
stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical,
according to the latitude of the star; consequently at
any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true
position.  This apparent motion is due to the finite velocity
of light, and the progressive motion of the observer with the
earth, as it performs its yearly course about the sun.  It
may be familiarized by the following illustrations.  Alexis
Claude Clairaut gave this figure: Imagine rain to be falling
vertically, and a person carrying a thin perpendicular tube
to be standing on the ground.  If the bearer be stationary,
rain-drops will traverse the tube without touching its sides;
if, however, the person be walking, the tube must be inchued
at an angle varying as his velocity in order that the rain
may traverse the tube centrally. (J. J. L. de Lalande gave
the illustration of a roofed carriage with an open front: if
the carriage be stationary, no rain enters; if, however, it be
moying, rain enters at the front.  The ``umbrella', analogy
is possibly the best known figure.  When stationary, the most
efficient position in which to hold an umbrella is obviously
vertical; when walking, the umbrella must be held more and
more inclined from the vertical as the walker quickens his
pace.  Another familiar figure, pointed Out by P. L. M. de
Maupertuis, is that a sportsman, when aiming at a bird on the
wing, sights his gun some distance ahead of the bird, the
distance being proportional to the velocity of the bird. 
The mechanical idea, named the parallelogram of velocities,
permits a ready and easy graphical representation of these
facts.  Reverting to the analogy of Clairaut, let AB (fig.
1) represent the velocity of the rain, and AC the relative
velocity of the person bearing the tube.  The diagonal AD
of the parallelogram, of which AB and AC are adjacent sides,
will represent, both in direction and magnitude, the motion
of the rain as apparent to the observer.  Hence for the
rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined
at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently
termed the aberration: due to these two motions.  The
umbrella analogy is similarly explained; the most efficient
position heing when the stick points along the resultant AD.

The discovery of the aberration of light in 1725, due to James
Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of
astronomy.  That it wus unexpected there can be no doubt;
and it was only by extraordinary perseverance and perspicuity
that Bradley was able to explain it in 1727.  Its origin is
seated in attempts made to free from doubt the prevailing
discordances as to whether the stars possessed appreciable
parallaxes.  The Copernican theory of the solar system--that
the earth revolved annually about the sun--had received
confirmation by the observations of Galileo and Tycho
Brahe, and the mathematical investigations of Kepler and
Newton.  As early as 1573, Thomas Digges had suggested that
this theory should necessitate a parallactic shifting of
the stars, and, consequently, if such stellar parallaxes
existed, then the Copernican theory would receive additional
confirmation.  Many observers claimed to have determined such
parallaxes, but Tycho Brahe and G. B. Riccioll concluded
that they existed only in the minds of the observers, and
were due to instrumental and personal errors.  In 1680 Jean
Picard, in his Voyage d'Uranibourg, stated, as a result
of ten years' observations, that Polaris, or the Pole
Star, exhibited variations in its position amounting to 40"
annually; some astronomers endeavoured to explain this by
parallax, but these attempts were futile, for the motion
was at variance with that which parallax would occasion.  J.
Flamsteed, from measurements made in 1689 and succeeding
years with his mural quadrant, similarly concluded that the
declination of the Pole Star was 40" less in July than in
September.  R. Hooke, in 1674, pubilshed his observations of
g Draconis, a star of the second magnitude which passes
practically overhead in the latitude of London, and whose
observations are therefore singularly free from the complex
corrections due to astronomical refraction, and concluded
that this star was 23" more northerly in July than in October.

When James Bradley and Samuel Moineux entered this sphere of
astronomical research in 1725, there consequently prevailed
much uncertainty as to whether stellar parallaxes had been
observed or not; and it was with the intention of definitely
answering this question that these astronomers erected a large
telescope at the house of the latter at Kew. They determined
to reinvestigate the motion of g Draconis; the telescope,
constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated
instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack,
in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the
eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e. the deviation from the
vertical, was regulated and measured by the introduction
of a screw and a plumb-line.  The instrument was set up
in November 1725, and observations on g Draconis were
made on the 3rd, 5th, 11th, and 12th of December.  There
was apparently no shifting of the star, which was therefore
thought to be at its most southerly point.  On the 17th of
December, however, Bradley observed that the star was moving
southwards, a motion further shown by observations on the
20th.  These results were unexpected, and, in fact, inexplicable
by existing theories; and an examination of the telescope
showed that the observed anomalies were not due to instrumental
errors.  The observations were continued, and the star was
seen to continue its southerly course until March, when it
took up a position some 20" more southerly than its December
position.  After March it began to pass northwards, a motion
quite apuarent by the middle of April; in June it passed
at the same distance from the zenith as it did in December;
and in September it passed through its most northerly
position, the extreme range from north to south, i.e. the
angle between the March and September positions, being 40".

This motion is evidently not due to parallax, for, in this
case, the maximum range should be between the June and
December positions; neither was it due to observatiooal
errors.  Bradley and Molyneux discussed several hypotheses in
the hope of fixing the solution.  One hypothesis was: while
g Draconis was stationary, the plumb-line, from which
the angular measurements were made, varied; this would follow
if the axis of the earth varied.  The oscillation of the
earth's axis may arise in two distinct ways; distinguished
as ``nutation of the axis'' and ``variation of latitude.''
Nutation, the only form of oscillation imagined by Bradley,
postulates that while the earth's axis is fixed with respect
to the earth, i.e. the north and south poles occupy permanent
geographical positions, yet the axis is not directed towards
a fixed point in the heavens; variation of latitude, however,
is associated with the shifting of the axis within the earth,
i.e. the geographical position of the north pole varies.

Nutation of the axis would determine a similar apparent
motion for all stars: thus, all stars having the same polar
distance as g Draconis should exhibit the same apparent
motion after or before this star by a constant interval. 
Many stars satisfy the condition of equality of polar distance
with that of g Draconis, but few were bright enough to
be observed in Molyneux's telescope.  One such star, however,
with a right ascension nearly equal to that of g Draconis,
but in thc opposite sense, was selected and kept under
observation.  This star was seen to possess an apparent
motion similar to that which would be a consequence of the
nutation of the earth's axis; but since its declination
varied only one half as much as in the case of g Draconis,
it was obvious that nutation did not supply the requisite
solution.  The question as to whether the motion was due to
an irregular distribution of the earth's atmosphere, thus
involving abnormal variations in the refractive index, was
also investigated; here, again, negative results were obtained.

Bradley had already perceived, in the case of the two stars
previously scrutinized, that the apparent difference of
declination from the maximum positions was nearly proportional
to the sun's distance from the equinoctial points; and he
reallzed the necessity for more observations before any
generalization could be attempted.  For this purpose he
repaired to the Rectory, Wanstead, then the residence of Mrs
Pound, the widow of his uncle James Pound, with whom he had
made many observations of the heavenly bodies.  Here he had set
up, on the 19th of August 1727, a more convenient telescope
than that at Kew, its range extending over 6 1/4 deg.  on each
side of the zenith, thus covering a far larger area of the
sky.  Two hundred stars in the British Catalogue of
Flamsteed traversed its field of view; and, of these, about
fifty were kept under close observation.  His conclusions
may be thus summatized: (1) only stars near the solstitial
colure had their maximum north and south positions when the
sun was near the equinoxes, (2) each star was at its maximum
positions when it passed the zenith at six o'clock morning
and evening (this he afterwards showed to be inaccurate, and
found the greatest change in declination to be proportional
to the latitude of the star), (3) the apparent motions of
all stars at about the same time was in the same direction.

A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as
to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory
was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in
simplicity and importance with the association of a falling
apple with the discovery of the principle of universal
gravitation.  Sailing on the river Thames, Bradley repeatedly
observed the shifting of a vane on the mast as the boat altered
its courser and, having been assured that the motion of the
vane meant that the boat, and not the wind, had altered its
direction, he realized that the position taken up by the vane
was determined by the motion of the boat and the direction of the
wind.  The application of this observation to the phenomenon
which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in
1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light--a
corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.  Let
S (fig. 2) be a star and the observer be carried along the
line AB; let SB be perpendicular to AB. If the observer be
stationary at B, the star will appear in the direction BS;
if, however, he traverses the distance BA in the same time
as light passes from the star to his eye, the star will E
appear in the direction AS. Since, however, the observer is
not conscious of his own translatory motion with the earth
in its orbit, the star appears to have a displacement which
is at all times parallel to the motion of the observer.  To
generalize this, let S (fig. 3) be the sun, ABCD the earth's
orbit, and s the true position of a star.  When the earth
is at A, in consequence of aberration, the star is displaced
to a point a, its displacement sa being parallel to the
earth's motion at A; when the earth is at B, the star appears
at b; and so on throughout an orbital revolution of the
earth.  Every star, therefore, describes an apparent orbit,
which, if the line joining the sun and the star be perpendicular
to the plane ABCD, will be exactly similar to that of the
earth, i.e. almost a circle.  As the star decreases in
latitude, this circle will be viewed more and more obliquely,
becoming a flatter and flatter ellipse until, with zero
latitude, it degenerates into a straight line (fig. 4).

The major axis of any such aberrational ellipse is always parallel
to AC, i.e. the ecliptic, and since it is equal to the ratio
of the velocity of light to the velocity of the earth, it is
necessarily constant.  This constant length subtends an angle
of about 40" at the earth; the ``constant of aberration'' is
half this angle.  The generally accepted value is 20.445", due
to Struve; the last two figures are uncertain, and all that can
be definitely affirmed is that the value lies between 20.43" and
20.48".  The minor axis, on the other hand, is not constant,
but, as we have already seen, depends on the latitude, being
the product of the major axis into the sine of the latitude.

Assured that his explanation was true, Bradley corrected his
observations for aberration, but he found that there still
remained a residuum which was evidently not a parallax, for
it did not exhibit an annual cycle.  He reverted to his early
idea of a nutation of the earth's axis, and was rewarded by the
discovery that the earth did possess such an osculation (see
ASTRONOMY).  Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental
determination of the aberration constant gave the ratio of the
velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity
of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined. 
In recent years much attention has been given to the nature
of the propagation of light from the heavenly bodies to the
earth, the argument generally being centred about the relative
effect of the motion of the aether on the velocity of light. 
This subject is discussed in the articles AETHER and LIGHT.

REFERENCES.--A detailed account of Bradley's work is
given in S. Rigaud, Memoirs of Bradley (1832), and in
Charles Hutton, Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary
(1795); a particularly clear and lucid account is given
in H. H. Turner, Astronomical Discovery (1904).  The
subject receives treatment in all astronomical works.

systems, i.e. in lenses or mirrors or a series of them,
may be defined as the non-concurrence of rays from the
points of an object after transmission through the system;
it happens generally that an image formed by such a system
is irregular, and consequently the correction of optical
systems for aberration is of fundamental importance to the
instruunent-maker.  Reference should he made to the articles
REFLEXION, REFRACTION and CAUSTIC for the general characters
of reflected and refracted rays (the article LENS considers
in detail the properties of this instrument, and should also
be consulted); in this article will be discussed the nature,
varieties and modes of aberrations mainly from the practical
point of view, i.e. that of the optical-instrument maker.

Aberrations may be divided in two classes: chromatic (Gr.
oroma, colour) aberrations, caused by the composite
nature of the light generally applied (e.g. white light),
which is dispersed by refraction, and monochromatic (Gr.
monos, one) aberrations produced without dispersion. 
Consequently the monochromatic class includes the aberrations
at reflecting surfaces of any coloured light, and at refracting
surfaces of monochromatic or light of single wave length.

(a) Monochromatic Aberration. The elementary theory of optical
systems leads to the theorem; Rays of light proceeding from
any ``object point,' unite in an ``image point''; and therefore
an ``object space'' is reproduced in an ``image space.'' The
introduction of simple auxiliary terms, due to C. F. Gauss
(Dioptrische Untersuchungen, Gottingen, 1841), named the
focal lengths and focal planes, permits the determination
of the image of any object for any system (see LENS). The
Gaussian theory, however, is only true so long as the angles
made by all rays with the optical axis (the symmetrical axis
of the system) are infinitely small, i.e. with infinitesimal
objects, images and lenses; in practice these conditions are
not realized, and the images projected by uncorrected systems
are, in general, ill defined and often completely blurred,
if the aperture or field of view exceeds certain limits. 
The investigations of James Clerk Maxwell (Phil.Mag., 1856;
Quart.  Journ.  Math., 1858, and Ernst Abbe1) showed that
the properties of these reproductions, i.e. the relative
position .and magnitude of the images, are not special
properties of optical systems, but necessary consequences of
the supposition (in Abbe) of the reproduction of all points
of a space in image points (Maxwell assumes a less general
hypothesis), and are independent of the manner in which the
reproduction is effected.  These authors proved, however, that
no optical system can justify these suppositions, since they
are contradictory to the fundamental laws of reflexion and
refraction.  Consequently the Gaussian theory only supplies
a convenient method of approximating to reality; and no
constructor would attempt to realize this unattainable ideal. 
All that at present can be attempted is, to reproduce a single
plane in another plane; but even this has not been altogether
satisfactorily accomplished, aberrations always occur, and
it is improbable that these will ever be entirely corrected.

This, and related general questions, have been treated--besides
the above-mentioned authors--by M. Thiesen (Berlin. 
Akad.  Sitzber., 1890, xxxv. 799; Berlin.Phys.Ges. 
Verb., 1892) and H. Bruns (Leipzig. Math.  Phys. 
Ber., 1895, xxi. 325) by means of Sir W. R. Hamilton's
``characteristic function'' (Irish Acad.  Trans., ``Theory
of Systems of Rays,,' 1828, et seq.).  Reference may also
be made to the treatise of Czapski-Eppenstein, pp. 155-161.

A review of the simplest cases of aberration will now be
given. (1) Aberration of axial points (Spherical aberration
in the restricted sense).  If S (fig.5) be any optical
system, rays proceeding from an axis point O under an angle
u1 will unite in the axis point O'1; and those under an
angle u2 in the axis point O'2.  If there be refraction
at a collective spherical surface, or through a thin positive
lens, O'2 will lie in front of O'1 so long as the angle
u2 is greater than u1 (``under correction''); and
conversely with a dispersive surface or lenses (``over
correction'').  The caustic, in the first case, resembles
the sign > (greater than); in the second K (less than).  If
the angle u1 be very small, O'1 is the Gaussian image;
and O'1 O'2 is termed the ``longitudinal aberration,''
and O'1R the ``lateral aberration'' of the pencils with
aperture u2. If the pencil with the angle u2 be that
of the maximum aberration of all the pencils transmitted,
then in a plane perpendicular to the axis at O'1 there is
a circular ``disk of confusion'' of radius O'1R, and in a
parallel plane at O'2 another one of radius O'2R2; between
these two is situated the ``disk of least confusion.''

The largest opening of the pencils, which take part in the
reproduction of O, i.e. the angle u, is generally determined
by the margin of one of the lenses or by a hole in a thin
plate placed between, before, or behind the lenses of the
system.  This hole is termed the ``stop'' or ``diaphragm'';
Abbe used the term ``aperture stop'' for both the hole and
the limiting margin of the lens.  The component S1 of the
system, situated between the aperture stop and the object
O, projects an image of the diaphragm, termed by Abbe the
``entrance pupil''; the ``exit pupil'' is the image formed
by the component S2, which is placed behind the aperture
stop.  All rays which issue from O and pass through the aperture
stop also pass through the entrance and exit pupils, since these
are images of the aperture stop.  Since the maximum aperture
of the pencils issuing from O is the angle u subtended by the
entrance pupil at this point, the magnitude of the aberration
will be determined by the position and diameter of the entrance
pupil.  If the system be entirely behind the aperture stop,
then this is itself the entrance pupil (``front stop'');
if entirely in front, it is the exit pupil (``back stop'').

If the object point be infinitely distant, all rays received
by the first member of the system are parallel, and their
intersections, after traversing the system, vary according
to their ``perpendicular height of incidence,'' i.e. their
distance from the axis.  This distance replaces the angle
u in the preceding considerations; and the aperture, i.e.
the radius of the entrance pupil, is its maximum value.

(2) Aberration of elements, i.e. smallest objects at right
angles to the axis.--If rays issuing from O (fig. 5) be
concurrent, it does not follow that points in a portion
of a plane perpendicular at O to the axis will be also
concurrent, even if the part of the plane be very small. 
With a considerable aperture, the neighbouring point N will
be reproduced, but attended by aberrations comparable in
magnitude to ON. These aberrations are avoided if, according to
Abbe, the ``sine condition,'' sin u'1/sin u1=sin u'2jsin
u2, holds for all rays reproducing the point O. If the
object point O be infinitely distant, u1 and u2 are
to be replaced by pi and h2, the perpendicular heights of
incidence; the ``sine condition', then becomes sin u,1jh1
sin u'2/h2. A system fulfilling this condition and free
from spherical aberration is called ``aplanatic'' (Greek
a-, privative, plann, a wandering).  This word was
first used by Robert Blair (d. 1828), professor of practical
astronomy at Edinburgh University, to characterize a superior
achromatism, and, subsequently, by many writers to denote
freedom from spherical aberration.  Both the aberration of axis
points, and the deviation from the sine condition, rapidly
increase in most (uncorrected) systems with the aperture.

(3) Aberration of lateral object points (points beyond the
axis) with narrow pencils.  Astigmatism.---A point O (fig.
6) at a finite distance from the, axis (or with an infinitely
distant object, a point which subtends a finite angle at the
system) is, in general, even then not sharply reproduced, if
the pencil of rays issuing from it and traversing the system
is made infinitely narrow by reducing the aperture stop; such
a pencil consists of the rays which can pass from the object
point through the now infinitely small entrance pupil.  It
is seen (ignoring exceptional cases) that the pencil does
not meet he refracting or reflecting surface at right angles;
therefore it is astigmatic (Gr. a-, privative, stigmia, a
point).  Naming the central ray passing through the entrance
pupil the ``axis of the pencil,' or ``principal ray,'' we
can say: the rays of the pencil intersect, not in one point,
but in two focal lines, which we can assume to be at right
angles to the principal ray; of these, one lies in the plane
containing the principal ray and the axis of the system,
i.e. in the ``first principal section'' or ``meridional
section,', and the other at right angles to it, i.e. in the
second principal section or sagittal section.  We receive,
therefore, in no single intercepting plane behind the system,
as, for example, a focussing screen, an image of the object
point; on the other hand, in each of two planes lines O' and
O" are separately formed (in neighbouring planes ellipses are
formed), and in a plane between O' and O" a circle of least
confusion.  The interval O'O", termed the astigmatic difference,
increases, in general, with the angle W made by the principal
ray OP with the axis of the system, i.e. with the field of
view.  Two ``astigmatic image surfaces'' correspond to one
object plane; and these are in contact at the axis point; on
the one lie the focal lines of the first kind, on the other
those of the second.  Systems in which the two astigmatic
surfaces coincide are termed anastigmatic or stigmatic.

Sir Isaac Newron was probably the discoverer of astigmation;
the position of the astigmatic image lines was determined by
Thomas Young (A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy,
1807); and the theory has been recently developed by A.
Gullstrand (Skand. Arch. f. physiol., 1890, 2, p. 269;
Allgemeine Theorie der monochromat. Aberrationen, etc.,
Upsala, 1900; Arch. f.  Ophth., 1901, 53, pp. 2, 185).  A
bibliography by P. Culmann is given in M. von Rohr's Die
Bilderzeugung in opitschen Instrumenten (Berlin, 1904).

(4) Aberration of lateral object points with broad pencils. 
Coma. ---By opening the stop wider, similar deviations arise
for lateral points as have been already discussed for axial
points; but in this case they are much more complicated. 
The course of the rays in the meridional section is no longer
symmetrical to the principal ray of the pencil; and on an
intercepting plane there appears, instead of a luminous
point, a patch of light, not symmetrical about a point, and
often exhibiting a resemblance to a comet having its tail
directed towards or away from the axis.  From this appearance
it takes its name.  The unsymmetrical form of the meridional
pencil--formerly the only one considered--is coma in the
narrower sense only; other errors of coma have been treated by
A. Konig and M. von Rohr (op. cit.), and more recently by
A. Gullstrand (op. cit.; Ann. d.  Phys., 1905, 18, p. 941).

(5) Curvature of the field of the image.---If the above errors
be eliminated, the two astigmatic surfaces united, and a sharp
image obtained with a wide aperture--there remains the necessity
to correct the curvature of the image surface, especially when
the image is to be received upon a plane surface, e.g. in
photography.  In most cases the surface is concave towards the system.

(6) Distortion of the image.--If now the image be sufficiently
sharp, inasmuch as the rays proceeding from every object point
meet in an image point of satisfactory exactitude, it may happen
that the image is distorted, i.e. not sufficiently like the
object.  This error consists in the different parts of the
object being reproduced with different magnifications; for
instance, the inner parts may differ in greater magnification
than the outer (``barrel-shaped distortion''), or conversely
(``cushion-shaped distortion'') (see fig. 7). Systems free
of this aberration are called ``orthoscopic'' (orthos ,
right, skopein to look).  This aberration is quite distinct
from that of the sharpness of reproduction; in unsharp,
reproduction, the question of distortion arises if only parts of
the object can be recognized in the figure.  If, in an unsharp
image, a patch of light corresponds to an object point, the
``centre of gravity'' of the patch may be regarded as the image
point, this being the point where the plane receiving the
image, e.g. a focussing screen, intersects the ray passing
through the middle of the stop.  This assumption is justified
if a poor image on the focussing screen remains stationary
when the aperture is diminished; in practice, this generally
occurs.  This ray, named by Abbe a ``principal ray'' (not to be
confused with the ``principal rays'' of the Gaussian theory),
passes through the centre of the enttance pupil before the first
refraction, and the centre of the exit pupil after the last
refraction.  From this it follows that correctness of drawing
depends solely upon the principal rays; and is independent
of the sharpness or curvature of the image field.  Referring
to fig. 8, we have O'Q'/OQ = a' tan w'/a tan w = 1/N,
where N is the ``scale'' or magnification of the image.  For
N to be constant for all values of w, a' tan w'/a tan
w must also be constant.  If the ratio a'/a be sufficiently
constant, as is often the case, the above relation reduces
to the ``condition of Airy,'' i.e. tan w'/ tan w= a
constant.  This simple relation (see Camb.  Phil.  Trans.,
1830, 3, p. 1) is fulfilled in all systems which are symmetrical
with respect to their diaphragm (briefly named ``symmetrical
or holosymmetrical objectives''), or which consist of two like,
but different-sized, components, placed from the diaphragm
in the ratio of their size, and presenting the same curvature
to it (hemisymmetrical objectives); in these systems tan
w' / tan w = 1. The constancy of a'/a necessary for
this relation to hold was pointed out by R. H. Bow (Brit. 
Journ.  Photog., 1861), and Thomas Sutton (Photographic
Notes, 1862); it has been treated by O. Lummer and by M. von
Rohr (Zeit. f.  Instrumentenk., 1897, 17, and 1898, 18, p. 4).
It requires the middle of the aperture stop to be reproduced in
the centres of the entrance and exit pupils without spherical
aberration.  M. von Rohr showed that for systems fulfilling
neither the Airy nor the Bow-Sutton condition, the ratio a'
tan w'/a tan w will be constant for one distance of the
object.  This combined condition is exactly fulfilled
by holosymmetrical objectives reproducing with the scale
1, and by hemisymmetrical, if the scale of reproduction
be equal to the ratio of the sizes of the two components.

Analytic Treatment of Aberrations.---The preceding review
of the several errors of reproduction belongs to the ``Abbe
theory of aberrations,'' in which definite aberrations are
discussed separately; it is well suited to practical needs, for
in the construction of an optical instrument certain errors are
sought to be eliminated, the selection of which is justified by
experience.  In the mathematical sense, however, this selection
is arbitrary; the reproduction of a finite object with a finite
aperture entails, in all probability, an infinite number of
aberrations.  This number is only finite if the object and
aperture are assumed to be ``infinitely small of a certain
order''; and with each order of infinite smallness, i.e. with
each degree of approximation to reality (to finite objects and
apertures), a certain number of aberrations is associated.  This
connexion is only supplied by theories which treat aberrations
generally and analytically by means of indefinite series.

A ray proceeding from an object point O (fig. 9) can be defined
by the co-ordinates (x, e).  Of this point O in an object
plane I, at right angles to the axis, and two other co-ordinates
(x, y), the point in which the ray intersects the entrance
pupil, i.e. the plane II. Similarly the corresponding image
ray may be defined by the points (x', e'), and (x',
y'), in the planes I' and II'. The origins of these four
plane co-ordinate systems may be collinear with the axis
of the optical system; and the corresponding axes may be
parallel.  Each of the four co-ordinates x', e', x', y'
are functions of x, e, x, y; and if it be assumed that the
field of view and the aperture be infinitely small, then x,
e, x, y are of the same order of infinitesimals; consequently
by expanding x', e', x', y' in ascending powers of x,
e, x, y, series are obtained in which it is only necessary
to consider the lowest powers.  It is readily seen that if the
optical system be symmetrical, the orqins of the co-ordinate
systems collinear with the optical axis and the corresponding
axes parallel, then by changing the signs of x, e, x,
y, the values x', e', x', y' must likewise change their
sign, but retain their arithmetical values; this means that the
series are restricted to odd powers of the unmarked variables.

The nature of the reproduction consists in the rays proceeding
from a point O being united in another point O'; in general,
this will not be the case, for x', e' vary if x, e be
constant, but x, y variable.  It may be assumed that the
planes I' and II' are drawn where the images of the planes
I and II are formed by rays near the axis by the ordinary
Gaussian rules; and by an extension of these rules, not,
however, corresponding to reality, the Gauss image point
O'0, with co-ordinates x'0, e'0, of the point O at
some distance from the axis could be constructed.  Writing
Dx'=x'-x'0 and De'=e'-e'0, then Dx' and
De' are the aberrations belonging to x, e and x, y,
and are functions of these magnitudes which, when expanded in
series, contain only odd powers, for the same reasons as given
above.  On account of the aberrations of all rays which
pass through O, a patch of light, depending in size on
the lowest powers of x, e, x, y which the aberrations
contain, will be formed in the plane I'. These degrees,
named by (J. Petzval (Bericht uber die Ergebnisse einiger
dioptrischer Untersuchnungen, Buda Pesth, 1843; Akad. 
Sitzber., Wien, 1857, vols. xxiv. xxvi.) ``the numerical
orders of the image,'' are consequently only odd powers; the
condition for the formation of an image of the mth order
is that in the series for Dx' and De' the coefficients
of the powers of the 3rd, 5th . . . (m-2)th degrees must
vanish.  The images of the Gauss theory being of the third
order, the next problem is to obtain an image of 5th order,
or to make the coefficients of the powers of 3rd degree
zero.  This necessitates the satisfying of five equations;
in other words, there are five alterations of the 3rd order,
the vanishing of which produces an image of the 5th order.

The expression for these coefficients in terms of the constants
of the optical system, i.e. the radii, thicknesses, refractive
indices and distances between the lenses, was solved by L.
Seidel (Astr. Nach., 1856, p. 289); in 1840, J. Petzval
constructed his portrait objective, unexcelled even at the present
day, from similar calculations, which have never been published
(see M. von Rohr, Theorie und Geschichte des photographischen
Objectivs, Berlin, 1899, p. 248).  The theory was elaborated
by S. Finterswalder (Munchen. Acad.  Abhandl., 1891,
17, p. 519), who also published a posthumous paper of Seidel
containing a short view of his work (Munchen.  Akad.
Sitrber., 1898, 28, p. 395); a simpler form was given by A.
Kerber (Beitrage zur Dioptrik, Leipzig, 1895-6-7-8-9).  A.
Konig and M. von Rohr (see M. von Rohr, Die Bilderzeugung
in optischen Instrumenten, pp. 317-323) have represented
Kerber's method, and have deduced the Seidel formulae from
geometrical considerations based on the Abbe method, and have
interpreted the analytical results geometrically (pp. 212-316).

The aberrations can also be expressed by means of the
"characteristic function'' of the system and its differential
coefficients, instead of by the radii, &c., of the lenses;
these formulae are not immediately applicable, but give,
however, the relation between the number of aberrations and the
order.  Sir William Rowan Hamilton (British Assoc.  Report,
1833, p. 360) thus derived the aberrations of the third order;
and in later times the method was pursued by Clerk Maxwell
(Proc.  London Math.  Soc., 1874--1875; (see also the treatises
of R. S. Heath and L. A. Herman), M. Thiesen (Berlin. Akad. 
Sitzber., 1890, 35, p. 804), H. Bruns (Leipzig.  Math. 
Phys.  Ber., 1895, 21, p. 410), and particularly successfully
by K. Schwartzschild (Gottingen.  Akad.  Abhandl., 1905,
4, No. 1), who thus discovered the aberrations of the 5th
order (of which there are nine), and possibly the shortest
proof of the practical (Seidel) formulae.  A. Gullstrand (vide
supra, and Ann. d.  Phys., 1905, 18, p. 941) founded his
theory of aberrations on the differential geometry of surfaces.

The aberrations of the third order are: (1) aberration of the
axis point; (2) aberration of points whose distance from the
axis is very small, less than of the third order---the deviation
from the sine condition and coma here fall together in one class;
(3) astigmatism; (4) curvature of the field; (5) distortion.

(1) Aberration of the third order of axis points is dealt with
in all text-books on optics.  It is important for telescope
objectives, since their apertures are so small as to permit
higher orders to be neglected.  For a single lens of very
small thickness and given power, the aberration depends upon
the ratio of the radii r:r', and is a minimum (but never
zero) for a certain value of this ratio; it varies inversely
with the refractive index (the power of the lens remaining
constant).  The total aberration of two or more very thin lenses
in contact, being the sum of the individual aberrations, can be
zero.  This is also possible if the lenses have the same algebraic
sign.  Of thin positive lenses with n=1.5, four are necessary
to correct spherical aberration of the third order.  These
systems, however, are not of great practical importance.  In
most cases, two thin lenses are combined, one of which has
just so strong a positive aberration (``under-correction,''
vide supra) as the other a negative; the first must be a
positive lens and the second a negative lens; the powers,
however: may differ, so that the desired effect of the lens is
maintained.  It is generally an advantage to secure a great
refractive effect by several weaker than by one high-power
lens.  By one, and likewise by several, and even by an
infinite number of thin lenses in contact, no more than two
axis points can be reproduced without aberration of the third
order.  Freedom from aberration for two axis points, one of which
is infinitely distant, is known as ``Herschel's condition.''
All these rules are valid, inasmuch as the thicknesses and
distances of the lenses are not to be taken into account.

(2) The condition for freedom from coma in the third order
is also of importance for telescope objectives; it is
known as ``Fraunhofer's condition.'' (4) After eliminating
the aberration On the axis, coma and astigmatism, the
relation for the flatness of the field in the third order is
expressed by the ``Petzval equation,'' S1/r(n'-n) =
0, where r is the radius of a refracting surface, n
and n' the refractive indices of the neighbouring media,
and S the sign of summation for all refracting surfaces.

Practical Elimination of Aberrations.---The existence of
an optical system, which reproduces absolutely a finite plane
on another with pencils of finite aperture, is doubtful; but
practical systems solve this problem with an accuracy which
mostly suffices for the special purpose of each species of
instrument.  The problem of finding a system which reproduces
a given object upon a given plane with given magnification
(in so far as aberrations must be taken into account) could
be dealt with by means of the approximation theory; in most
cases, however, the analytical difficulties are too groat. 
Solutions, however, have been obtained in special cases (see
A. Konig in M. von Rohr's Die Bilderzeugung, p. 373; K.
Schwarzschild, Gottingen.  Akad. Abhandl., 1905, 4, Nos.
2 and 3). At the present time constructors almost always employ
the inverse method: they compose a system from certain, often
quite personal experiences, and test, by the trigonometrical
calculation of the paths of several rays, whether the system
gives the desired reproduction (examples are given in A.
Gleichen, Lehrbuch der geometrischen Optik, Leipzig and Berlin,
1902).  The radii, thicknesses and distances are continually
altered until the errors of the image become sufficiently
small.  By this method only certain errors of reproduction are
investigated, especially individual members, or all, of those named
above.  The analytical approximation theory is often employed
provisionally, since its accuracy does not generally suffice.

In order to render spherical aberration and the deviation from
the sine condition small throughout the whole aperture, there
is given to a ray with a finite angle of aperture u* (width
infinitely distant objects: with a finite height of incidence
h*) the same distance of intersection, and the same sine
ratio as to one neighbouring the axis (u* or h* may not be
much smaller than the largest aperture U or H to be used in the
system).  The rays with an angle of aperture smaller than
u* would not have the same distance of intersection and
the same sine ratio; these deviations are called ``zones,''
and the constructor endeavours to reduce these to a minimum. 
The same holds for the errors depending upon the angle of
the field of view, w: astigmatism, curvature of field
and distortion are eliminated for a definite value, w*,
``zones of astigmatism, curvature of field and distortion,'
attend smaller values of w.  The practical optician names
such systems: ``corrected for the angle of aperture u*
(the height of incidence h*) or the angle of field of
view w*.'' Spherical aberration and changes of the sine
ratios are often represented graphically as functions of the
aperture, in the same way as the deviations of two astigmatic
image surfaces of the image plane of the axis point are
represented as functions of the angles of the field of view.

The final form of a practical system consequently rests
on compromise; enlargement of the aperture results in
a diminution of the available field of view, and vice
versa.  The following may be regarded as typical:--(1)
Largest aperture; necessary corrections are--for the axis
point, and sine condition; errors of the field of view are
almost disregarded; example-- high-power microscope objectives.
(2) Largest field of view; necessary corrections are--for
astigmatism, curvature of field and distortion; errors of
the aperture only slightly regarded; examples--photographic
widest angle objectives and oculars.  Between these extreme
examples stands the ordinary photographic objective: the
portrait objective is corrected more with regard to aperture;
objectives for groups more with regard to the field of
view. (3) Telescope objectives have usually not very large
apertures, and small fields of view; they should, however,
possess zones as small as possible, and be built in the simplest
manner.  They are the best for analytical computation.

(b) Chromatic or Colour Aberration. In optical systems
composed of lenses, the position, magnitude and errors
of the image depend upon the refractive indices of the
glass employed (see LENS, and above, ``Monochromatic
Aberration'').  Since the index of refraction varies with
the colour or wave length of the light (see DISPERSION),
it follows that a system of lenses (uncorrected) projects
images of different colours in somewhat different places
and sizes and with different aberrations; i.e. there are
``chromatic differences'' of the distances of intersection,
of magnifications, and of monochromatic aberrations.  If
mixed light be employed (e.g. white light) all these images
are formed; and since they are ail ultimately intercepted
by a plane (the retina of the eye, a focussing screen of a
camera, &c.), they cause a confusion, named chromatic
aberration; for instance, instead of a white margin on a dark
background, there is perceived a coloured margin, or narrow
spectrum.  The absence of this error is termed achromatism,
and an optical system so corrected is termed achromatic. 
A system is said to be ``chromatically under-corrected''
when it shows the same kind of chromatic error as a thin
positive lens, otherwise it is said to be ``over-corrected.''

If, in the first place, monochromatic aberrations be neglected
---in other words, the Gaussian theory be accepted---then
every reproduction is determined by the positions of the focal
planes, and the magnitude of the focal lengths, or if the focal
lengths, as ordinarily happens, be equal, by three constants of
reproduction.  These constants are determined by the data
of the system (radii, thicknesses, distances, indices, &c.,
of the lenses); therefore their dependence on the refractive
index, and consequently on the colour, are calculable (the
formulae are given in Czapski-Eppenstein, Grundzuge der
Theorie der optischen Instrumente (1903, p. 166).  The
refractive indices for different wave lengths must be known
for each kind of glass made use of.  In this manner the
conditions are maintained that any one constant of reproduction
is equal for two different colours, i.e. this constant is
achromatized.  For example, it is possible, with one thick
lens in air, to achromatize the position of a focal plane of
the magnitude of the focal length.  If all three constants
of reproduction be achromatized, then the Gaussian image for
all distances of objects is the same for the two colours,
and the system is said to be in ``stable achromatism.''

In practice it is more advantageous (after Abbe) to determine
the chromatic aberration (for instance, that of the distance
of intersection) for a fixed position of the object, and
express it by a sum in which each component conlins the amount
due to each refracting surface (see Czapski-Eppenstein, op.
cit. p. 170; A. Konig in M. v.  Rohr's collection, Die
Bilderzeugung, p. 340).  In a plane containing the image point
of one colour, another colour produces a disk of confusion;
this is similar to the confusion caused by two ``zones'' in
spherical aberration.  For infinitely distant objects the
radius Of the chromatic disk of confusion is proportional to
the linear aperture, and independent of the focal length (vide
supra, ``Monochromatic Aberration of the Axis Point''); and
since this disk becomes the less harmful with au increasing
image of a given object, or with increasing focal length,
it follows that the deterioration of the image is propor-,
tional to the ratio of the aperture to the focal length,
i.e. the ``relative aperture.'' (This explains the gigantic
focal lengths in vogue before the discovery of achromatism.)

Examples.--(a) In a very thin lens, in air, only one constant
of reproduction is to be observed, since the focal length and
the distance of the focal point are equal.  If the refractive
index for one colour be n, and for another n+dn, and the
powers, or reciprocals of the focal lengths, be f and f + d
f, then (1) df/f = dn/(n-1) = 1/n; dn is called
the dispersion, and n the dispersive power of the glass.

(b) Two thin lenses in contact: let f1 and f2 be
the powers corresponding to the lenses of refractive indices
n1 and n2 and radii r'1, r"1, and r'2,
r"2 respectively; let f denote the total power, and d
f, dn1, dn2 the changes of f, n1, and n2
with the colour.  Then the following relations hold:--

(2) f = f1-f2== (n1 - 1)(1/r'1-1/r''1) +(n2-1)(1/
r'2 - 1/r''2) = (n1 - 1)k1 + (n2 - 1)k2; and

(3) df = k1dn1 + k2dn2. 
For achromatism df = 0, hence, from (3),

(4) k1/k2 = -dn2 / dn1, or f1/f2 = -n1/
n2.  Therefore f1 and f2 must have different algebraic
signs, or the system must be composed of a collective and a
dispersive lens.  Consequently the powers of the two must be
different (in order that f be not zero (equation 2)), and
the dispersive powers must also be different (according to 4).

Newton failed to perceive the existence of media of
different dispersive powers required by achromatism;
consequently he constructed large reflectors instead of
refractors.  James Gregory and Leonhard Euler arrived at the
correct view from a false conception of the achromatism of
the eye; this was determined by Chester More Hall in 1728,
Klingenstierna in 1754 and by Dollond in 1757, who constructed
the celebrated achromatic telescopes. (See TELESCOPE.)

Glass with weaker dispersive power (greater v) is named
``crown glass''; that with greater dispersive power, ``flint
glass.'' For the construction of an achromatic collective lens
(f positive) it follows, by means of equation (4), that a
collective lens I. of crown glass and a dispersive lens II. of
flint glass must be chosen; the latter, although the weaker,
corrects the other chromatically by its greater dispersive
power.  For an achromatic dispersive lens the converse must be
adopted.  This is, at the present day, the ordinary type,
e.g., of telescope objective (fig. 10); the values of
the four radii must satisfy the equations (2) and (4). Two
other conditions may also be postulated: one is always the
elimination of the aberration on the axis; the second either
the ``Herschel'' or ``Fraunhofer Condition,'' the latter being
the best vide supra, ``Monochromatic Aberration'').  In
practice, however, it is often more useful to avoid the second
condition by making the lenses have contact, i.e. equal
radii.  According to P. Rudolph (Eder's Jahrb. f.  Photog.,
1891, 5, p. 225; 1893, 7, p. 221), cemented objectives of
thin lenses permit the elimination of spherical aberration
on the axis, if, as above, the collective lens has a smaller
refractive index; on the other hand, they permit the elimination
of astigmatism and curvature of the field, if the collective
lens has a greater refractive index (this follows from the
Petzval equation; see L. Seidel, Astr.  Nachr., 1856, p.
289).  Should the cemented system be positive, then the more
powerful lens must be positive; and, according to (4), to the
greater power belongs the weaker dispersive power (greater
v), that is to say, clown glass; consequently the crown
glass must have the greater refractive index for astigmatic
and plane images.  In all earlidr kinds of glass, however,
the dispersive power increased with the refractive index;
that is, v decreased as n increased; but some of the
Jena glasses by E. Abbe and O. Schott were crown glasses of
high refractive index, and achromatic systems from such crown
glasses, with flint glasses of lower refractive index, are
called the ``new achromats,'' and were employed by P. Rudolph
in the first ``anastigmats'' (photographic objectives).

Instead of making df vanish, a certain value can be assigned
to it which will produce, by the addition of the two lenses,
any desired chromatic deviation, e.g. sufficient to eliminate
one present in other parts of the system.  If the lenses I.
and II. be cemented and have the same refractive index for one
colour, then its effect for that one colour is that of a lens
of one piece; by such decomposition of a lens it can be made
chromatic or achromatic at will, without altering its spherical
effect.  If its chromatic effect (df/f) be greater than
that of the same lens, this being made of the more dispersive
of the two glasses employed, it is termed ``hyper-chromatic.''

For two thin lenses separated by a distance D the condition
for achromatism is D = v1f1+v2f2; if v1=v2
(e.g. if the lenses be made of the same glass), this reduces
to D= 1/2 (f1+f2), known as the ``condition for oculars.''

If a constant of reproduction, for instance the focal length,
be made equal for two colours, then it is not the same for
other colours, if two different glasses are employed.  For
example, the condition for achromatism (4) for two thin lenses
in contact is fulfilled in only one part of the spectrum, since
dn2/dn1 varies within the spectrum.  This fact was first
ascertained by J. Fraunhofer, who defined the colours by means
of the dark lines in the solar spectrum; and showed that the
ratio of the dispersion of two glasses varied about 20% from the
red to the violet (the variation for glass and water is about
50%).  If, therefore, for two colours, a and b, fa =
fb = f, then for a third colour, c, the focal length is
different, viz. if c lie between a and b, then fc<
f, and vice versa; these algebraic results follow from
the fact that towards the red the dispersion of the positive
crown glass preponderates, towards the violet that of the
negative flint.  These chromatic errors of systems, which
are achromatic for two colours, are called the ``secondary
spectrum,'' and depend upon the aperture and focal length
in the same manner as the primary chromatid errors do.

In fig. 11, taken from M. von Rohr,s Theoric und Geschichte des
photographischen Objectivs, the abscissae are focal lengths, and the
ordinates wave-lengths; of the latter the Fraunhofer lines used are--

A'       C      D   Green Hg.   F    G'    Violet Hg.
767.7  656.3  589.3  546.1    486.2 454.1  405.1 mm,

and the focal lengths are made equal for the lines C and F.
In the neighbourhood of 550 mm the tangent to the curve
is parallel to the axis of wave-lengths; and the focal
length varies least over a fairly large range of colour,
therefore in this neighbourhood the colour union is at its
best.  Moreover, this region of the spectrum is that which
appears brightest to the human eye, and consequently this
curve of the secondary on spectrum, obtained by making
fc = fF, is, according to the experiments of Sir G.
G. Stokes (Proc.  Roy. Soc., 1878), the most suitable for
visual instruments (``optical achromatism,').  In a similar
manner, for systems used in photography, the vertex of the
colour curve must be placed in the position of the maximum
sensibility of the plates; this is generally supposed to be at
G'; and to accomplish this the F and violet mercury lines are
united.  This artifice is specially adopted in objectives for
astronomical photography (``pure actinic achromatism'').  For
ordinary photography, however, there is this disadvantage:
the image on the focussing-screen and the correct adjustment
of the photographic sensitive plate are not in register; in
astronomical photography this difference is constant, but in
other kinds it depends on the distance of the objects.  On this
account the lines D and G' are united for ordinary photographic
objectives; the optical as well as the actinic image is
chromatically inferior, but both lie in the same place; and
consequently the best correction lies in F (this is known as
the ``actinic correction'' or ``freedom from chemical focus'').

Should there be in two lenses in contact the same focal lengths
for three colours a, b, and c, i.e. fa = fb =
fc = f, then the relative partial dispersion (nc-
nb) (na-nb) must be equal for the two kinds of glass
employed.  This follows by considering equation (4) for the
two pairs of colours ac and bc. Until recently no glasses
were known with a proportionap degree of absorption; but R.
Blair (Trans.  Edin.  Soc., 1791, 3, p. 3), P. Barlow, and
F. S. Archer overcame the difficulty by constructing fluid
lenses between glass walls.  Fraunhofer prepared glasses which
reduced the secondary spectrum; but permanent success was
only assured on the introduction of the Jena glasses by E.
Abbe and O. Schott.  In using glasses not having proportional
dispersion, the deviation of a third colour can be eliminated
by two lenses, if an interval be allowed between them; or
by three lenses in contact, which may not all consist of
the old glasses.  In uniting three colours an ``achromatism
of a higher order'' is derived; there is yet a residual
``tertiary spectrum,'' but it can always be neglected.

The Gaussian theory is only an approximation; monochromatic
or spherical aberrations still occur, which will be different
for different colours; and should they be compensated for one
colour, the image of another colour would prove disturbing. 
The most important is the chromatic difference of aberration
of the axis point, which is still present to disturb the
image, after par-axial rays of different colours are united
by an appropriate combination of glasses.  If a collective
system be corrected for the axis point for a definite
wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in
the negative components--the flint glasses,--over-correction
will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the
error of the negative components), and under-correction for
the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses
preponderating in the red).  This error was treated by
Jean le Rond d'Alembert, and, in special detail, by C. F.
Gauss.  It increases rapidly with the aperture, and is more
important with medium apertures than the secondary spectrum
of par-axial rays; consequently, spherical aberration must
be elliminated for two colours, and if this be impossible,
then it must be eliminated for those particular wave-lengths
which are most effectual for the instrument in question (a
graphical representation of this error is given in M. von Rohr,
Theorie und Geschichte des photographischen Objectivs).

The condition for the reproduction of a surface element in the
place of a sharply reproduced point--the constant of the sine
relationship must also be fulfilled with large apertures for
several colours.  E. Abbe succeeded in computing microscope
objectives free from error of the axis point and satisfying
the sine condition for several colours, which therefore,
according to his definition, were ``aplanatic for several
colours''; such systems he termed ``apochromatic''.  While,
however, the magnification of the individual zones is the
same, it is not the same for red as for blue; and there is a
chromatic difference of magnification.  This is produced in the
same amount, but in the opposite sense, by the oculars, which
ate used with these objectives (``compensating oculars''), so
that it is eliminated in the image of the whole microscope. 
The best telescope objectives, and photographic objectives
intended for three-colour work, are also apochromatic, even
if they do not possess quite the same quality of correction
as microscope objectives do.  The chromatic differences of
other errors of reproduction have seldom practical importances.

1 The investigations of E. Abbe on geometrical optics,
originally published only in his university lectures, were
first compiled by S. Czapski in 1893.  See below, AUTHORITIES.
AUTHORITIES.---The standard treatise in English is H. D.
Taylor, A System of Applied Optics (1906); reference may also
be made to R. S. Heath, A Treatise on Geometrical Optics (2nd
ed., 1895); and L A. Herman, A Treatise on Geometrical Optics
(1900).  The ideas of Abbe were first dealt with in S. Czapski,
Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach Abbe, published
separately at Breslau in 1893, and as vol. ii. of Winkelmann's
Handbuch der Physik in 1894; a second edition, by Czapski
and O. Eppenstein, was published at Leipzig in 1903 with the
title, Grundzuge der Theorie der optischen Instrumente nach
Abbe, and in vol. ii. of the 2nd ed. of Winkelmann's Handbuch
der Physik. The collection of the scientific staff of Carl
Zeiss at Jena, edited by M. von Rohr, Die bilderzeugung in
optischen Instrumenten vom Standpunkte der geometrischen
Optik (Berlin, 1904), contains articles by A. Konig and
M. von Rohr specially dealing with aberrations. (O. E.)

ABERSYCHAN, an urban district in the northern parliamentary
division of Monmouthshire, England, 11 m.  N. by W. of Newport,
on the Great Western, London and North-Western, and Rhymney
railways.  Pop. (1901) 17,768.  It lies in the narrow upper
valley of the Afon Lwyd on the eastern edge of the great coal
and iron mining district of Glamorganshire and Monmouthshire,
and its large industrial population is occupied in the mines
and ironworks.  The neighbourhood is wild and mountainous.

ABERTILLERY, an urban district in the western parliamentary
division of Monmouthshire, England, 16 m.  N.W. of Newport, on
the Great Western railway.  Pop. (1891) 10,846; (1901) 21,945. 
It lies in the mountainous mining district of Monmouthshire
and Glamorganshire, in the valley of the Ebbw Fach, and the
large industrial population is mainly employed in the numerous
coalmines, ironworks and tinplate works.  Farther up the
valley are the mining townships of NANTYOLO and BLAINA,
forming an urban district with a population (1901) of 13,489.

ABERYSTWYTH, a municipal borough, market-town and seaport of
Cardiganshire, Wales, near the confluence of the rivers Ystwyth
and Rheidol, about the middle of Cardigan Bay. Pop. (1901)
8013.  It is the terminal station of the Cambrian railway,
and also of the Manchester and Milford line.  It is the
most popular watering-place on the west coast of Wales, and
possesses a pier, and a fine sea-front which stretches from
Constitution Hill at the north end of the Marine Terrace to the
mouth of the harbour.  The town is of modern appearance, and
contains many public buildings, of which the most remarkable
is the imposing but fantastic structure of the University
College of Wales near the Castle Hill.  Much of the finest
scenery in mid-Wales hes within easy reach of Aberystwyth.

The history of Aberystwyth may be said to date from the time
of Gilbert Strongbow, who in 1109 erected a fortress on the
present Castle Hill.  Edward I. rebuilt Strongbow's castle
in 1277, after its destruction by the Welsh.  Between the
years 1404 and 1408 Aberystwyth Castle was in the hands of
Owen Glendower, but finally surrendered to Prince Harry of
Monmouth, and shortly after this the town was incorporated
under the title of Ville de Lampadarn, the ancient name of the
place being Llanbadarn Gaerog, or the fortified Llanbadarn,
to distinguish it from Llanbadarn Fawr, the village one mile
inland.  It is thus styled in a charter granted by Henry
VIII., but by Elizabeth's time the town was invariably termed
Aberystwyth in all documents.  In 1647 the parliamentarian
troops razed the castle to the ground, so that its remains
are now inconsiderable, though portions of three towers still
exist.  Aberystwyth was a contributory parliamentary borough
until 1885, when its representation was merged in that of the
county.  In modern times Aberystwyth has become a Welsh
educational centre, owing to the erection here of one of the
three colleges of the university of Wales (1872), and of a
hostel for women in connexion with it.  In 1905 it was decided
to fix here the site of the proposed Welsh National Library.

ABETTOR (from ``to abet,'' O. Fr. abeter, a and beter, to
bait, urge dogs upon any one; this word is probably of Scandinavian
origin, meaning to cause to bite), a law term implying one
who instigates, encourages or assists another to commit an
offence.  An abettor differs from an accessory (q.v.) in that
he must be present at the commission of the crime; all abettors
(with certain exceptions) are principals, and, in the absence
of specific statutory provision to the contrary, are punishable
to the same extent as the actual perpetrator of the offence. 
A person may in certain cases be convicted as an abettor in
the commission of an offence in which he or she could not be a
principal, e.g. a woman or boy under fourteen years of age
in aiding rape, or a solvent person in aiding and abetting
a bankrupt to commit offences against the bankruptcy laws.

ABEYANCE (O. Fr. abeance, ``gaping''), a state of
expectancy in respect of property, titles or office, when the
right to them is not vested in any one person, but awaits the
appearance or determination of the true owner.  In law, the
term abeyance can only be applied to such future estates as
have not yet vested or possibly may not vest.  For example, an
estate is granted to A for life, with remainder to the heir of
B, the latter being alive; the remainder is then said to be in
abeyance, for until the death of B it is uncertain who his heir
is.  Similarly the freehold of a benefice, on the death of the
incumbent, is said to be in abeyance until the next incumbent
takes possession.  The most common use of the term is in
the case of peerage dignities.  If a peerage which passes to
heirs-general, like the ancient baronies by writ, is held
by a man whose heir-at-law is neither a male, nor a woman
who is an only child, it goes into abeyance on his death
between two or more sisters or their heirs, and is held by
no one till the abeyance is terminated; if eventually only
one person represents the claims of all the sisters, he or
she can claim the termination of the abeyance as a matter of
right.  The crown can also call the peerage out of abeyance at
any moment, on petition, in favour of any one of the sisters
or their heirs between whom it is in abeyance.  The question
whether ancient earldoms created in favour of a man and his
``heirs'' go into abeyance like baronies by writ has been
raised by the claim to the earldom of Norfolk created in 1312,
discussed before the Committee for Privileges in 1906.  It is
common, but incorrect, to speak of peerage dignities which are
dormant (i.e. unclaimed) as being in abeyance. (J. H. R.)

ABGAR, a name or title borne by a line of kings or
toparchs, apparently twenty-nine in number, who reigned in
Osrhoene and had their capital at Edessa about the time of
the Christian era.  According to an old tradition, one of
these princes, perhaps Abgar V. (Ukkama or Uchomo, ``the
black''), being afflicted with leprosy, sent a letter to
Jesus, acknowledging his divinity, craving his help and
offering him an asylum in his own residence, but Jesus wrote
a letter declining to go, promising, however, that after his
ascension he would send one of his disciples.  These letters
are given by Eusebius (Eccl.  Hist. i. 13), who declares
that the Syriac document from which he translates them had
been preserved in the archives at Edessa from the time of
Abgar.  Eusebius also states that in due course Judas, son of
Thaddaeus, was sent (in 340 = A.D. 29). In another form of
the story, derived from Moses of Chorene, it is said further
that Jesus sent his portrait to Abgar, and that this existed
in Edessa (Hist. Armen., ed.  W. Whiston, ii. 29-32). 
Yet another version is found in the Syriac Doctrina Addaei
(Addaeus=Thaddaeus), edited by G. Phillips (1876).  Here it
is said that the reply of Jesus was given not in writing, but
verbally, and that the event took place in 343 (A.D. 32).
Greek forms of the legend are found in the Acta Thaddaei
(C. Tischendorf, Acta apostoloruiu apocr. 261 ff.).

These stories have given rise to much discussion.  The testi-
mony of Augustine and Jerome is to the effect that Jesus wrote
nothing.  The correspondence was rejected as apocryphal by
Pope Gelasius and a Roman Synod (c. 495), though, it is
true, this view has not been shared universally by the Roman
church (Tillemont, Memoires, i. 3, pp. 990 ff ). Amongst
Evangelicals the spuriousness of the letters is almost generally
admitted.  Lipsius (Die Edessenische Abgarsage, 1880) has
pointed out anachronisms which seem to indicate that the story
is quite unhistorical.  The first king of Edessa of whom we have
any trustworthy information is Abgar VIII., bar Ma'nu (A.D.
176-213).  It is suggested that the legend arose from a desire
to trace the christianizing of his kingdom to an apostolic
source.  Eusebius gives the legend in its oldest form; it was
worked up in the Doctrina Addaei in the second half of the 4th
century; and Moses of Chorene was dependent upon both these sources.

BIBLIOGRAPHY---R, Schmidt in Herzoe-Hauck, Realencyklopadie;
Die Edessenische Abgarsage kritisch untersucht (1880);
Matthes, Die Edessenische Abgarsage auf ihre Fortbildung
untersucht (1882); Les Origines de l'eglise d'Edesse
et la legende d'A. (1888); A. Harnack, Geschichte d.
altchristlichen Litteratur, i. 2 (1893); L. Duchesne,
Bulletin critique, 1889, pp. 41-48; for the Epistles see
APOCRYPHAL LITERATURE, sect. ``New Testament'' (c.)

ABHIDHAMMA, the name of one of the three Pitakas, or
baskets of tradition, into which the Buddhist scriptures
(see BUDDHISM) are divided.  It consists of seven works: 1.
Dhamma Sangani (enumeration of qualities). 2. Vibhanga
(exposition). 3. Katha Vatthu (bases of opinion). 4.
Puggala Pannatti (on individuals). 5. Dhatu Katha (on
relations of moral dispositions). 6. Yamaka (the pairs, that
is, of ethical states). 7. Patthana (evolution of ethical
states).  These have now been published by the Pah Text
Society.  The first has been translated into English, and an
abstract of the third has been published.  The approximate
date of these works is probably from about 400 B.C. to
about 250 B.C., the first being the oldest and the third
the latest of the seven.  Before the publication of the texts,
when they were known only by hearsay, the term Abhidhamma
was usually rendered ``Metaphysics.'' This is now seen to be
quite erroneous. Dhamma means the doctrine, and Abhidhamma
has a relation to Dhamma similar to that of by-law to
law.  It expands, classifies, tabulates, draws corollaries
from the ethical doctrines laid down in the more popular
treatises.  There is no metaphysics in it atnall, only
psychological ethics of a peculiarly dry and scholastic kind. 
And there is no originality in it; only endless permutations
and combinations of doctrines already known and accepted. 
As in the course of centuries the doctrine itself, in certain
schools, varied, it was felt necessary to rewrite these secondary
works.  This was first done, so far as is at present known,
by the Sarvastivadins (Realists), who in the century before
and after Christ produced a fresh set of seven Abhidhamma
books.  These are lost in India, but still exist in Chinese
translations.  The translations have been analysed in a
masterly way by Professor Takakusu in the article mentioned
below, They deal only with psychological ethics.  In the
course of further centuries these hooks in turn were superseded
by new treatises; and in one school at least, that of the
Maha-yana (great Vehicle) there was eventually developed a
system of metaphysics.  But the word Abhidhamma then fell
out of use in that school, though it is still used in the
schools that continue to follow the original seven books.

See Buddhist Psychology by Caroline Rhys Davids (London, 1900),
translation of the Dhamma Sangani, with valuable introduction;
or the Royal Asiatic Society, 1892, contains an abstract of the
Katha ``On the Abhidhamma books of the Sarvastivadins,'' by
Prof.  Takakusu, in Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1905.

(l'. W. R. D.)

ABHORRERS, the name given in 1679 to the persons who
expressed their abhorrence at the action of those who
had signed petitions urging King Charles II. to assemble
parliament.  Feel ing against Roman Catholics, and especially
against James, duke of York, was running strongly; the
Exclusion Bill had been passed by the House of Commons,
and the popularity of James, duke of Monmouth, was very
great.  To prevent this bill from passing into law, Charles
had dissolved parliament in July 1679, and in the following
October had prorogued its successor without allowing it to
meet.  He was then deluged with petitions urging him to
call it together, and this agitation was opposed by Sir
George Jeffreys (q.v.) and Francis Wythens, who presented
addresses expressing ``abhorrence'' of the ``Petitioners,''
and thus initiated the movement of the abhorrers, who
supported the action of the king. ``The frolic went all
over England,'' says Roger North; and the addresses of
the Abhorrers which reached the king from all parts of the
country formed a counterblast to those of the Petitioners. 
It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied
to English political parties in consequence of this dispute.

ABIATHAR (Heb. Ebyathar, ``the [divine] father is
pre-eminent''), in the Bible, son of Ahimelech or Ahijah,
priest at Nob. The only one of the priests to escape from
Saul's massacre, he fled to David at Keilah, taking with him
the ephod (1 Sam. xxii. 20 f., xxiii. 6, 9). He was of great
service to David, especially at the time of the rebellion
of Absalom (2 Sam. xv. 24, 29, 35, xx. 25). In 1 Kings iv.
4 Zadok and Abiathar are found acting together as priests
under Solomon.  In 1 Kings i. 7, 19, 25, however, Abiathar
appears as a supporter of Adonijah, and in ii. 22 and 26
it is said that he was deposed by Solomon and banished to
Anathoth.  In 2 Sam. viii. 17 ``Abiathar, the son of Ahimelech''
should be read, with the Syriac, for ``Ahimelech, the son
of Abiathar.'' For a similar confusion see Mark ii. 26.

mineralogist and geologist, was born at Berlin on the 11th
of December 1806, and educated at the university in that
city.  His earliest scientific work related to spinels and other
minerals, and later he made special studies of fumaroles, of the
mineral deposits around volcanic vents and of the structure of
volcanoes.  In 1842 he was appointed professor of mineralogy
in the university of Dorpat, and henceforth gave attention
to the geology and mineralogy of Russia.  Residing for some
time at Tiflis he investigated the geology of the Caucasus. 
Ultimately' he retired to Vienna, where he died on the 1st
of July 1886.  The mineral Abichite was named after him.

PUBLICATIONS.---Vues illustratives de quelques phenomenes
geologiques, prises sur le Vesuve et l'Etna, pendant
les annees 1833 et 1834 (Berlin, 1836); Ueber die
Natur und den Zusammenhang der vulcanischen Bildungen
(Brunswick, 1841); Geologische Forschungen in den
Kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna, 1878, 1882, and 1887).

ABIGAIL (Heb. Abigayil, perhaps ``father is joy''), or
ABIGAL (2 Sam. iii. 3), in the Bible, the wife of Nabal the
Carmelite, on whose death she became the wife of David (1 Sam.
xxv.).  By her David had a son, whose name appears in the
Hebrew of 2 Sam. iii. 3 as Chileab, in the Septuagint as
Daluyah, and in 1 Chron. iii. 1 as Daniel.  The name
Abigail was also borne by a sister of David (2 Sam. xvii.
25; 1 Chron. ii. 16 f.).  From the former (self-styled
``handmaid'' 1 Sam. xxv. 25 f.) is derived the colloquial use
of the term for a waiting-woman (cf. Abigail, the ``waiting
gentlewoman,'' in Beaumont and Fletcher's Scornful Lady.)

ABIJAH (Heb. Abiyyah and Abiyyahu, ``Yah is father''),
a name borne by nine different persons mentioned in the Old
Testament, of whom the most noteworthy are the following. (i)
The son and successor of Rehoboam, king of Judah (2 Chron.
xii. 16--xiii.), reigned about two years (918-915 B.C..)
The accounts of him in the books of Kings and Chronicles are
very conflicting (compare 1 Kings xv. 2 and 2 Chron. xi.20
with 2 Chron. xiii.2).  The Chronicler tells us that he has
drawn his facts from the Midrash (commentary) of the prophet
Iddo This is perhaps sufficient to explain the character of
the narrative. (2) The second son of Samuel (1 Sam. viii.
2; 1 Chron. vi. 28 [13j).  He and his brother Joel judged at
Beersheba.  Their misconduct was made by the elders of
Israel a pretext for demanding a king (1 Sam. viii. 4).
(3) A son of Jeroboam I., king of Israel; he died young
(1 Kings xiv. 1 ff., 17). (4) Head of the eighth order of
priests (1 Chron. xxiv. 10), the order to which Zacharias,
the father of John the Baptist, belonged (Luke i. 5).

The alternative form Abijam is probably a
mistake, though it is upheld by M. Jastrow.

ABILA, (1) a city of ancient Syria, the capital of the
tetrarchy of Abilene, a territory whose extent it is impossible
to define.  It is generally called Abila of Lysanias, to
distinguish it from (2) below.  Abila was an important town on
the imperial highway from Damascus to Heliopolis (Baalbek). 
The site is indicated by ruins of a temple, aqueducts, &c.,
and inscriptions on the banks of the river Barada at Suk
Wadi Barada, a village called by early Arab geographers
Abil-es-Suk, between Baalbek and Damascus.  Though the names
Abel and Abila differ in derivation and in meaning, their
similarity has given rise to the tradition that this was the
place of Abel's burial.  According to Josephus, Abilene was a
separate Iturean kingdom till A.D. 37, when it was granted
by C to Agrippa I.; in 52 Claudius granted it to Agrippa II.
(See also LYSANIAS.) (2) A city in Perea, now Abil-ez-Zeit.

ABILDGAARD, NIKOLAJ ABRAHAM (1744-1809), called ``the
Father of Danish Painting,'' was born at Copenhagen, the
son of Soren Abildgaard, an antiquarian draughtsman of
repute.  He formed his style on that of Claude and of Nicolas
Poussin, and was a cold theorist, inspired not by nature but by
art.  As a technical painter he attained remarkable success,
his tone being very harmonious and even, but the effect, to a
foreigner's eye, is rarely interesting.  His works are scarcely
known out of Copenhagen, where he won an immense fame in his
own generation.  He was the founder of the Danish school of
painting, and the master of Thorwaldsen and Eckersherg.

ABIMELECH (Hebrew for ``father of [or is] the king'').
(1) A king of Gerar in South Palestine with whom Isaac, in
the Bible, had relations.  The patriarch, during his sojourn
there, alleged that his wife Rebekah was his sister, but the
king doubting this remonstrated with him and pointed out how
easily adultery might have been unintentionally committed (Gen.
xxvi.).  Abimelech is called ``king of the Philistines,'' but
the title is clearly an anachronism.  A very similar story
is told of Abraham and Sarah (ch. xx.), but here Abimelech
takes Sarah to wife, although he is warned by a divine vision
before the crime is actually committed.  The incident is
fuller and shows a great advance in bdeas of morality.  Of
a more primitive character, however, is another parallel
story of Abraham at the court of Pharaoh, king of Egypt (xii.
10-20), where Sarah his wife is taken into the royal household,
and the plagues sent by Yahweh lead to the discovery of the
truth.  Further incidents in Isaac's life at Gerar are narrated
in Gen. xxvi. (cp. xxi. 22-34, time of Abraham), notably a
covenant with Abimelech at Beer-sheba (whence the name is
explained ``well of the oath''); (see ABRAHAM.) By a pure
error, or perhaps through a confusion in the traditions, Achish
the Philistine (of Gath, 1 Sam. xxi., xxvii.), to whom David
fled, is called Abimelech in the superscription to Psalm xxxiv.

(2) A son of Jerubbaal or Gideon (q.v.), by his Shechemite
concubine (Judges viii. 31, ix.).  On the death of Gideon,
Abimelech set himself to assert the authority which his
father had earned, and through the influence of his mother's
clan won over the citizens of Shechem.  Furnished with money
from the treasury of the temple of Baal-berith, he hired a
band of followers and slew seventy (cp. 2 Kings x. 7) of his
brethren at Ophrah, his father's home.  This is one of the
earliest recorded instances of a practice common enough on
the accession of Oriental despots.  Abimelech thus became
king, and extended his authority Over central Palestine. 
But his success was short-lived, and the subsequent discord
between Abimelech and the Shechemites was regarded as a just
reward for his atrocious massacre.  Jotham, the only one who
is said to have escaped, boldly appeared on Mount Gerizim
and denounced the ingratitude of the townsmen towards the
legitimate sons of the man who had saved them from Midian.
``Jotham's fable'' of the trees who desired a king may be
foreign to the context; it is a piece of popular lore, and
cannot be pressed too far: the nobler trees have no wish to
rule over others, only the bramble is self-confident.  The
``fable'' appears to be antagonistic to ideas of monarchy. 
The origin of the conflicts which subsequently arose is not
clear.  Gaal, a new-comer, took the opportunity at the time
of the vintage, when there was a festival in tho temple, to
head a revolt and seized Shechem.  Abimelech, warned by his
deputy Zebul, left his residence at Arumah and approached the
city.  In a fine bit of realism we are told how Gaal observed
the approaching foe and was told by Zebul, ``You see the
shadow of the hills as men,'' and as they drew nearer Zebul's
ironical remark became a taunt, ``Where is now thy mouth?
is not this the people thou didst despise? go now and fight
them!'' This revolt, which Abimelech successfully quelled,
appears to be only an isolated episode.  Another account
tells of marauding bands of Shechemites which disturbed the
district.  The king disposed his men (the whole chapter is
specially interesting for the full details it gives of the
nature of ancient military operations), and after totally
destroying Shechem, proceeded against Thebez, which had also
revolted.  Here, while storming the citadel, he was struck on
the head by a fragment of a millstone thrown from the wall by a
woman.  To avoid the disgrace of perishing by a woman's hand,
he begged his armour-bearer to run him through the body, but
his memory was not saved from the ignominy he dreaded (2 Sam.
xi. 21). It is usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first
attempt to establish a monarchy in Israel, but the story is
mainly that of the rivalries of a half-developed petty state,
and of the ingratitude of a community towards the descendants
of its deliverer. (See, further, JEWS, JUDGES.) (S. A. C.)

ABINGDON, a market town and municipal borough in the
Abingdon parliamentary division of Berkshire, England, 6
m.  S. of Oxford, the terminus of a branch of the Great
Western railway from Radley.  Pop. (1901) 6480.  It lies
in the fiat valley of the Thames, on the west (right) bank,
where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White
Horse.  The church of St Helen stands near the river, and
its fine Early English tower with Perpendicular spire is the
principal object in the pleasant views of the town from the
river.  The body of the church, which has five aisles, is
principally Perpendicular.  The smaller church of St Nicholas
is Perpendicular in appearance, though parts of the fabric are
older.  Of a Benedictine abbey there remain a beautiful
Perpendicular gateway, and ruins of buildings called the prior's
house, mainly Early English, and the guest house, with other
fragments.  The picturesque narrow-arched bridge over the Thames
near St Helen's church dates originally from 1416.  There may
be mentioned further the old buildings of the grammar school,
founded in 1563, and of the charity called Christ's Hospital
(1583); while the town-hall in the marketplace, dating from
1677, is attributed to Inigo Jones.  The grammar school now
occupies modern buildings, and ranks among the lesser public
schools of England, having scholarships at Pembroke College,
Oxford.  St Peter's College, Radley, 2 m. from Abingdon, is
one of the principal modern public schools.  It was opened in
1847.  The buildings he close to the Thames, and the school is
famous for rowing, sending an eight to the regatta at Henley each
year.  Abingdon has manufactures of clothing and carpets and
a large agricultural trade.  The borough is under a mayor,
four aldermen and twelve councillors.  Area, 730 acres.

Abingdon (Abbedun, Abendun) was famous for its abbey, which
was of great wealth and importance, and is believed to have
been founded in A.D. 675 by Cissa, one of the subreguli of
Centwin.  Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are
extant confirming laws and privileges to the abbey, and the
earliest of these, from King Ceadwalla, was granted before
A.D. 688. in the reign of Alfred the abbey was destroyed
by the Danes, but it was restored by Edred, and an imposing
list of possessions in the Domesday survey evidences recovered
prosperity.  William the Conqueror in 1084 celebrated Easter at
Abingdon, and left his son, afterwards Henry I., to be educated
at the abbey.  After the dissolution in 1538 the town sank
into decay, and in 1555, on a representation of its pitiable
condition, Queen Mary granted a charter establishing a mayor,
two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses, and sixteen secondary
burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and
a Justice of the peace.  The council was empowered to elect
one burgess to parliament, and this right continued until the
Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885.  A town clerk and other
officers were also appointed, and the town boundaries described
in great detail.  Later charters from Elizabeth, James I.,
James II., George Il. and George III. made no considerable
change.  James II. changed the style of the corporation to
that of a mayor, twelve aldermen and twelve burgesses.  The
abbot seems to have held a market from very early times, and
charters for the holding of markets and fairs mere granted by
various sovereigns from Edward I. to George II. In the 13th
and 14th centuries Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural
centre with an extensive trade in wool, and a famous weaving
and clothing manufacture.  The latter industry declined
before the reign of Queen Mary, but has since been revived.

The present Christ's Hospital originally belonged to
the Gild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which
Edward VI. founded the hospital under its present name.

See Victoria County History, Berkshire; Joseph
Stevenson, Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon, A.D.
201--1189 (Rolls Series, 2 vols., London, 1858).

judge, was born on the 13th of December 1760 in Jamaica, where
his father, Robert Scarlett, had property.  In the summer of
1785 he was sent to England to complete his education, and
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his B.A. degree in
1789.  Having entered the Inner Temple he was called to the
bar in 1791, and joined the northern circuit and the Lancashire
sessions.  Though he had no professional connexions, by steady
application he gradually obtained a large practice, ultimately
confining himself to the Court of King's Bench and the northern
circuit.  He took silk in 1816, and from this time till the
close of 1834 he was the most successful lawyer at the bar;
he was particularly effective before a jury, and his income
reached the high-water mark of L. 18,500, a large sum for that
period.  He began life as a Whig, and first entered parliament in
1819 as member for Peterborough, representing that constituency
with a short break (1822-1823) till 1830, when he was elected
for the borough of Malton.  He became attorney-general, and was
knighted when Canning formed his ministry in 1827; and though
he resigned when the duke of Wellington came into power in
1828, he resumed office in 1829 and went out with the duke of
Wellington in 1830.  His opposition to the Reform Bill caused
his severance from the Whig leaders, and having joined the
Tories he was elected, first for Colchester and then in 1832
for Norwich, for which borough he sat until the dissolution of
parliament.  He was appointed lord chief baron of the exchequer
in 1834, and presided in that court for more than nine
years.  While attending the Norfolk circuit on the 2nd of
April he was suddenly seized with apoplexy, and died in his
lodgings at Bury on the 7th of April 1844.  He had been raised
to the peerage as Baron Abinger in 1835, taking his title from
the Surrey estate he had bought in 1813.  The qualities which
brought him success at the bar were not equally in place on
the bench; he was partial, dictatorial and vain; and complaint
was made of his domineering attitude towards juries.  But his
acuteness of mind and clearness of expression remained to the
end.  Lord Abinger was twice married (the second time only
six months before his death), and by his first wife (d. 1829)
had three sons and two daughters, the title passing to his
eldest son Robert (1794-1861).  His second son, General Sir
James Yorke Scarlett (1799-1871), leader of the heavy cavalry
charge at Balaclava, is dealt with in a separate article; and
his elder daughter, Mary, married John, Baron Campbell, and
was herself created Baroness Stratheden (Lady Stratheden and
Campbell) (d. 1860).  Sir Philip Anglin Scarlett (d. 1831),
Lord Abinger's younger brother, was chief justice of Jamaica.

See P. C. Scarlett, Memoir of Jaimes, 1st Lord Abinger (1877);
Foss's Lives of the Judges; E. Manson, Builders of our Law (1904).

ABINGTON, FRANCES (1737-1815), English actress, was the
daughter of a private soldier named Barton, and was, at
first, a flower girl and a street singer.  She then became
servant to a French milliner, obtaining a taste in dress
and a knowledge of French which afterwards stood her in good
stead.  Her first appearance on the stage was at the Haymarket
in 1755 as Miranda in Mrs Centlivre's Busybody. In 1756, on
the recommendation of Samuel Foote, she became a member of the
Drury Lane company, where she was overshadowed by Mrs Pritchard
and Kitty Clive.  In 1759, after an unhappy marriage with her
music-master, one of the royal trumpeters, she is mentioned in
the bills as Mrs Abington.  Her first success was in Ireland
as Lady Townley, and it was only after five years, on the
pressing invitation of Garrick, that she returned to Drury
Lane.  There she remained for eighteen years, being the
original of more than thirty important characters, notably
Lady Teazle (1777).  Her Beatrice, Portia, Desdemona and
Ophelia were no less liked than her Miss Hoyden, Biddy Tipkin,
Lucy Lockit and Miss Prue.  It was in the last character in
Love for Love that Reynolds painted his best portrait of
her.  In 1782 she left Drury Lane for Covent Garden.  After an
absence from the stage from 1790 until 1797, she reappeared,
quitting it finally in 1799.  Her ambition, personal wit
and cleverness won her a distinguished position in society,
in spite of her humble origin.  Women of fashion copied her
frocks, and a head-dress she wore was widely adopted and known
as the ``Abington cap.'' She died on the 4th of March 1815.

ABIOGENESIS, in biology, the term, equivalent to the older
terms ``spontaneous generation,'' Generatio acquivoca,
Generatio primaria, and of more recent terms such as
archegenesis and archebiosis, for the theory according to which
fully formed living organisms sometimes arise from not-living
matter.  Aristotle explicitly taught abiogenesis, and laid it
down as an observed fact that some animals spring from putrid
matter, that plant lice arise from the dew which falls on
plants, that fleas are developed from putrid matter, and so
forth.  T. J. Parker (Elementary Biology) cites a passage from
Alexander Ross, who, commenting on Sir Thomas Browne's doubt
as to ``whether mice may be bred by putrefaction,'' gives a
clear statement of the common opinion on abiogenesis held until
about two centuries ago.  Ross wrote: ``So may he (Sir Thomas
Browne) doubt whether in cheese and timber worms are generated;
or if beetles and wasps in cows' dung; or if butterflies,
locusts, grasshoppers, shell-fish, snails, eels, and such like,
be procreated of putrefied matter, which is apt to receive
the form of that creature to which it is by formative power
disposed.  To question this is to question reason, sense and
experience.  If he doubts of this let him go to Egypt, and
there he will find the fields swarming with mice, begot of
the mud of Nylus, to the great calamity of the inhabitants.''

The first step in the scientific refutation of the theory
of abiogenesis was taken by the Italian Redi, who, in 1668,
proved that no maggots were ``bred'' in meat on which flies
were prevented by wire screens from laying their eggs. 
From the 17th century onwards it was gradually shown that,
at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible
organisms, abiogenesis did not occur, but that omne vivum e
vivo, every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing.

The discovery of the microscope carried the refutation
further.  In 1683 A. van Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria,
and it was soon found that however carefully organic matter
might be protected by screens, or by being placed in stoppered
receptacles, putrefaction set in, and was invariably accompanied
by the appearance of myriads of bacteria and other low
organisms.  As knowledge of microscopic forms of life increased,
so the apparent possibilities of abiogenesis increased, and
it became a tempting hypothesis that whilst the higher forms
of life arose only by generation from their kind, there was
a perpetual abiogenetic fount by which the first steps in the
evolution of living organisms continued to arise, under suitable
conditions, from inorganic matter.  It was due chiefly to L.
Pasteur that the occurrence of abiogenesis in the microscopic
world was disproved as much as its occurrence in the macroscopic
world.  If organic matter were first sterilized and then
prevented from contamination from without, putrefaction did
not occur, and the matter remained free from microbes.  The
nature of sterilization, and the difficulties in securing
it, as well as the extreme delicacy of the manipulations
necessary, made it possible for a very long time to be doubtful
as to the application of the phrase omne vivum e vivo to
the microscopic world, and there still remain a few belated
supporters of abiogenesis.  Subjection to the temperature of
boiling water for, say, half an hour seemed an efficient mode
of sterilization, until it was discovered that the spores of
bacteria are so involved in heat-resisting membranes, that only
prolonged exposure to dry, baking heat can be recognized as an
efficient process of sterilization.  Moreover, the presence of
bacteria, or their spores, is so universal that only extreme
precautions guard against a re-infection of the sterilized
material.  It may now be stated definitely that all known
living organisms arise only from pre-existing living organisms.

So far the theory of abiogenesis may be taken as disproved. 
It must be noted, however, that this disproof relates only
to known existing organisms.  All these are composed of a
definite substance, known as protoplasm (q.v.), and the
modern refutation of abiogenesis applies only to the organic
forms in which protoplasm now exists.  It may be that in the
progress of science it may yet become possible to construct
living protoplasm from non-living material.  The refutation
of abiogenesis has no further bearing on this possibility than
to make it probable that if protoplasm ultimately be formed in
the laboratory, it will be by a series of stages, the earlier
steps being the formation of some substance, or substances,
now unknown, which are not protoplasm.  Such intermediate
stages may have existed in the past, and the modern refutation
of abiogenesis has no application to the possibility of
these having been formed from inorganic matter at some past
time.  Perhaps the words archebiosis, or archegenesis,
should be reserved for the theory that protoplasm in the
remote past has been developed from not-living matter by a
series of steps, and many of those, notably T. H. Huxley, who
took a large share in the process of refuting contemporary
abiogenesis, have stated their belief in a primordial
archebiosis. (See BIOGENESIS and LIFE.) (P. C. M.)

ABIPONES, a tribe of South American Indians of Guaycuran
stock recently inhabiting the territory lying between Santa
Fe and St Iago.  They originally occupied the Chaco district
of Paraguay, but were driven thence by the hostility of the
Spaniards.  According to Martin Dobrizhoffer, a Jesuit missionary,
who, towards the end of the 18th century, lived among them
for a period of seven years, they then numbered not more than
5000.  They were a well-formed, handsome people, with black
eyes and aquiline noses, thick black hair, but no beards. 
The hair from the forehead to the crown of the head was pulled
out, this constituting a tribal mark.  The faces, breasts and
arms of the women were covered with black figures of various
designs made with thorns, the tattooing paint being a mixture
of ashes and blood.  The lips and ears of both sexes were
pierced.  The men were brave fighters, their chief weapons
being the bow and spear.  No child was without bow and arrows;
the bow-strings were made of foxes' entrails.  In battle
the Abipones wore an armour of tapir's hide over which a
jaguar's skin was sewn.  They were excellent swimmers and good
horsemen.  For five months in the year when the floods were
out they lived on islands or even in shelters built in the
trees.  They seldom married before the age of thirty, and were
singularly chaste. ``With the Abipones,'' says Darwin, ``when
a man chooses a wife, he bargains with the parents about the
price.  But it frequently happens that the girl rescinds
what has been agreed upon between the parents and bridegroom,
obstinately rejecting the very mention of marriage.  She often
runs away and hides herself, and thus eludes the bridegroom.''
Infanticide was systematic, never more than two children being
reared in one family, a custom doubtless originating in the
difficulty of subsistence.  The young were suckled for two
years.  The Abipones are now believed to be extinct as a tribe.

Martin Dobrizhoffer's Latin Historia de Abiponibus
(Vienna, 1784) was translated into English by Sara
Coleridge, at the suggestion of Southey, in 1822, under
the title of An Account of the Abipones (3 vols.).

ABITIBBI, a lake and river of Ontario, Canada.  The lake,
in 49 deg.  N., 80 deg.  W., is 60 m. long and studded with islands. 
It is shallow, and the shores in its vicinity are covered
with small timber.  It was formerly employed by the Hudson's
Bay Company as part of a canoe route to the fur lands of the
north.  The construction of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway
through this district has made it of some importance.  Its
outlet is Abitibbi river, a rapid stream, which after a course
of 200 m. joins the Moose river, flowing into James Bay.

ABJURATION (from Lat. abjurare, to forswear), a solemn
repudiation or renunciation on oath.  At common law, it
signified the oath of a person who had taken sanctuary to
leave the realm for ever; this was abolished in the reign of
James I. The Oath at Abjuration, in English history, was
a solemn disclaimer, taken by members of parliament, clergy
and laymen against the right of the Stuarts to the crown,
imposed by laws of William III., George I. and George III.;
but its place has since been taken by the oath of allegiance.

ABKHASIA, or ABHASIA, a tract of Russian Caucasia,
government of Kutais.  The Caucasus mountains on the N. and
N.E. divides it from Circassia; on the S.E. it is bounded
by Mingrelia; and on the S.W. by the Black Sea. Though the
country is generally mountainous, with dense forests of oak and
walnut, there are some deep, well-watered valleys, and the
climate is mild.  The soil is fertile, producing wheat, maize,
grapes, figs, pomegranates and wine.  Cattle and horses are
bred.  Honey is produced; and excellent arms are made.  This
country was subdued (c. 550) by the Emperor Justinian, who
introduced Christianity.  Native dynasties ruled from 735 to
the 15th century, when the region was conquered by the Turks
and became Mahommedan.  The Russians acquired possession
of it piecemeal between 1829 and 1842, but their power was
not firmly established until after 1864.  Area, 2800 sq.
m.  The principal town is Sukhum-kaleh.  Pop. 43,000, of whom
two-thirds are Mingrelians and one-third Abkhasians, a Cherkess
or Circassian race.  The total number of Abkhasians in the
two governments of Kutais and Kuban was 72,103 in 1897; large
numbers emigrated to the Turkish empire in 1864 and 1878.

ABLATION (from Lat. ablatus, carried away), the process of
removing anything; a term used technically in geology of the wearing
away of a rock or glacier, and in surgery for operative removal.

ABLATITIOUS (from Lat. ablatus, taken away). reducina
or withdrawing; in astronomy a force which interferes
between the moon and the earth to lessen the strength
of gravitation is called ``ablatitious,'' just as it is
called ``addititious'' when it increases that strength.

ABLATIVE (Lat. ablativus, sc. casus, from ablatum, taken
away), in grammar, a case of the noun, the fundamental sense
of which is direction from; in Latin, the principal language in
which the case exists, this has been extended, with or without
a preposition, to the instrument or agent of an act, and the
place or time at, and manner in, which a thing is done.  The
case is also found in Sanskrit, Zend, Oscan and Umbrian, and
traces remain in other languages.  The ``Ablative Absolute,''
a grammatical construction in Latin, consists of a noun in
the ablative case, with a participle, attribute or qualifying
word agreeing with it, not depending on any other part of the
sentence, to express the time, occasion or circumstance of a fact.

ABLUTION (Lat. ablutio, from ablucre, ``to wash off''),
a washing, in its religious use, destined to secure that
ceremonial or ritualistic purity which must not be confused
with the physical or hygienic cleanliness of persons and
things obtained by the use of soap and water.1 Indeed the
two states may contradict each other, as in the case of the
4th-century Christian pilgrim to Jerusalem who boasted that
she had not washed ner face for eighteen years for fear of
removing therefrom the holy chrism of baptism.  The purport,
then, of ablutions is to remove, not dust and dirt, but the---to
us imaginary--stains contracted by contact with the dead,
with childbirth, with menstruous women, with murder whether
wilful or involuntary, with almost any form of bloodshed, with
persons of inferior caste, with dead animal refuse, e.g.
leather or excrement, with leprosy, madness and any form of
disease.  Among all races in a certain grade of development
such associations are vaguely felt to be dangerous and to impair
vitality.  In a later stage the taint is regarded as alive,
as a demon or evil spirit alighting on and passing into the
things and persons exposed to contamination.  In general,
water, cows' urine and blood of swine are the materials used in
ablutions.  Of these water is the commonest, and its efficacy
is enhanced if it be running, and still more if a magical or
sacramental virtue has been imparted to it by ritual blessing or
consecration.  Some concrete examples will best illustrate the
nature of such ablutions.  In the Atharva-Veda, vii. 116,
we have this allopathic remedy for fever.  The patient's skin
burns, that of a frog is cold to the touch; therefore tie to
the foot of the bed a frog, bound with red and black thread,
and wash down the sick man so that the water of ablution falls

1 in its technical ecclesiastical sense the ablution is
the ritual washing of the chalice and of the priest's fingers
after the celebration of Holy Communion in the Catholic
Church.  The wine and water used for this purpose are themselves
sometimes called ``the ablution.'' on the frog.  Let the
medicine man or magician pray that the fever may pass into
the frog, and the frog be forthwith re-leased, and the cure
will be effected.  In the old Athenian Anthesteria the blood
of victims was poured over the unclean.  A bath of bulls'
blood was much in vogue as a baptism in the mysteries of
Attis.  The water must in ritual washings run off in order
to carry away the miasma or unseen demon of disease; and
accordingly in baptism the early Christians used living or
running water.  Nor was it enough that the person baptized
should himself enter the water; the baptizer must pour it
over his head, so that it run down his person.  Similarly
the Brahman takes care, after ablution of a person, to wipe
the cathartic water off from head to feet downwards, that the
malign influence may pass out through the feet.  The same care
is shown in ritual ablutions in the Bukovina and elsewhere.

Water and fire, spices and sulphur, are used in ritual
cleansings, says Iamblichus in his book on mysteries (v. 23),
as being specially full of the divine nature.  Nevertheless in
all religions, and especially in the Brahmanic and Christian,
the cathartic virtue of water is enhanced by the introduction
into it by means of suitable prayers and incantations of
a divine or magical power.  Ablutions both of persons and
things are usually cathartic, that is, intended to purge
away evil influences (kathairein, to make katharos,
pure).  But, as Robertson Smith observes, ``holiness is
contagious, just as uncleanness is''; and common things and
persons may become taboo, that is, so holy as to be dangerous
and useless for daily life through the mere infection of
holiness.  Thus in Syria one who touched a dove became taboo
for one whole day, and if a drop of blood of the Hebrew
sin-offering fell on a garment it had to be ritually washed
off.  It was as necessary in the Hebrew religion for the
priest to wash his hands ofter handling the sacred volume as
before.  Christians might not enter a church to say their
prayers without first washing their hands.  So Chrysostom
says: ``Although our hands may be already pure, yet unless
we have washed them thoroughly, we do not spread them upwards
in prayer.'' Tertullian (c. 200) had long before condemned
this as a heathen custom; none the less, it was insisted on
in later ages, and is a survival of the pagan lustrations or
perirranteria. Sozomen (vi. 6) tells how a priest sprinkled
Julian and Valentinian with water according to the heathen custom
as they entered his temple.  The same custom prevails among
Mahommedans.  Porphyry (de Abst. ii. 44) relates that one
who touched a sacrifice meant to avert divine anger must bathe
and wash his clothes in running water before returning to his
city and home, and similar scruples in regard to holy objects
and persons have been observed among the natives of Polynesia,
New Zealand and ancient Egypt.  The rites, met within all
lands, of pouring out water or bathing in order to produce
rain from heaven, differ in their significance from ablutions
with water and belong to the realm of sympathetic magic.

There are certain forms of purification which one does not
know whether to describe as ablutions or anointings.  Thus
Demosthenes in his speech ``On the crown', accused Aeschines
of having ``purified the initiated and wiped them clean
with (not from) mud and pitch.'' Smearing with gypsum
(titanos. titanos) had a similar purifying effect,
and it has been suggested i that the Titans were no more
than old-world votaries who had so disguised themselves. 
Perhaps the use of ashes in mourning had the same origin. 
In the rite of death-bed penance given in the old Mozarabic
Christian ritual of Spain, ashes were poured over the sick man.

AUTHORITIES.--W.  R. Smith, Religion of the Semites;
Jul. Wellhausen, Reste arabischen Heidentums (=Skizzen und
Verarbeiten, ritualibus (Tubingae, 1732); Art. ``Clean
and Unclean'' in Hastings' Bible Dictionary and in Jewish
Encyclopedia, vol. iv.; J. G. Frazer, Adonis, Attis,
Osiris (London, 1906); Joseph Bingham, Antiquities
(of the Christian Church, bk. viii.; Hermann Oldenberg,
Die Religion des Veda's, Berlin, 1894. (F. C. C.)

ABNAKI (``the whitening sky at daybreak,'' i.e. Easterners),
a confederacy of North American Indians of Algonquian stock,

1 By J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to Creek Religion, p. 493.

called Terrateens by the New England tribes and colonial
writers.  It included the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot, Norridgewock,
Malecite and other tribes.  It formerly occupied what is now
Maine and southern New Brunswick.  All the tribes were loyal
to the French during the early years of the 18th century, but
after the British success in Canada most of them withdrew to St
Francis, Canada, subsequently entering into an agreement with
the British authorities.  The Abnaki now number some 1600.

For details see Handbook of American Indians,
edited by F. W. Hodge (Washington, 1907). .

ABNER (Hebrew for ``father of [or is a light''), in
the Bible, first cousin of Saul and commander-in-chief of
his army (I Sam. xiv. 50, xx. 25). He is only referred
to incidentally in Saul's history (1 Sam. xvii. 55, xxvi.
5), and is not mentioned in the account of the disastrous
battle of Gilboa when Saul's power was crushed.  Seizing
the only surviving son, Ishbaal, he set him up as king over
Israel at Mahanaim, east of the Jordan.  David, who was
accepted as king by Judah alone, was meanwhile reigning at
Hebron, and for some time war was carried on between the two
parties.  The only engagement between the rival factions which
is told at length is noteworthy, inasmuch as it was preceded
by an encounter at Gibeon between twelve chosen men from each
side, in which the whole twenty-four seem to have perished
(2 Sam. ii. 12).i In the general engagement which followed,
Abner was defeated and put to flight.  He was closely pursued
by Asahel, brother of Joab, who is said to have been ``light
of foot as a wild roe.'' As Asahel would not desist from the
pursuit, though warned, Abner was compelled to slay him in
self-defence.  This originated a deadly feud between the
leaders of the opposite parties, for Joab, as next of kin to
Asahel, was by the law and custom of the country the avenger
of his blood.  For some time afterwards the war was carried
on, the advantage being invariably on the side of David.  At
length Ishbaal lost the main prop of his tottering cause by
remonstrating with Abner for marrying Rizpah, one of Saul's
concubines, an alliance which, according to Oriental notions,
implied pretensions to the throne (cp. 2 Sam. xvi. 21 sqq.; 1
Kings ii. 21 sqq.).  Abner was indignant at the deserved rebuke,
and immediately opened negotiations with David, who welcomed
him on the condition that his wife Michal should be restored to
him.  This was done, and the proceedings were ratified by a
feast.  Almost immediately after, however.  Joab, who had
been sent away, perhaps intentionally returned and slew
Abner at the gate of Hebron.  The ostensible motive for the
assassination was a desire to avenge Asahel, and this would
be a sufficient justification for the deed according to the
moral standard of the time.  The conduct of David after the
event was such as to show that he had no complicity in the
act, though he could not venture to punish its perpetrators
(2 Sam. iii. 31-39; cp. 1 Kings ii. 31 seq.). (See DAVID.)

1 The object of the story of the encounter is to explain the name
Helkath-hazzurim, the meaning of which is doubtful (Ency.  Bib. col.
2006; Batten in Zeit. f. alt-test.  Wissens. 1906, pp. 90 sqq.).

ABO (Finnish Turku), a city and seaport, the capital
of the province of Abo-Bjorneborg, in the grand duchy of
Finland, on the Aura-joki, about 3 m. from where it falls
into the gulf of Bothnia.  Pop. (1810) 10,224; (1870) 19,617;
(1904) 42,639.  It is 381 m. by rail from St Petersburg
via Tavastehus, and is in regular steamer communication
with St Petersburg, Vasa, Stockholm, Copenhagen and Hull. 
It was already a place of importance when Finland formed
part of the kingdom of Sweden.  When the Estates of Finland
seceded from Sweden and accepted the Emperor Alexander of
Russia as their grand duke at the Diet of Borga in 1809,
Abo became the capital of the new state, and so remained
till 1819 when the seat of government was transferred to
Helsingfors.  In November 1827 nearly the whole city was burnt
down, the university and its valuable library being entirely
destroyed.  Before this calamity Abo contained 1110 houses
and 13,000 inhabitants; and its university had 40 professors,
more than 500 students, and a library of upwards of 30,000
volumes, together with a botanical garden, an observatory and
a chemical laboratory.  The university has since been removed
to Helsingfors. Abo remains the ecclesiastical capital of
Finland, is the seat of the Lutheran archbishop and contains a
fine cathedral dating from 1258 and restored after the fire of
1827.  The cathedral is dedicated to St Henry, the patron saint
of Finland, an English missionary who introduced Christianity
into the country in the 12th century.  Abo is the seat of the
first of the three courts of appeal of Finland.  It has two high
schools, a school of commerce and a school of navigation.  The
city is second only to Helsingfors for its trade; sail-cloth,
cotton and tobacco are manufactured, and there are extensive
saw-mills.  There is also a large trade in timber and a
considerable butter export.  Ship-building has considerably
developed, torpedo-boats being built here for the Russian
navy.  Vessels drawing 9 or 10 feet come up to the town,
but ships of greater draught are laden and discharged at its
harbour (Bornholm, on Hyrvinsala Island), which is entered
yearly by from 700 to 800 ships, of about 200,000 tons.

ABO-BJORNEBORG, a province occupying the S.W. corner of
Finland and including the Aland islands.  It has a total
area of 24,171 square kilometres and a population (1900) of
447,098, of whom 379,622 spoke Finnish and 67,260 Swedish;
446,900 were of the Lutheran religion.  The province occupies
a prominent position in Finland for its manufacture of cottons,
sugar refinery, wooden goods, metals, machinery, paper, &c.
Its chief towns are: Abo (pop. 42,639), Bjorneborg (16,053),
Raumo (5501), Nystad (4165), Mariehamn (1171), Nadendal (917).

ABODE (from ``abide,'' to dwell, properly ``to wait for'', to
bide), generally, a dwelling.  In English law this term has a
more restricted meaning than domicile, being used to indicate
the place of a man's residence or business, whether that be
either temporary or permanent.  The law may regard for certain
purposes, as a man's abode, the place where he carries on
business, though he may reside elsewhere) so that the term
has come to have a looser significance than residence,
which has been defined as ``where a man lives with his family
and sleeps at night'' (R. v. Hammond, 1852, 17 Q.B.
772).  In serving a notice of action, a solicitor's place of
business may be given as his abode (Roberts v. Williams,
1835, 5 L.J.M.C. 23), and in more recent decisions it
has been similarly held that where a notice was required
to be served under the Public Health Act 18l5, either
personally or to some inmate of the owner's or occupier's
``place of abode,'' a place of business was sufficient.

ABOMASUM (caillette), the fourth or rennet stomach of
Ruminantia.  From the omasum the food is finally deposited
in the abomasum, a cavity considerably larger than either the
second or third stomach, although less than the first.  The base
of the abomasum is turned to the omasum. It is of an irregular
conical form.  It is that part of the digestive apparatus
which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as
the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after
being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs.

ABOMEY, capital of the ancient kingdom of Dahomey, West
Africa, now included in the French colony of the same name. 
It is 70 m.  N. by rail of the seaport of Kotonu, and has
a population of about 15,000.  Abomey is built on a rolling
plain, 800 ft. above sea-level, terminating in short bluffs to
the N.W., where it is bounded by a long depression.  The town
was surrounded by a mud wall, pierced by six gates, and was
further protected by a ditch 5 ft. deep, filled with a dense
growth of prickly acacia, the usual defence of West African
strongholds.  Within the walls, which had a circumference of
six miles, were villages separated by fields, several royal
palaces, a market-place and a large square containing the
barracks.  In November 1892, Behanzin, the king of Dahomey,
being defeated by the French, set fire to Abomey and fled
northward.  Under French administration the town has been
rebuilt, placed (1905) in railway communication with the coast,
and given an ample water supply by the sinking of artesian wells.

ABOMINATION (from Lat. ab, from, and ominare, to forebode),
anything contrary to omen, and therefore regarded with aversion;
a word used often in the Bible to denote evil doctrines
or ceremonial practices which were impure. An incorrect
derivation was ab homine (i.e. inhuman), and the spelling of the
adjective ``abominable'' in the first Shakespeare folio is always
``abhominable.'' Colloquially ``abomination'' and ``abominable''
are used to mean simply excessive in a disagreeable sense.

ABOR HILLS, a tract of country on the north-east frontier of
India, occupied by an independent tribe called the Abors.  It
lies north of Lakhimpur district, in the province of eastern
Bengal and Assam, and is bounded on the east by the Mishmi Hills
and on the west by the Miri Hills, the villages of the tribe
extending to the Dibong river.  The term Abor is an Assamese
word, signifying ``barbarous'' or ``independent,'' and is applied
in a general sense by the Assamese to many frontier tribes;
but in its restricted sense it is specially given to the above
tract.  The Abors, together with the cognate tribes of Miris,
Daphlas and Akas, are supposed to be descended from a Tibetan
stock.  They are a quarrelsome and sulky race, violently divided
in their political relations.  In former times they committed
frequent raids upon the plains of Assam, and have been the
object of more than one retaliatory expedition by the British
government.  In 1893-94 occurred the first Bor Abor expedition.
home military police sepoys were murdered in British territory,
and a force of 600 troops was sent, who traversed the Abor
country, and destroyed the villages concerned in the murder
and all other villages that opposed the expedition.  A second
expedition became necessary later on, two small patrols having
been treacherously murdered; and a force of 100 British troops
traversed the border of the Abor country and punished the tribes,
while a blockade was continued against them from 1894 to 1900.

See Colonel Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal, 1872.

a mythical people of central Italy, connected in legendary
history with Aeneas, Latinus and Evander.  They were supposed
to have descended from their mountain home near Reate (an
ancient Sabine town) upon Latium, whence they expelled the
Siceli and subsequently settled down as Latini under a King
Latinus (Dion Halic. i. 9. 60). The most generally accepted
etymology of the name (ab origine), according to which they
were the original inhabitants ( = Gk. autochthones) of the
country, is inconsistent with the fact that the oldest authorities
(e.g. Cato in his Origines) regarded them as Hellenic
immigrants, not as a native Italian people.  Other explanations
suggested are arborigines, ``tree-born,'' and aberrigines,
``nomads.'' Historical and ethnographical discussions have
led to no result; the most that can be said is that, if not
a general term, ``aborigines'' may be the name of an Italian
stock, about whom the ancients knew no more than ourselves`

In modern times the term ``Aborigines'' has been extended in
signification, and is used to indicate the inhabitants found in a
country at its first discovery, in contradistinction to colonies or
new races, the time of whose introduction into the country is known.

The Aborigines' Protection Society was founded in 1838 in
England as the result of a royal commission appointed at
the instance of Sir T. Fowell Buxton to inquire into the
treatment of the indigenous populations of the various British
colonies.  The inquiry revealed the gross cruelty and injustice
with which the natives had been often treated.  Since its
foundation the society has done much to make English colonization
a synonym for humane and generous treatment of savage races.

ABORTION (from Lat. aboriri, to fail to be born, or perish),
in obstetrics, the premature separation and expulsion of the
contents of the pregnant uterus.  It is a common terminology to
call premature labour of an accidental type a ``miscarriage,',
in order to distinguish ``abortion', as a deliberately induced
act, whether as a medical necessity by the accoucheur, or as
a criminal proceeding (see MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE); otherwise
the term ``abortion'' would ordinarily be used when occurring
before the eighth month of gestation, and ``premature labour''
subsequently.  As an accident of pregnancy, it is far fram
uncommon, although its relative frequency'' as compared
with that of completed gestation, has been very differently
estimated by accoucheurs.  It is more liable to occur in
the earlier than in the later months of pregnancy, and
it would also appear to occur more readily at the periods
corresponding to those of the menstrual discharge.  It may
be induced by numerous causes, both of a local and general
nature.  Malformations of the pelvis, accidental injuries
and the diseases and displacements to which the uterus is
liable, on the one hand; and, on the other, various morbid
conditions of the ovum or placenta leading to the death of
the foetus, are among the direct local causes.  The general
causes embrace certain states of the system which are apt to
exercise a more or less direct influence upon the progress of
utero-gestation.  The tendency to recurrence in persons who
have previously miscarried is well known, and should ever
be borne in mind with the view of avoiding any cause likely
to lead to a repetition of the accident.  Abortion resembles
ordinary labour in its general phenomena, excepting that in
the former hemorrhage often to a large extent forms one of
the leading symptoms.  The treatment embraces the means to
be used by rest, astringents and sedatives, to prevent the
occurrence when it merely threatens; or when, on the contrary,
it is inevitable, to accomplish as speedily as possible
the complete removal of the entire contents of the uterus.

Among primitive savage races abortion is practised to a
far less extent than infanticide (q.v.), which offers a
simpler way of getting rid of inconvenient progeny.  But it
is common among the American Indians, as well as in China,
Cambodia and India, although throughout Asia it is generally
contrary both to law and religion.  How far it was considered
a crime among the civilized nations of antiquity has long been
debated.  Those who maintain the impunity of the practice rely
for their authority upon certain passages in the classical
authors, which, while bitterly lamenting the frequency of this
enormity, yet never allude to any laws by which it might be
suppressed.  For example, in one of Plato's dialogues
(Theaet.), Socrates is made to speak of artificial
abortion as a practice, not only common but allowable;
and Plato himself authorizes it in his Republic (lib.
v.).  Aristotle (Polit. 222hb. vii. c. 17) gives it as his
opinion that no child ought to be suffered to come into the
world, the mother being above forty or the father above
fifty-five years of age.  Lysias maintained, in one of his
pleadings quoted by Harpocration, that forced abortion could
not be considered homicide, because a child in utero was
not an animal, and had no separate existence.  Among the
Romans, Ovid (Amor. hb. ii.), Juvenal (Sat. vi. 594) and
Seneca Consol. ad Hel. 16) mention the frequency of the
offence, but maintain silence as to any laws for punishing
it.  On the other hand, it is argued that the authority of
Galen and Cicero (pro Cluentio) place it beyond a doubt
that, so far from being allowed to pass with impunity, the
offence in question was sometimes punished by death; that the
authority of Lysias is of doubtful authenticity; and that the
speculative reasonings of Plato and Aristotle, in matters of
legislation, ought not to be confounded with the actual state
of the laws.  Moreover, Stobaeus (Serm. 73) has preserved
a passage from Musonius, in which that philosopher expressly
states that the ancient law-givers inflicted punishments on
females who caused themselves to abort.  After the spread of
Christianity among the Romans, however, foeticide became equally
criminal with the murder of an adult, and the barbarian hordes
which afterwards overran the empire also treated the offence
as a crime punishable Fith death.  This severe penalty remained
in force in all the countries of Europe until the Middle
Ages.  With the gradual disuse of the old barbarous punishments
so universal in medieval times came also a reversal of opinion as
to the magnitude of the crime involved in killing a child not yet
born.  But the exact period of transition is not clearly marked.

In England the Anglo-Saxons seem to have regarded abortion only
as an ecclesiastical offence.  Sir Matthew Hale (1609-1676)
tells us that if anything is done to ``a woman quick or great
with child, to make an abortion, or whereby the child within
her is killed, it is not murder or manslaughter by the law
of England, because it is not yet in rerum natura.'' But
the common law appears, nevertheless, to have treated as a
misdemeanour any attempt to effect the destruction of such an
infant, though unsuccessful.  Blackstone (1723-1780), to be
sure, a hundred years later, says that, ``if a woman is quick
with child, and by poison or otherwise killeth it in her
womb, or if any one beat her, whereby the child dieth in her
body, and she is delivered of a dead child, this, though not
murder, was, by the ancient law, homicide or manslaughter.''
Whatever may have been the exact view taken by the common
law, the offence was made statutory by an act of 1803, making
the attempt to cause the miscarriage of a woman, not being, or
not being proved, to be quick with child, a felony, punishable
with fine, imprisonment, whipping or transportation for any
term not exceeding fourteen years.  Should the woman have
proved to have quickened, the attempt was punishable with
death.  The provisions of this statute were re-enacted in
1828.  The English law on the subject is now governed by
the Offences against the Person Act 1861, which makes the
attempting to cause miscarriage by administering poison or
other noxious thing, or unlawfully using any instrument equally
a felony, whether the woman be, or be not, with child.  No
distinction is now made as to whether the foetus is or is not
alive, legislation appearing to make the offence statutory
with the object of prohibiting any risk to the life of the
mother.  If a woman administers to herself any poison or
other noxious thing, or unlawfully uses any instrument or
other means to procure her own miscarriage, she is guilty of
felony.  The punishment for the offence is penal servitude
for life or not less than three years, or imprisonment
for not more than two years.  If a child is born alive,
but in consequence of its premature birth, or of the means
employed, afterwards dies, the offence is murder; the
general law as to accessories applies to the offence.

In all the countries of Europe the causing of abortion is now
punishable with more or less lengthy terms of imprisonment. 
Indeed, the tendency in continental Europe is to regard the
abortion as a crime against the unborn child, and several
codes (notably that of the German Empire) expressly recognize
the life of the foetus, while others make the penalty more
severe if abortion has been caused in the later stages of
pregnancy, or if the woman is married.  According to the weight
of authority in the United States abortion was not regarded
as a punishable offence at common law, if the abortion was
produced with the consent of the mother prior to the time
when she became quick with child; but the Supreme Courts of
Pennsylvania and North Carolina held it a crime at common
law, which might be committed as soon as gestation had begun
(Mills v. Com. 13 Pa. St. 630; State v. Slagle, 83
N.C. 630).  The attempt is a punishable offence in several
states, but not in Ohio.  Nor was it ever murder at common
law to take the life of the child at any period of gestation,
even in the very act of delivery (Mitchell v. Com. 78 Ky.
204).  If the death of the woman results it is murder at
common law (Com. v. Parker, 9 Met. [Mass.] 263).  It is
now a statutory offence in all states of the Union, but the
woman must be actually pregnant.  In most states not only is
the person who causes the abortion punishable, but also any
one who supplies any drug or instrument for the purpose.  The
woman, however, is not an accomplice (except by statute as in
Ohio, State v. M`Coy, 39 N.E. 316), nor is she guilty
of any crime unless by statute as in New York (Penal Code,
sec.  295) and California (Penal Code, sec.  275) and Connecticut
(Gen.  Stats. 1902, sec.  1156).  She may be a witness, and her
testimony does not need corroboration.  The attempt is also a
crime in New York (1905, People v. Conrad, 102 App. D. 566).

AUTHORITIES.---Ploncouet, Commentarius Medicus in processus
criminales super homicidie et infanticidio, &c. (1736);
Burao Ryan, Infanticide, its Law, Prevalence, Prevention
and History (1862); G. Greaves, Observations on the Laws
referring to Child-Murder and Criminal Abortion (1864);
Storer and Heard, Criminal Abortion, its Nature, Evidence
and Law (Boston, 1868); J. Cave Browne, Infanticide, its
Origin, Progress and Suppression (1857); T. R. Beck, Medical
Jurisprudence (1842); A. S. Taylor, Principles and Practice
of Medical Jurisprudence (1894); Sir J. Stephen, History
of the Criminal Law of England (1883); Sir W. O. Russell,
Crimes and Misdemeanours (3 vols., 1896); Archbold's
Pleading and Evidence in Criminal:Cases (1900); Roscoe's
Evidence in Criminall Cases (1898) Treub, van Oppenraag and
Vlaming, The Right to Life of the Unborn Child (New
York, 1903); L. Hochheimer, Crimes and Criminal Procedure
(York, 1897); A. A. Tardieu, Etude medico-legal sur
l'avortement (Paris, 1904); F. Berolzheimer, System der
Rechts- und Wissenschaftsphilosophie (Munich, 1904).

ABOUKIR, a village on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 14 1/2
m.  N.E. of Alexandria by rail, containing a castle used
as a state prison by Mehemet Ali. Near the village are
many remains of ancient buildings, Egyptian, Greek and
Roman.  About 2 m.  S.E. of the village are ruins supposed to
mark the site of Canopus.  A little farther east the Canopic
branch of the Nile (now dry) entered the Mediterranean.

Stretching eastward as far as the Rosetta mouth of the
Nile is the spacious bay of Aboukir, where on the 1st of
August 1798 Nelson fought the battle of the Nile, often
referred to as the battle of Aboukir.  The latter title is
applied more properly to an engagement between the French
expeditionary army and the Turks fought on the 25th of July
1799.  Near Aboukir, on the 8th of March 1801, the British
army commanded by Sir R. Abercromby landed from its transports
in the face of a strenuous opposition from a French force
entrenched on the beach. (See FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS.)

ABOUT, EDMOND FRANCOIS VALENTIN (1828-1885), French novelist,
publicist and journalist, was born on the 14th of February
1828, at Dieuze, in Lorraine.  The boy's school career was
brilliant.  In 1848 he entered the Ecole Normale, taking the
second place in the annual competition for admission, Taine being
first.  Among his college contemporaries were Taine, Francisque,
Sarcey, Challemel-Lacour and the ill-starred Prevost-Paradol. 
Of them all About was, according to Sarcey, the most highly
vitalized, exuberant, brilliant and ``undisciplined.'' At
the end of his college career he joined the French school in
Athens, but if we may believe his own account, it had never
been his intention to follow the professorial career, for
which the Ecole Normale was a preparation, and in 1853 he
returned to France and frankly gave himself to literature and
journalism.  A book on Greece, La Grece contemporaine (1855),
which did not spare Greek susceptibilities, had an immediate
success.  In Tolla (1855) About was charged with drawing too
freely on an earlier Italian novel, Vittoria Savelii (Paris,
1841).  This caused a strong prejudice against him, and he
was the object of numerous attacks, to which he was ready
enough to retaliate.  The Lettres d'un bon jeune homme,
written to the Figaro under the signature of Valentin de
Quevilly, provoked more animosities.  During the next few
years, with indefatigable energy, and generally with full
public recognition, he wrote novels, stories, a play---which
failed,---a book-pamphlet on the Roman question, many
pamphlets on other subjects of the day, newspaper articles
innumerable, some art criticisms, rejoinders to the attacks
of his enemies, and popular manuals of political economy, L'A
B C du travailleur (1868), Le progres (1864).  About's
attitude towards the empire was that of a candid friend.  He
believed in its improvability, greeted the liberal ministry
of Emile Ollivier at the beginning of 1870 with delight and
welcomed the Franco-German War. That day of enthusiasm had a
terrible morrow.  For his own personal part he lost the loved
home near Saverne in Alsace, which he had purchased in 1858
out of the fruits of his earlier literary successes.  With
the fall of the empire he became a republican, and, always an
inveterate anti-clerical, he threw himself with ardour into
the battle against the conservative reaction which made head
during the first years of the republic.  From 1872 onwards
for some five or six years his paper, the XIXe Siecle,
of which he was the heart and soul, became a power in the
land.  But the republicans never quite forgave the tardiness
of his conversion, and no place rewarded his later zeal.  On
the 23rd January 1884 he was elected a member of the French
Academy, but died on the 16th of January 1885, before taking his
seat.  His journalism---of which specimens in his earlier
and later manners will be found in the two series of Lettres
d'un bon jeune homme a sa cousine Madeleine (1861 and
1863), and the posthumous Collection, Le dix-neuvieme
siecle (1892)---was of its nature ephemeral.  So were
the pamphlets, great and small.  His political economy
was that of an orthodox popularizer, and in no sense epoch.
making.  His dramas are negligible.  His more serious novels,
Madelon (1863), L'infame (1867), the three that form the
trilogy of the Vieille Roche (1866), and Le roman d'un
brave homme (1880)---a kind of counterblast to the view of
the French workman presented in Zola's Assommoir---contain
striking and amusing scenes, no doubt, but scenes which are
often suggestive of the stage, while description, dissertation,
explanation too frequently take the place of life.  His best
work after all is to be found in the books that are almost
wholly farcical, Le nez d'un notaire (1862); Le roi des
montagnes (1856); L'homme a l'oreille cassee (1862);
Trente et quarante (1858); Le cas de M. Guerin (1862). 
Here his most genuine wit, his sprightliness, his vivacity,
the fancy that was in him, have free play. ``You will never
be more than a little Voltaire,'' said one of his masters when
he was a lad at school.  It was a true prophecy. (F. T. M.)

(1437-1508), Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and
commentator, was born at Lisbon of an ancient family which
claimed descent from the royal house of David.  Like many of
the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political
ability He held a high place in the favour of King Alphonso
V., who entrusted him with the management of important state
affairs.  On the death of Alphonso in 1481, his counsellors
and favourites were harshly treated by his successor John,
and Abrabanel was compelled to flee to Spain, where he held
for eight years (14841492) the post of a minister of state
under Ferdinand and Isabella.  When the Jews were banished
from Spain in 1492, no exception was made in Abrabanel's
favour.  He afterwards resided at Naples, Corfu and Monopoli,
and in 1503 removed to Venice, where he held office as a
minister of state till his death in 1508.  His repute as
a commentator on the Scriptures is still high; in the 17th
and 18th centuries he was much read by Christians such as
Buxtorf.  Abrabanel often quotes Christian authorities,
though he opposed Christian exegesis of Messianic passages. 
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it
was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden
times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of
statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.

ABRACADABRA, a word analogous to Abraxas (q.v.), used as
a magical formula by the Gnostics of the sect of Basilides
in invoking the aid of beneficent spirits against disease and
misfortune.  It is found on Abraxas stones which were worn as
amulets.  Subsequently its use spread beyond the Gnostics,
and in modern times it is applied contemptuously (e g. by
the early opponents of the evolution theory) to a conception
or hypothesis which purports to be a simple solution of
apparently insoluble phenomena.  The Gnostic physician Serenus
Sammonicus gave precise instructions as to its mystical use
in averting or curing agues and fevers generally.  The paper
on which the word was written had to be folded in the form
of a cross, suspended from the neck by a strip of linen so
as to rest on the pit of the stomach, worn in this way for
nine days, and then, before sunrise, cast behind the wearer
into a stream running to the east.  The letters were usually
arranged as a triangle in one of the following ways:--












ABRAHAM, or ABRAM (Hebrew for ``father is high''), the
ancestor of the Israelites, the first of the great Biblical
patriarchs.  His life as narrated in the book of Genesis
reflects the traditions of different ages.  It is the latest
writer (P) who mentions Abram (the original form of the name),
Nahor and Haran, sons of Terah, at the close of a genealogy
of the sons of Shem, which includes among its members Eber
the eponym of the Hebrews.  Terah is said to have come from
Ur of the Chaldees, usually identified with Mukayyar in south
Babylonia.  He migrated to Haran1 in Mesopotamia, apparently
the classical Carrhae, on a branch of the Habor.  Thence,
after a short stay, Abram with his wife Sarai, and Lot
the son of Haran, and all their followers, departed for
Canaan.  The oldest tradition does not know of this twofold
move, and seems to locate Abram's birthplace and the homes
of his kindred at Haran (Gen. xxiv. 4, 7, xxvii. 43). At
the divine command, and encouraged by the promise that Yahweh
would make of him, although hitherto childless, a great
nation, he journeyed down to Shechem, and at the sacred tree
(cf. xxxv. 4, Josh. xxiv. 26, Judg. ix. 6) received a new
promise that the land would be given unto his seed.  Having
built an altar to commemorate the theophany, he removed to a
spot between Bethel and Ai, where he built another altar and
called upon (i.e. invoked) the name of Yahweh (Gen. xii.
1-9).  Here he dwelt for some time, until strife arose between
his herdsmen and those of Lot. Abram thereupon proposed to Lot
that they should separate, and allowed his nephew the first
choice.  Lot preferred the fertile land lying east of the
Jordan, whilst Abram, after receiving another promise from
Yahweh, moved down to the oaks of Mamre in Hebron and built an
altar.  In the subsequent history of Lot and the destruction
of Sodom and Gomorrah, Abram appears prominently in a
fine passage where he intercedes with Yahweh on behalf of
Sodom, and is promised that if ten righteous men can be
found therein the city shall be preserved (xviii. 16-33).

A peculiar passage, more valuable for the light it throws upon
primitive ideas than for its contribution to the history of
Abram, narrates the patriarch's visit to Egypt.  Driven by a
famine to take refuge in Egypt (cf. xxvi. 11 xli. 57, xlii.
1), he feared lest his wife's beauty should arouse the evil
designs of the Egyptians and thus endanger his own safety,
and alleged that Sarai was his sister.  This did not save
her from the Pharaoh, who took her into the royal harem and
enriched Abram with herds and servants.  But when Yahweh
``plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues'' suspicion
was aroused, and the Pharaoh rebuked the patriarch for his
deceit and sent him away under an escort (xii. 10-xiii.
1). This story of Abram and his increased wealth (xiii. 2)
receives no comment at the hands of the narrator, and in its
present position would make Sarai over sixty years of age
(xii. 4, xvii. 1, 17). A similar experience is said to have
happened to Abraham and Sarah at Gerar with the Philistine
king Abimelech (xx. E), but the tone of the narrative is
noticeably more advanced, and the presents which the patriarch
receives are compensation for the king's offence.  Here,
however, Sarah has reached her ninetieth year (xvii. 17).
(The dates are due to the post-exilic framework in which
the stories are inserted.) Still another episode of the same
nature is re-corded of Isaac and Rebekah at Gerar, also with
Abimelech.  Ethically it is the loftiest, and Isaac obtains
his wealth simply through his successful farming.  Arising out
of the incident is an account of a covenant between Abimelech
and Isaac (xxvi. 16-33, J), a duplicate of which is placed in
the time of Abraham (xxi. 22-34, J and E). Beersheba, which
figures in both, is celebrated by the planting of a sacred
tree and (like Bethel) by the invocation of the name of
Yahweh.  This district is the scene of the birth of Ishmael
and Isaac.  As Sarai was barren (cf. xi. 30)2 the promise
that his seed should possess the land seemed incapable of
fulfilment.  According to one rather obscure narrative,
Abram's sole heir was the servant, who was over his household,
apparently a certain Eliezer of Damascus3 (xv. 2, the text is
corrupt).  He is now promised as heir one of his own flesh,
and a remarkable and solemn passage records bow the promise
was ratified by a covenant.  The description is particularly
noteworthy for the sudden appearance of birds of prey,
which attempted to carry off the victims of the sacrificial
covenant.  The interpretation of the evil omen is explained
by an allusion to the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt
and their return in the fourth generation (xv. 16; contrast
v. 13, after four hundred years; the chapter is extremely
intricate and has the appearance of being of secondary
origin).  The main narrative now relates how Sarai, in
accordance with custom, gave to Abram her Egyptian handmaid
Hagar, who, when she found she was with child, presumed upon
her position to the extent that Sarai, unable to endure the
reproach of barrenness (cf. the story of Hannah, 1 Sam. i.
6), dealt harshly with her and forced her to flee (xvi.
1-14, J; on the details see ISHMAEL.) Another tradition
places the expulsion of Hagar after the birth of Isaac. 
It was thirteen years after the birth of Ishmael, according
to the latest narratives, that God appeared unto Abram with
a renewed promise that his posterity should inhabit the
land.  To mark the solemnity of the occasion, the patriarch's
name was changed to Abraham, and that of his wife to Sarah.4
A covenant was concluded with him for all time, and as a sign
thereof the rite of circumcision was instituted (xvii.  P).
The promise of a son to Sarah made Abraham ``laugh'', a punning
allusion to the name Isaac (q.v.) which appears again in other
forms.  Thus, it is Sarah herself who ``laughs'' at the
idea, when Yahweh appears to Abraham at Mamre (xviii. 1-15,
J), or who, when the child is horn cries ``God hath made
me laugh; every one that heareth will laugh at me'' (xxi.
6, E). Finally, there is yet another story which attributes
the flight of Hagar and Ishmael to Sarah's jealousy at the
sight of Ishmael's ``mocking'' (rather dancing or playing, the
intensive form of the verb ``to laugh'') on the feast day when
Isaac was weaned (xxi. 8 sqq.).  But this last story is clearly
out of place, since a child who was then fourteen years old
(cf. xvii. 24, xxi. 5) could scarcely be described as a weak
babe who had to be carried (xxi. 14; see the commentaries).

Abraham was now commanded by God to offer up Isaac in the land of
Moriah.  Proceeding to obey, he was prevented by an angel as
he was about to sacrifice his son, and slew a ram which he
found on the spot.  As a reward for his obedience he received
another promise of a numerous seed and abundant prosperity
(xxii.  E). Thence he returned to Beersheba.  The story is
one of the few told by E, and significantly teaches that human
sacrifice was not required by the Almighty (cf. Mic. vi. 7
seq.).  The interest of the narrative now extends to Isaac
alone.  To his ``only son'' (cp. xxii. 2, 12) Abraham gave
all he had, and dismissed the sons of his concubines to the
lands outside Palestine; they were thus regarded as less
intimately related to Isaac and his descendants (xxv. 1-4,
6). The measures taken by the patriarch for the marriage
of Isaac are circumstantially described.  His head-servant
was sent to his master's country and kindred to find a
suitable bride, and the necessary preparation for the story
is contained in the description of Nahor's family (xxii.
20-24).  The picturesque account of the meeting with Rebekah
throws interesting light on oriental custom.  Marriage with
one's own folk (cf. Gen. xxvii. 46, xxix. 19; Judg. xiv. 3),
and especially with a cousin, is recommended now even as in the
past.  For its charm the story is comparable with the account
of Jacob's experiences in the same land (xxix.).  For the
completion of the history of Abraham the compiler of Genesis
has used P's narrative.  Sarah is said to have died at a good
old age, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah near Hebron,
which the patriarch had purchased, with the adjoining field,
from Ephron the Hittite (xxiii.); and here he himself was
buried.  Centuries later the tomb became a place of pilgrimage
and the traditional site is marked by a fine mosque.5

The story of Abraham is of greater value for the study of
Old Testament theology than for the history of Israel.  He
became to the Hebrews the embodiment of their ideals, and
stood at their head as the founder of the nation, the one to
whom Yahweh had manifested his love by frequent promises and
covenants.  From the time when he was bidden to leave his
country to enter the unknown land, Yahweh was ever present to
encourage him to trust in the future when his posterity should
possess the land, and so, in its bitterest hours, Israel could
turn for consolation to the promises of the past which enshrined
in Abraham its hopes for the future.  Not only is Abraham the
founder of religion, but he, of all the patriarchal figures,
stands out most prominently as the recipient of the promises
(xii. 2 seq. 7, xiii. 14-17, xv., xvii., xviii. 17-19, xxii.
17 seq.; cf. xxiv. 7), and these the apostle Paul associates
with the coming of Christ, and, adopting a characteristic
and artificial style of interpretation prevalent in his time,
endeavours to force a Messianic interpretation out of them.6

For the history of the Hebrews the life of Abraham is of the
same value as other stories of traditional ancestors.  The
narratives, viewed dispassionately, represent him as an
idealized sheikh (with one important exception, Gen. xiv.,
see below), about whose person a number of stories have
gathered.  As the father of Isaac and Ishmael, he is ultimately
the common ancestor of the Israelites and their nomadic
fierce neighbours, men roving unrestrainedly like the wild
ass, troubled by and troubling every one (xvi. 12). As the
father of Midian, Sheba and other Arabian tribes (xxv. 1-4),
it is evident that some degree of kinship was felt by the
Hebrews with the dwellers of the more distant south, and
it is characteristic of the genealogies that the mothers
(Sarah, Hagar and Keturah) are in the descending scale as
regards purity of blood.  This great ancestral figure came,
it was said, from Ur in Babylonia and Haran and thence to
Canaan.  Late tradition supposed that the migration was
to escape Babylonian idolatry (Judith v., Jubilees xii.;
cf.  Josh. xxiv. 2), and knew of Abraham's miraculous escape
from death (an obscure reference to some act of deliverance
in Is. xxix. 22). The route along the banks of the Euphrates
from south to north was so frequently taken by migrating
tribes that the tradition has nothing improbable in itself,
but the prominence given in the older narratives to the view
that Haran was the home gives this the preference.  It was
thence that Jacob, the father of the tribes of Israel, came
and the route to Shechem and Bethel is precisely the same in
both.  A twofold migration is doubtful, and, from what is
known of the situation in Palestine in the 15th century
B.C., is extremely improbable.  Further, there is yet
another parallel in the story of the conquest by Joshua
(q.v.), partly implied and partly actually detailed (cf.
also Josh. viii. 9 with Gen. xii. 8, xiii. 3), whence it would
appear that too much importance must not be laid upon any
ethnological interpretation which fails to account for the three
versions.  That similar traditional elements have influenced
them is not unlikely; but to recover the true historical
foundation is difficult.  The invasion or immigration of
certain tribes from the east of the Jordan; the presence
of Aramaean blood among the Israelites (see JACOB); the
origin of the sanctity of venerable sites,---these and other
considerations may readily be found to account .for the
traditions.  Noteworthy coincidences in the lives of Abraham
and Isaac, noticed above, point to the fluctuating state of
traditions in the oral stage, or suggest that Abraham's life
has been built up by borrowing from the common stock of popular
lore.7 More original is the parting of Lot and Abraham at
Bethel.  The district was the scene of contests between
Moab and the Hebrews (cf. perhaps Judg. iii.), and if this
explains part of the story, the physical configuration of
the Dead Sea may have led to the legend of the destruction of
inhospitable and vicious cities (see SODOM AND GOMORRAH.)

Different writers have regarded the life of Abraham differently. 
He has been viewed as a chieftain of the Amorites (q.v.),
as the head of a great Semitic migration from Mesopotamia;
or, since Ur and Haran were seats of Moon-worship, he has
been identified with a moon-god.  From the character of
the literary evidence and the locale of the stories it
has been held that Abraham was originally associated with
Hebron.  The double name AbramAbraham has even suggested
that two personages have been combined in the Biblical
narrative; although this does not explain the change from
Sarai to Sarah.8 But it is important to remember that the
narratives are not contemporary, and that the interesting
discovery of the name Abi-ramu (Abram) on Babylonian contracts
of about 2000 B.C. does not prove the Abram of the Old
Testament to be an historical person, even as the fact that
there were ``Amorites'' in Babylonia at the same period
does not make it certain that the patriarch was one of their
number.  One remarkable chapter associates Abraham with
kings of Elam and the east (Gen. xiv.).  No longer a peaceful
sheikh but a warrior with a small army of 318 followers,9
he overthrows a combination of powerful monarchs who have
ravaged the land.  The genuineness of the narrative has been
strenuously maintained, although upon insufficient grounds.

``It is generally recognized that this chapter holds quite
an isolated place in the Pentateuchal history; it is the
only passage which presents Abraham in the character of a
warrior, and connects him with historical names and political
movements, and there are no clear marks by which it can be
assigned to any one of the documents of which Genesis is made
up.  Thus, while one school of interpreters finds in the chapter
the earliest fragment of the political history of western Asia,
some even holding with Ewald that the narrative is probably
based on old Canaanite records, other critics, as Noldeke,
regard the whole as unhistorical and comparatively late in
origin.  On the latter view, which finds its main support 1n the
intrinsic difficulties of the narrative, it is scarcely possible
to avoid the conclusion that the chapter is one of the latest
additions to the Pentateuch (Wellhausen and many others).''

On the assumption that a recollection of some invasion in
remote days may have been current, considerable interest is
attached to the names.  Of these, Amraphel, king of Shinar
(i.e. Babylonia, Gen. x. 10), has been identified with
Khammurabi, one of the greatest of the Babylonian kings
(c. 2000 B.C.), and since he claims to have ruled as
far west as the Mediterranean Sea, the equation has found
considerable favour.  Apart from chronological difficulties,
the identification of the king and his country is far from
certain, and at the most can only be regarded as possible. 
Arioch, king of Ellasar, has been connected with Eriaku of
Larsa--the reading has been questioned---a contemporary with
Khammurabi.  Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, bears what is
doubtless a genuine Elamite name.  Finally, the name of Tid'al,
king of Goiim, may be identical with a certain Tudhulu the
son of Gazza, a warrior, but apparently not a king, who is
mentioned in a Babylonian inscription, and Goiim may stand
for Gutim, the Guti being a people who lived to the east of
Kurdistan.  Nevertheless, there is as yet no monumental
evidence in favour of the genuineness of the story, and at
the most it can only be said that the author (of whatever
date) has derived his names from a trustworthy source,
and in representing an invasion of Palestine by Babylonian
overlords has given expression to a possible situation.11
The improbabilities and internal difficulties of the narrative
remain untouched, only the bare outlines may very well be
historical.  If, as most critics agree, it is a historical
romance (cf., e.g., the book of Judith), it is possible
that a writer, preferably one who lived in the post-exilic
age and was acquainted with Babylonian history, desired to
enhance the greatness of Abraham by exhibiting his military
success against the monarchs of the Tigris and Euphrates,
the high esteem he enjoyed in Palestine and his lofty
character as displayed in his interview with Melchizedek.

See further, Pinches, Old Test. in Light of Hist.  Records,
pp. 208. 236) Driver, Genesis, p. xlix., and notes on ch.
xiv.; Addis, Documents of the Hexateuch, ii. pp. 208-213;
Carpenter and Harford-Battersby, The Hexateuch, i. pp.
157-159, 168, Bezold, Bab.-Assyr. Keilinschriften, pp. 24
sqq., 54 sqq.; A. Jeremias, Altes Test. im Lichte d.  Alten
Orients,2,, pp. 343 seq.; also the literature to the art.
GENESIS.  Many fanciful legends about Abraham founded on
Biblical accounts or spun out of the fancy are to be found in
Josephus, and in post-Biblical and Mahommedan literature;
for these, reference may be made to Beer, Leben Abrahams
(1859); Grunbaum, Neue Beitrage z. semit.  Sagenkunde,
pp. 89 seq. (1893); the apocryphal ``Testament of Abraham''
(M. R. James in Texts and Studies, 1892); W. Tisdall,
Original Sources of the Quran, passim (1905). (S. A. C.)

1 The name is not spelt with the same guttural as Haran the son of Terah.

2 Barrenness is a motif which recurs in the stories
of Rebekah, Rachel, the mother of Samson, and Hannah
(Gen. xxv. 21, xxix. 31; Judg. xiii. 2; 1 Sam. i. 5).

3Ebram's connexion with Damascus is supplemented in the traditions
of Nicolaus of Damascus as cited by Josephus (Antiq. 1. 7. 2).

4 Abram (or Abiram) is a familiar and old-attested name meaning
``(my) father is exalted''; the meaning of Abraham is obscure a,nd
the explanation Gen. xvii. 3 is mere word-play.  It is possible
that raham was originally only a dialectical form of ram.

5 See Sir Charles Warren's description, Hasting's Dict. 
Bible, vol. iii. pp. 200 seq.  The so-called Babylonian colouring
of Gen. xxiii. has been much exaggerated; see S. R. Driver,
Genesis, ad loc.; S. A, Cook, Laws of Moses, p. 208.

6 See H. St. J. Thackeray, Relation of St Paul to
Contemporary Jewish Thought, p. 69 seq. (1900).

7 On the other hand, the coincidences in xx. xxi.
are due to E, who is also the author of xxii.  Apart
from these the narratives of Abraham are from J and P.

8 According to Breasted (Amer.  Journ. of Sem. Lit.,
1904, p. 56), the ``field of Abram'' occurs among the places
mentioned in the list of the Egyptian king Shishak (No. 71-2)
in the 10th century.  See also his History of Egypt, p. 530.

9 The number is precisely that of the total numerical
value of the consonants of the name ``Eliezer'' (Gen.
xv. 2); an astral signification has also been found.

10 W. R. Smith, Ency.  Brit. (9th ed., 1883), art. ``Melchizedek.''

11 That the names may be those of historical personages
is no proof of historical accuracy: ``We cannot therefore
conclude that the whole account is accurate history, any more
than we can argue that Sir Walter Scott's Anne of Geirstein
is throughout a correct account of actual events because we
know that Charles the Bold and Margaret of Anjou were real
people'' (W. H. Bennett, Century Bible: Genesis, p. 186).

ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA (1644-1709), Austrian divine,
was born at Kreenheinstetten, near Messkirch, in July
1644.  His real name was Ulrich Megerle.  In 1662 he joined
the order of Barefooted Augustinians, and assumed the name
by which he is known.  In this order he rose step by step
until he became prior provincialis and definitor of his
province.  Having early gained a great reputation for pulpit
eloquence, he was appointed court preacher at Vienna in
1669.  The people flocked to hear him, attracted by the
force and homeliness of his language, the grotesqueness of
his humour, and the impartial severity with which he lashed
the follies of all classes of society and of the court in
particular.  In general he spoke as a man of the people, the
predominating quality of his style being an overflowing and
often coarse wit.  There are, however, many passages in his
sermons in which he rises to loftier thought and uses more
dignified language.  He died at Vienna on the 1st of December
1709.  In his published writings he displayed much the same
qualities as in the pulpit.  Perhaps the most favourable
specimen of his style is his didactic novel entitled
Judas der Erzschelm (4 vols., Salzburg, 1686-1695).

His works have been several times reproduced in whole or
in part though with many serious interpolations.  The best
edition is that published in 21 vols. at Passau and Lindau
(1835-1854).  See Th. G. von Karaiesn, Abraham a Sancta
Clara (Vienna, 1867); Wanckenburr, Studien uber die Sprache
Abrahams al S. C. (Halle, 1897); Sexto, Abraham a S. C.
(Sigmaringen, 1896); Schnell, Pater A. a S. C. (Munich,
1895); H. Mareta, Uber Judas d.  Erzschelm (Vienna, 1875).

ABRAHAM IBN DAUD (c. 1110-1180), Jewish historiographer
and philosopher of Toledo.  His historical work was the
Book of Tradition (Sepher Haqabala), a chronicle down
to the year 1161.  This was a defence of the traditional
record, and also contains valuable information for the
medieval period.  It was translated into Latin by Genebrad
(1519).  His philosophy was expounded in an Arabic work
better known under its Hebrew title 'Emunah Ramah
(Sublime Faith.) This was translated into German by Well
(1882).  Ibn Daud was one of the first Jewish scholastics to
adopt the Aristotelian system; his predecessors were mostly
neo-Platonists.  Maimonides owed a good deal to him.

ABRAHAMITES, a sect of deists in Bohemia in the 18th
century, who professed to be followers of the pre-circumcised
Abraham.  Believing in one God, they contented themselves
with the Decalogue and the Paternoster.  Declining to be
classed either as Christians or Jews, they were excluded from
the edict of toleration promulgated by the emperor Joseph
II. in 1781, and deported to various parts of the country,
the men being drafted into frontier regiments.  Some became
Roman Catholics, and those who retained their ``Abrahamite',
views were not able to hand them on to the next generation.

ABRAHAM-MEN, the nickname for vagrants who infested England
in Tudor times.  The phrase is certainly as old as 1561, and
was due to these beggars pretending that they were patients
discharged from the Abraham ward at Bedlam.  The genuine
Bedlamite was allowed to roam the country on his discharge,
soliciting alms, provided he wore a badge. This humane
privilege was grossly abused, and thus gave
rise to the slang phrase ``to sham Abraham.''

ABRANTES, a town of central Portugal, in the district of
Santarem, formerly included in the province of Estremadura;
on the right bank of the river Tagus, at the junction of
the Madrid-Badajoz--Lisbon railway with the Guarda-Abrantes
line.  Pop. (1900) 7255.  Abrantes, which occupies the crest
of a hill covered with olive woods, gardens and vines, is a
fortified town, with a thriving trade in fruit, olive oil and
grain.  As it commands the highway down the Tagus valley to
Lisbon, it has usually been regarded as an important military
position.  Originally an Iberian settlement, founded about
300 B.C., it received the name Aurantes from the Romans;
perhaps owing to the alluvial gold (aurum) found along the
Tagub.  Roman mosaics, coins, the remains of an aqueduct, and
other antiquities have been discovered in the neighbourhood. 
Abrantes was captured on the 24th of November 1807 by the
French under General Junot, who for this achievement was created
duke of Abrantes.  By the Convention of Cintra (22nd of August
1808) the town was restored to the British and Portuguese.

ABRASION (from Lat. ab, off, and radere, to scrape), the
process of rubbing off or wearing down, as of rock by moving
ice, or of coins by wear and tear; also used of the results of
such a process as an abrasion or excoriation of the skin.  In
machinery, abrasion between moving surfaces has to be prevented as
much as possible by the use of suitable materials, good fitting and
lubrication.  Engineers and other craftsmen make extensive use
of abrasion, effected by the aid of such abrasives as emery and
carborundum, in shaping, finishing and polishing their work.

ABRAUM SALTS (from the German Abraum-salze, salts
to be removed), the name given to a mixed deposit of
salts, including halite, carnallite, kieserite, &c., found
in association with rocksalt at Stassfurt in Prussia.

ABRAXAS, or ABRASAX, a word engraved on certain antique
stones, called on that account Abraxas stones, which were used
as amulets or charms.  The Basilidians, a Gnostic sect, attached
importance to the word, if, indeed, they did not bring it into
use.  The letters of abraxas, in the Greek notation, make
up the number 365, and the Basilidians gave the name to the
365 orders of spirits which, as they conceived, emanated in
succession from the Supreme Being.  These orders were supposed
to occupy 365 heavens, each fashioned like, but inferior
to that above it; and the lowest of the heavens was thought
to be the abode of the spirits who formed the earth and its
inhabitants, and to whom was committed the administration of
its affairs.  Abraxas stones are of very little value.  In
addition to the word Abraxas and other mystical characters,
they have often cabalistic figures engraved on them.  The
commonest of these have the head of a fowl, and the arms and
bust of a man, and terminate in the body and tail of a serpent.

ABROGATION (Lat. abrogare, to repeal or annul a law;
rogare, literally ``to ask,'' to propose a law), the
annulling or repealing of a law by legislative action. 
Abrogation, which is the total annulling of a law, is to
be distinguished from the term derogation, which is used
where a law is only partially abrogated.  Abrogation may be
either express or implied.  It is express either when the new
law pronounces the annulment in general terms, as when in a
concluding section it announces that all laws contrary to the
provisions of the new one are repealed, or when in particular
terms it announces specifically the preceding laws which it
repeals.  It is implied when the new law contains provisions
which are positively contrary to the former laws without
expressly abrogating those laws, or when the condition of things
for which the law had provided has changed and consequently
the need for the law no longer exists.  The abrogation of
any statute revives the provisions of the common law which
had been abrogated by that statute.  See STATUTE; REPEAL.

ABRUZZI E MOLISE, a group of provinces (compartimento)
of Southern Italy, bounded N. by the province of Ascoli, N.W.
and W. by Perueia, S.W. by Rome and Casertz, S. by Benevento. 
E. by Foggia and N.E. by the Adriatic Sea. It comprises the
provinces of Teramo (population in 1901, 307,444), Aquila
(396,620), Chieti (370,907) and Campobasso (366,571), which,
under the kingdom of Naples, respectively bore the names
Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Abruzzo Ulteriore II., Abruzzo Citeriore
(the reference being to their distance from the capital) and
Molise.  The total area is 6567 sq. m. and the population
(1901) 1,441,551.  The district is mainly mountainous in the
interior, including as it does the central portion of the
whole system of the Apennines and their culminating point,
the Gran Sasso d'Italia. Towards the sea the elevation
is less considerable, the hills consisting mainly of somewhat
unstable clay and sand, but the zone of level ground along
the coast is quite inconsiderable.  The coast line itself,
though over 100 miles in length, has not a single harbour of
importance.  The climate varies considerably with the
altitude, the highest peaks being covered with snow for the
greater part of the year, while the valleys running N.E.
towards the sea are fertile and well watered by several small
rivers, the chief of which are the Tronto, Vomano, Pescara,
Sangro, Trigno and Biferno.  These are fed by less important
streams, such as the Aterno and Gizio, which water the valleys
between the main chains of the Apennines.  They are liable to
be suddenly swollen by rains, and floods and landslips often
cause considerable damage.  This danger has been increased,
as elsewhere in Italy, by indiscriminate timber-felling on
the higher mountains without provision for re-afforestation,
though considerable oak, beech, elm and pine forests still
exist and are the home of wolves, wild boars and even
bears.  They also afford feeding-ground for large herds of
swine, and the hams and sausages of the Abruzzi enjoy a high
reputation.  The rearing of cattle and sheep was at one time
the chief occupation of the inhabitants, and many of them
still drive their flocks down to the Campagna di Roma for the
winter months and back again in the summer, but more attention
is now devoted to cultivation.  This flourishes especially in
the valleys and in the now drained bed of the Lago Fucino. 
The industries are various, but none of them is of great
importance.  Arms and cutlery are produced at Campobasso and
Agnone.  At the exhibition of Abruzzese art, held at Chieti
in 1905, fine specimens of goldsmiths' work of the 15th and
16th centuries, of majolica of the 17th and 18th centuries,
and of tapestries and laces were brought together; and the
reproduction of some of these is still carried on, the small
town of Castelli being the centre of the manufacture.  The river
Pescara and its tributary the Tirino form an important source
of power for generating electricity.  The chief towns are (1)
Teramo, Atri, Campli, Penne, Castellammare Adriatico; (2)
Aquila, Avezzano, Celano, Tagliacozzo, Sulmona; (3) Chieti,
Lanciano, Ortona, Vasto; (4) Campobasso, Agnone, Iscrnia. 
Owing to the nature of the country, communications are not
easy.  Railways are (i) the coast railway (a part of the
Bologna-Gallipoli line), with branches from Giulianova to
Teramo and from Termoli to Campobasso; (2) a line diverging
S.E. from this at Pescara and running via Sulmona (whence
there are branches via Aquila and Rieti to Terni, and via
Carpinone to (a) Isernia and Caianello, on the line from
Rome to Naples, and (b) Campobasso and Benevento), and
Avezzano (whence there is a branch to Roccasecca) to Rome.

The name Abruzzi is conjectured to be a medieval corruption of
Praetuttii.  The district was, in Lombard times, part of the
duchy of Spoleto, and, under the Normans, a part of that of
Apulia; it was first formed into a single province in 1240 by
Frederick II., who placed the Justiciarius Aprutii at Solmona
and founded the city of Aquila.  After the Hohenstauffen lost
their Italian dominions, the Abruzzi became a province of the
Angevin kingdom of Naples, to which it was of great strategic
importance.  The division into three parts was not made until
the 17th century.  The Molise, on the other hand, formed part
of the Lombard duchy of Benevento, and was placed under the
Justiciarius of Terra di Lavoro by Frederick II.: after various
changes it became part of the Capitanata, and was only formed
into an independent province in 1811.  The people are remark.
ably conservative in beliefs, superstitions and traditions.

See V. Bindi, Monumenti storici ed artistici degli Abruzzi (Naples,
1889); A. de Nino, Ulsi e costumi Abruzzesi (Florence, 1879-1883).

ABSALOM (Hebrew for ``father of [or is] peace''), in the
Bible, the third son of David, king of Israel.  He was deemed
the handsomest man in the kingdom.  His sister Tamar having
been violated by David's eldest son Amnon, Absalom, after
waiting two years, caused his servants to murder Amnon at
a feast to which he had invited all the king's sons (2 Sam.
xiii.).  After this deed he fled to Talmai, ``king'' of Geshur
(see Josh. xii. 5 or xiii. 2), his maternal grandfather, and
it was not until five years later that he was fully reinstated
in his father's favour (see JOAB.) Four years after this he
raised a revolt at Hebron, the former capital.  Absalom was
now the eldest surviving son of David, and the present position
of the narratives (xv.-xx.)--after the birth of Solomon and
before the struggle between Solomon and Adonijah---may represent
the view that the suspicion that he was not the destined
heir of his father's throne excited the impulsive youth to
rebellion.  All Israel and Judah flocked to his side, and
David, attended only by the Cherethites and Pelethites
and some recent recruits from Gath, found it expedient to
flee.  The priests remained behind in Jerusalem, and their
sons Jonathan and Ahimaaz served as his spies.  Absalom reached
the capital and took counsel with the renowned Ahithophel. 
The pursuit was continued and David took refuge beyond the
Jordan.  A battle was fought in the ``wood of Ephraim'' (the
name suggests a locality west of the Jordan) and Absalom's
army was completely routed.  He himself was caught in the
boughs of an oak-tree, and as David had strictly charged his
men to deal gently with the young man, Joab was informed. 
What a common soldier refused to do even for a thousand
shekels of silver, the king's general at once undertook. 
Joab thrust three spears through the heart of Absalom as he
struggled in the branches, and as though this were not enough,
his ten armour-bearers came around and slew him.  The king's
overwhelming grief is well known.  A great heap of stones was
erected where he fell, whilst another monument near Jerusalem
(not the modern ``Absalom's Tomb,'' which is of later origin)
he himself had erected in his lifetime to perpetuate his name
(2 Sam. xviii. 17 seq.).  But the latter notice does not seem
to agree with xiv. 27 (cf. 1 Kings xv. 2). On the narratives
in 2 Sam. xiii.-xix., see further DAVID; SAMUEL, BOOKS OF.

ABSALON (c. 1128-1201), Danish archbishop and statesman,
was born about 1128, the son of Asser Rig of Fjenneslev,
at whose castle he and his brother Esbjorn were brought up
along with the young prince Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar
I. The Rigs were as pious and enlightened as they were
rich.  They founded the monastery of Soro as a civilizing
centre, and after giving Absalon the rudiments of a sound
education at home, which included not only book-lore but every
manly and martial exercise, they sent him to the university of
Paris.  Absalon first appears in Saxo's Chronicle as a
fellow-guest at Roskilde, at the banquet given, in 1157, by
King Sweyn to his rivals Canute and Valdemar.  Both Absalon and
Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of their
treacherous host on this occasion, but at length escaped to
Jutland, whither Sweyn followed them, but was defeated and slain
at the battle of Grathe Heath.  The same year (1158) which saw
Valdemar ascend the Danish throne saw Absalon elected bishop of
Roskilde.  Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of
Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for
three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the
Baltic.  Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to Clear the
northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion
of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged
the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of
Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and
depopulated.  The very existence of Denmark demanded the
suppression and conversion of these stiff-necked pagan
freebooters, and to this double task Absalon devoted the
best part of his life.  The first expedition against the
Wends, conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160,
but it was not till 1168 that the chief Wendish fortress,
at Arkona in Rugen, containing the sanctuary of their god
Svantovit, was surrendered, the Wends agreeing to accept
Danish suzerainty and the Christian religion at the same
time.  From Arkona Absalon proceeded by sea to Garz, in south
Rugen, the political capital of the Wends, and an all but
impregnable stronghold.  But the unexpected fall of Arkona
had terrified the garrison, which surrendered unconditionally
at the first appearance of the Danish ships.  Absalon, with
only Sweyn, bishop of Aarhus, and twelve ``house carls,''
thereupon disembarked, passed between a double row of Wendish
warriors, 6000 strong, along the narrow path winding among the
morasses, to the gates of the fortress, and, proceeding to the
temple of the seven-headed god Rugievit, caused the idol to
be hewn down, dragged forth and burnt.  The whole population
of Garz was then baptized, and Absalon laid the foundations
of twelve churches in the isle of Rugen.  The destruction of
this chief sally-port of the Wendish pirates enabled Absalon
considerably to reduce the Danish fleet.  But he continued
to keep a watchful eye over the Baltic, and in 1170 destroyed
another pirate stronghold, farther eastward, at Dievenow
on the isle of Wollin.  Absalon's last military exploit was
the annihilation, off Strela (Stralsund), on Whit-Sunday
1184, of a Pomeranian fleet which had attacked Denmark's
vassal, Jaromir of Rugen.  He was now but fifty-seven, but
his strenuous life had aged him, and he was content to resign
the command of fleets and armies to younger men, like Duke
Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar II., and to confine himself
to the administration of the empire which his genius had
created.  In this sphere Absalon proved himself equally
great.  The aim of his policy was to free Denmark from the German
yoke.  It was contrary to his advice and warnings that Valdemar
I. rendered fealty to the emperor Frederick Barbarossa at
Dole in 1162; and when, on the accession of Canute V. in
1182, an imperial ambassador arrived at Roskilde to receive
the homage of the new king, Absalon resolutely withstood
him. ``Return to the emperor,'' cried he, ``and tell him that
the king of Denmark will in no wise show him obedience or
do him homage.'' As the archpastor of Denmark Absalon also
rendered his country inestimable services, building churches
and monasteries, introducing the religious orders, founding
schools and doing his utmost to promote civilization and
enlightenment.  It was he who held the first Danish Synod at
Lund in 1167.  In 1178 he became archbishop of Lund, but very
unwillingly, only the threat of excommunication from the
holy see finally inducing him to accept the pallium.  Absalon
died on the 21st of March 1201, at the family monastery of
Soro, which he himself had richly embellished and endowed.

Absalon remains one of the most striking and picturesque
figures of the Middle Ages, and was equally great as
churchman, statesman and warrior.  That he enjoyed warfare
there can be no doubt; and his splendid physique and early
training had well fitted him for martial exercises.  He
was the best rider in the army and the best swimmer in the
fleet.  Yet he was not like the ordinary fighting bishops
of the Middle Ages, whose sole concession to their sacred
calling was to avoid the ``shedding of blood'' by using a mace
in battle instead of a sword.  Absalon never neglected his
ecclesiastical duties, and even his wars were of the nature of
Crusades.  Moreover, all his martial energy notwithstanding,
his personality must have been singularly winning; for it is
said of him that he left behind not a single enemy, all his
opponents having long since been converted by him into friends.

See Saxo, Gesta Danorum, ed.  Holder (Strassburg, 1886), books
xvi.; Steinstrup, Danmark's Riges Historic.  Oldtiden og den (eldre
Middelalder, pp. 570-735 (Copenhagen, 1897-1905). (R. N. B.)

ABSCESS (from Lat. abscedere, to separate), in pathology,
a collection of pus among the tissues of the body, the result
of bacterial inflammation.  Without the presence of septic
organisms abscess does not occur.  At any rate, every acute
abscess contains septic germs, and these may have reached the
inflamed area by direct infection, or may have been carried
thither by the blood-stream.  Previous to the formation of
abscess something has occurred to lower the vitality of the
affected tissue--- some gross injury, perchance, or it may be
that the power of resistance against bacillary invasion was
lowered by reason of constitutional weakness.  As the result,
then, of lowered vitality, a certain area becomes congested and
effusion takes place into the tissues.  This effusion coagulates
and a hard, brawny mass is formed which softens towards the
centre.  If nothing is done the softened area increases in
size, the skin over it becomes thinned, loses its vitality
(mortifies) and a small ``slough'' is formed.  When the slough
gives way the pus escapes and, tension being relieved, pain
ceases.  A local necrosis or death of tissue takes place at
that part of the inflammatory swelling farthest from the healthy
circulation.  When the attack of septic inflammation is very
acute, death of the tissue occurs en masse, as in the
core of a boil or carbuncle.  Sometimes, however, no such
mass of dead tissue is to be observed, and all that escapes
when the skin is lanced or gives way is the creamy pus.  In
the latter case the tissue has broken down in a molecular
form.  After the escape of the core or slough along with a
certain amount of pus, a space, the abscess-cavily', is left,
the walls of which are lined with new vascular tissue which
has itself escaped destruction.  This lowly organized material
is called granulation tissue, and exactly resembles the
growth which covers the floor of an ulcer.  These granulations
eventually fill the contracting cavity and obliterate it by
forming interstitial scar-tissue.  This is called healing
by second intention. Pus may accumulate in a normal cavity,
such as a joint or bursa, or in the cranial, thoracic or
abdominal cavity.  In all these situations, if the diagnosis
is clear, the principle of treatment is evacuation and
drainage.  When evacuating an abscess it is often advisable
to scrape away the lining of unhealthy granulations and
to wash out the cavity with an antiseptic lotion.  If the
after-drainage of the cavity is thorough the formation of
pus ceases and the watery discharge from the abscess wall
subsides.  As the cavity contracts the discharge becomes less,
until at last the drainage tube can be removed and the external
wound allowed to heal.  The large collections of pus which
form in connexion with disease of the spinal column in the
cervical, dorsal and lumbar regions are now treated by free
evacuation of the tuberculous pus, with careful antiseptic
measures.  The opening should be in as dependent a position as
possible in order that the drainage may be thorough.  If tension
recurs after opening has been made, as by the blocking of the
tube, or by its imperfect position, or by its being too short,
there is likely to be a fresh formation of pus, and without
delay the whole procedure must be gone through again. (E. O.*)

ABSCISSA (from the Lat. abscissus, cut off), in the
Cartesian system of co-ordinates, the distance of a point
from the axis of y measured parallel to the horizontal
axis (axis of x.) Thus PS (or OR) is the abscissa of
P. The word appears for the first time in a Latin work
written by Stefano degli Angeli (1623-1697), a professor
of mathematics in Rome. (See GEOMETRY, sec.  Analytical.)

ABSCISSION (from Lat. abscinidere), a tearing away, or
cutting off; a term used sometimes in prosody for the elision of
a vowel before another, and in surgery especially for abscission
of the cornea, or the removal of that portion of the eyeball
situated in front of the attachments of the recti muscles; in
botany, the separation of spores by elimination of the connexion.

ABSCOND (Lat. abscondcre, to hide, put away), to depart in
a secret manner; in law, to remove from the jurisdiction of the
courts or so to conceal oneself as to avoid their jurisdiction. 
A person may ``abscond'' either for the purpose of avoiding
arrest for a crime (see ARREST), or for a fraudulent purpose,
such as the defrauding of his creditors (see BANKRUPTCY.)

ABSENCE (Lat. absentia), the fact of being ``away,''
either in body or mind; ``absence of mind'' being a
condition in which the mind is withdrawn from what is
passing.  The special occasion roll-call at Eton College
is called ``Absence,'' which the boys attend in their tall
hats.  A soldier must get permission or ``leave of absence'
before he can be away from his regiment.  Seven years'
absence with no sign of life either by letter or message
is held presumptive evidence of death in the law courts.

ABSENTEEISM, a term used primarily of landed proprietors who
absent themselves from their estates, and live and spend their
incomes elsewhere; in its more extended meaning it includes
all those (in addition to landlords) who live out of a country
or locality but derive their income from some source within
it.  Absenteeism is a question which has been much debated,
and from both the economic and moral point of view there is
little doubt that it has a prejudicial effect.  To it has been
attributed in a great measure the unprosperous condition of the
rural districts of France before the Revolution, when it was
unusual for the great nobles to live on their estates unless
compelled to do so by a sentence involving their ``exile'' from
Paris.  It has also been an especial evil in Ireland, and
many attempts were made to combat it.  As early as 1727 a
tax of four shillings in the pound was imposed on all persons
holding offices and employments in Ireland and residing in
England.  This tax was discontinued in 1753, but was re-imposed in
1769.  In 1774 the tax was reduced to two shillings in the
pound, but was dropped after some years.  It was revived by the
Independent Parliament in 1782 and for some ten years brought in
a substantial amount to the revenue, yielding in 1790 as much as
63,089 pounds.

AUTHORITIES.--For a discussion of absenteeism from the economic
point of view see N. W. Senior, Lectures on the Rate of Wages,
Political Economy; J. S. Mill, Political Economy; J. R.
Mcculloch, Treatises and Essays on Money, &c., article
``Absenteeism''; A. T. Hadley, Economics; on absenteeism in
Ireland see A. Young, Tour in Ireland (1780); T. Prior, List
of.  Absentees (1729); E. Wakefield, Account of Iteland (1812);
W. E. H. Lecky, Ireland in the 18th Century (1892): A. E.
Murray, History of the Commercial and Financial Relations
between England and Helanid (1903); Parliamentary Papers,
Ireland, 1830, vii., ditto, 1845, xix.-xxii.; in France, A.
de Monchretien, Traicte de l'oekonomie politique (1615);
A. de Tocqueville, L'Ancien Regime (1857); H. Taine, Les
Origines de la France contemporaine, l'ancien Regime (1876).

ABSINTHE a liqueur or aromatized spirit, the characteristic
flavouring matter of which is derived from various species of
wormwood (Artemisia absinthium.) Among the other substances
generally employed in its manufacture are angelica root,
sweet flag, dittany leaves, star-anise fruit, fennel and
hyssop.  A colourless ``alcoholate'' (see LIQUEURS) is
first prepared, and to this the well-known green colour of
the beverage is imparted by maceration with green leaves of
wormwood, hyssop and mint.  Inferior varieties are made by
means of essences, the distillation process being omitted. 
There are two varieties of absinthe, the French and the Swiss,
the latter of which is of a higher alcoholic strength than the
former.  The best absinthe contains 70 to 80% of alcohol.  It is
said to improve very materially by storage.  There is a popular
belief to the effect that absinthe is frequently adulterated
with copper, indigo or other dye-stuffs (to impart the green
colour), but, in fact, this is now very rarely the case.  There
is some reason to believe that excessive absinthe-drinking
leads to effects which are specifically worse than those
associated with over-indulgence in other forms of alcohol.

ABSOLUTE (Lat. absolvere, to loose, set free), a term
having the general signification of independent, self-existent,
unconditioned.  Thus we speak of ``absolute'' as opposed to
``limited'' or ``constitutional'' monarchy, or, in common
parlance, of an ``absolute failure,'' i.e. unrelieved by
any satisfactory circumstances.  In philosophy the word has
several technical uses. (1) In Logic, it has been applied
to non-connotative terms which do not imply attributes
(see CONNOTATION), but more commonly, in opposition to
Relative, to terms which do not imply the existence of some
other (correlative) term; e.g. ``father'' implies ``son,''
``tutor'' ``pupil,'' and therefore each of these terms is
relative.  In fact, however, the distinction is formal, and,
though convenient in the terminology of elementary logic,
cannot be strictly maintained.  The term ``man,'' for example,
which, as compared with ``father,'' ``son,'' ``tutor,'' seems
to be absolute, is obviously relative in other connexions; in
various contexts it implies its various possible opposites,
e.g. ``woman,'' ``boy,'' ``master'', ``brute.'' In other
words, every term which is susceptible of definition is ipso
facto relative, for definition is precisely the segregation
of the thing defined from all other things which it is not,
i.e. implies a relation.  Every term which has a meaning
is, therefore, relative, if only to its contradictory.

(2) The term is used in the phrase ``absolute knowledge'' to
imply knowledge per se. It has been held, however, that,
since all knowledge implies a knowing subject and a known
object, absolute knowledge is a contradiction in terms (see
RELATIVITY.) So also Herbert Spencer spoke of ``absolute
ethics,'' as opposed to systems of conduct based on particular
local or temporary laws and conventions (see ETHICS.)

(3) By far the most important use of the word is in the phrase
``the Absolute'' (see METAPHYSICS.) It is sufficient here
to indicate the problems involved in their most elementary
form.  The process of knowledge in the sphere of intellect
as in that of natural science is one of generalization,
i.e. the co-ordination of particular facts under general
statements, or in other words, the explanation of one fact by
another, and that other by a third, and so on.  In this way
the particular facts or existences are left behind in the
search for higher, more inclusive conceptions; as twigs are
traced to one branch, and branches to one trunk, so, it is
held, all the plurality of sense-given data is absorbed in
a unity which is all-inclusive and self-existent, and has no
``beyond.'' By a metaphor this process has been described as
the odos ano (as of tracing a river to its source).  Other
phrases from different points of view have been used to describe
the idea, e.g. First Cause, Vital Principle (in connexion
with the origin of life), God (as the author and sum of all
being), Unity, Truth (i.e. the sum and culmination of all
knowledge), Causa Causans, &c. The idea in different senses
appears both in idealistic and realistic systems of thought.

The theories of the Absolute may be summarized briefly
as follows. (1) The Absolute does not exist, and is not
even in any real sense thinkable.  This view is held by
the empiricists, who hold that nothing is knowable save
phenomena.  The Absolute could not be conceived, for all
knowledge is susceptible of definition and, therefore,
relative.  The Absolute includes the idea of necessity, which
the mind cannot cognize. (2) The Absolute exists for thought
only.  In this theory the absolute is the unknown x which
the human mind is logically compelled to postulate a priori
as the only coherent explanation and justification of its
thought. (3) The Absolute exists but is unthinkable, because
it is an aid to thought which comes into operation, as it
were, as a final explanation beyond which thought cannot
go.  Its existence is shown by the fact that without it all
demonstration would be a mere circulus in probando or verbal
exercise, because the existence of separate things implies some
one thing which includes and explains them. (4) The Absolute
both exists and is conceivable.  It is argued that we do in
fact conceive it in as much as we do conceive Unity, Being,
Truth.  The conception is so clear that its inexplicability
(admitted) is of no account.  Further, since the unity of
our thought implies the absolute, and since the existence
of things is known only to thought, it appears absurd that
the absolute itself should be regarded as non-existent. 
The Absolute is substance in itself, the ultimate basis and
matter of existence.  All things are merely manifestations of
it, exist in virtue of it, but are not identical with it.
(5) Metaphysical idealists pursue this line of argument in a
different way.  For them nothing exists save thought; the only
existence 1hat can be predicated of any thing and, therefore,
of the Absolute, is that it is thought.  Thought creates
God, things, the Absolute. (6) Finally, it has been held that
we can conceive the Absolute, though our conception is only
partial, just as our concepuon of all things is limited by
the imperfect powers of human intellect.  Thus the Absolute
exists for us only in our thought of it (4 above).  But
thought itself comes from the Absolute which, being itself
the pure thought of thoughts, separates from itself individual
minds.  It is, therefore, perfectly natural that human thought,
being essentially homogeneous with the Absolute, should be
able by.the consideration of the universe to arrive at some
imperfect conception of the source from which all is derived.

The whole controversy is obscured by inevitable difficulties in
terminology.  The fundamental problem is whether a thing which
is by hypothesis infinite can in any sense be defined, and if
it is not defined, whether it can be said to be cognized or
thought.  It would appear to be almost an axiom that anything
which by hypothesis transcends the intellect (i.e. by including
subject and object, knowing and known) is ipso facto beyond the
limits of the knower.  Only an Absolute can cognize an absolute.

ABSOLUTION (Lat. absolutio from absolvo, loosen, acquit),
a term used in civil and ecclesiastical law, denoting the
act of setting free or acquitting.  In a criminal process it
signifies the acquittal of an accused person on the ground
that the evidence has either disproved or failed to prove the
charge brought against him.  In this sense it is now little
used, except in Scottish law in the forms assoilzie and
absolvitor. The ecclesiastical use of the word is essentially
different from the civil.  It refers not to an accusation,
but to sin actually committed (after baptism); and it denotes
the setting of the sinner free from the guilt of the sin, or
from its ecclesiastical penalty (excommunication), or from
both.  The authority of the church or minister to pronounce
absolution is based on John xx. 23; Matt. xviii. 18; James v.
16, &c. In primitive times, when confession of sins was made
before the congregation, the absolution was deferred till
the penance was completed; and there is no record of the use
of any special formula.  Men were also encouraged, e.g. by
Chrysostom, to confess their secret sins secretly to God. In
course of time changes grew up. (1) From the 3rd century onwards,
secret (auricular) confession before a bishop or priest was
practised.  For various reasons it became more and more common,
until the fourth Lateran council (1215) ordered all Christians
of the Roman obedience to make a confession once a year at
least.  In the Greek church also private confession has become
obligatory. (2) In primitive times the penitent was reconciled
by imposition of hands by the bishop with or without the clergy:
gradually the office was left to be discharged by priests,
and the outward action more and more disused. (3) It became
the custom to give the absolution to penitents immediately
after their confession and before the penance was performed.
(4) Until the Middle Ages the form of absolution after private
confession was of the nature of a prayer, such as ``May the
Lord absolve thee''; and this is still the practice of the Greek
church.  But about the 13th century the Roman formula was
altered, and the council of Trent (1551) declared that the
``form'' and power of the sacrament of penance lay in the
words Ego te absolvo, &c., and that the accompanying prayers
are not essential to it.  Of the three forms of absolution
in the Anglican Prayer Book, that in the Visitation of the
Sick (disused in the church of Ireland by decision of the
Synods of 1871 and 1877) runs ``I absolve thee,'' tracing
the authority so to act through the church up to Christ:
the form in the Communion Service is precative, while that
in Morning and Evening Prayer is indicative indeed, but so
general as not to imply anything like a judicial decree of
absolution.  In the Lutheran church also the practice of
private confession survived the Reformation, together with
both the exhibitive (I forgive, &c.) and declaratory (I declare
and pronounce) forms of absolution.  In granting absolution,
even after general confession, it is in some places still
the custom for the minister, where the numbers permit of
it, to lay his hands on the head of each penitent. (W. O. B.)

ABSOLUTISM, in aesthetics, a term applied to the theory
that beauty is an objective attribute of things, not merely
a subjective feeling of pleasure in him who perceives.  It
follows that there is an absolute standard of the beautiful by
which all objects can be judged.  The fact that, in practice,
the judgments even of connoisseurs are perpetually at variance,
and that the so-called criteria of one place or period are
more or less opposed to those of all others, is explained away
by the hypothesis that individuals are differently gifted in
respect of the capacity to appreciate. (See AESTHETICS.)

In political philosophy absolutism, as opposed to constitutional
government, is the despotic rule of a sovereign unrestrained by
laws and based directly upon force.  In the strict sense such
governments are rare. but it is customary to apply the term to a
state at a relatively backward stage of constitutional development.

ABSORPTION OF LIGHT. The term ``absorption'' (from Lat.
absorbere) means literally ``sucking up'' or ``swallowing,'' and
thus a total incorporation in something, literally or figuratively;
it is technically used in animal physiology for the function of
certain vessels which suck up fluids; and in light and optics
absorption spectrum and absorption band are terms used in
the discussion of the transformation of rays in various media.

If a luminous body is surrounded by empty space, the light
which it emits suffers no loss of energy as it travels
outwards.  The intensity of the light diminishes merely
because the total energy, though unaltered, is distributed
over a wider and wider surface as the rays diverge from the
source.  To prove this, it will be sufficient to mention that
an exceedingly small deficiency in the transparency of the free
aether would be sufficient to prevent the light of the fixed
stars from reaching the earth, since their distances are so
immense.  But when light is transmitted through a material
medium, it always suffers some loss, the light energy being
absorbed by the medium, that is, converted partially or
wholly into other forms of energy such as heat, a portion of
which transformed energy may be re-emitted as radiant energy
of a lower frequency.  Even the most transparent bodies known
absorb an appreciable portion of the light transmitted through
them.  Thus the atmosphere absorbs a part of the sun's
rays, and the greater the distance which the rays have to
traverse the greater is the proportion which is absorbed,
so that on this account the sun appears less bright towards
sunset.  On the other hand, light can penetrate some distance
into all substances, even the most opaque, the absorption
being, however, extremely rapid in the latter case.

The nature of the surface of a body has considerable
influence on its power of absorbing light.  Platinum
black, for instance, in which the metal is in a state of
fine division, absorbs nearly all the light incident on
it, while polished platinum reflects the greater part.  In
the former case the light penetrating between the particles
is unable to escape by reflexion, and is finally absorbed.

The question of absorption may be considered from either of
two points of view.  We may treat it as a superficial effect,
especially in the case of bodies which are opaque enough or
thick enough to prevent all transmission of light, and we
may investigate how much is reflected at the surface and how
much is absorbed; or, on the other hand, we may confine our
attention to the light which enters the body and inquire into
the relation between the decay of intensity and the depth of
penetration.  We shall take these two cases separately.

Absorptive Power.--When none of the radiations which fall
on a body penetrates through its substance, then the ratio
of the amount of radiation of a given wave-length which
is absorbed to the total amount received is called the
``absorptive power'' of the body for that wave-length. 
Thus if the body absorbed half the incident radiation its
absorptive power would be  1/2, and if it absorbed all the
incident radiation its absorptive power would be 1. A body
which absorbs all radiations of all wavelengths would be
called a ``perfectly black body.'' No such body actually
exists, but such substances as lamp-black and platinum-black
approximately fulfil the condition.  The fraction of the
incident radiation which is not absorbed by a body gives a
measure of its reflecting power, with which we are not here
concerned.  Most bodies exhibit a selective action on light,
that is to say, they readily absorb light of particular
wave-lengths, light of other wave-lengths not being largely
absorbed.  All bodies when heated emit the same kind of
radiations which they absorb---an important principle known
as the principle of the equality of radiating and absorbing
powers.  Thus black substances such as charcoal are very
luminous when heated.  A tile of white porcelain with a black
pattern on it mill, if heated red-hot, show the pattern bright
on a darker ground.  On the other hand, those substances
which either are good reflectors or good transmitters, are
not so luminous at the same temperature; for instance, melted
silver, which reflects well, is not so luminous as carbon
at the same temperature, and common salt, which is very
transparent for most kinds of radiation, when poured in a
fused condition out of a bright red-hot crucible, looks almost
like water, showing only a faint red glow for a moment or
two.  But all such bodies appear to lose their distinctive
properties when heated in a vessel which nearly encloses them,
for in that case those radiations which they do not emit are
either transmitted through them from the walls of the vessel
behind, or else reflected from their surface.  This fact may
be expressed by saying that the radiation within a heated
enclosure is the same as that of a perfectly black body.

Coefficient of Absorption, and Law of Absorption.---The law
which governs the rate of decay of light intensity in passing
through any medium may be readily obtained.  If I0 represents
the intensity of the light which enters the surface, I1 the
intensity after passing through 1 centimetre, I2 the intensity
after passing through 2 centimetres, and so on; then we should
expect that whatever fraction of I0 is absorbed in the first
centimetre, the same fraction of I1 will be absorbed in the
second.  That is, if an amount jI0 is absorbed in the first
centimetre, JI1 is absorbed in the second, and so on.  We have then
I1 = I0(1--j)
I2 = I1(1--j) = I0(1--j)2
I3 = I2(1--j) = I0(1--j)3
and so on, so that if I is the intensity after
passing through a thickness t in centimetres
I = I0(1--j)t                    (1).
We might call j, which is the proportion absorbed in one
centimetre, the ``coefficient of absorption'' of the medium.
1/2t would, however, not then apply to the case of a body
for which the whole light is absorbed in less than one
centimetre.  It is better then to define the coefficient of
absorption as a quantity k such that k/n of the light is
absorbed in 1/nth part of a centimetre, where n may be
taken to be a very large number.  The formula (1) then becomes
I=I0e-kt                    (2)
where e is the base of Napierian logarithms, and
k is a constant which is practically the same
as for bodies which do not absorb very rapidly.

There is another coefficient of absorption (k) which occurs
in Helmholtz's theory of dispersion (see DISPERSION.)
It is closely related to the coefficient k which we have
just defined, the equation connecting the two being k=4
pk/l, l being the wavelength of the incident light.

The law of absorption expressed by the formula (2) has been
verified by experiments for various solids, liquids and
gases.  The method consists in comparing the intensity after
transmission through a layer of known thickness of the absorbent
with the intensity of light from the same source which has
not passed through the medium, k being thus obtained for
various thicknesses and found to be constant.  In the case of
solutions, if the absorption of the solvent is negligible, the
eflect of increasing the concentration of the absorbing solute
is the same as that of increasing the thickness in the same
ratio.  In a similar way the absorption of light in the
coloured gas chlorine is found to be unaltered if the thickness
is reduced by compression, because the density is increased
in the same ratio that the thickness is reduced.  This is
not strictly the case, however, for such gases and vapours
as exhibit well-defined bands of absorption in the spectrum,
as these bands are altered in character by compression.

If white light is allowed to fall on some coloured
solutions, the transmitted light is of one colour when the
thickness of the solution is small, and of quite another
colour if the thickness is great.  This curious phenomenon
is known as dichromatism (from di-, two, and chroma,
colour).  Thus, when a strong light is viewed through a
solution of chlorophyll, the light seen is a brilliant green
if the thickness is small, but a deep blood-red for thicker
layers.  This effect can be explained as follows.  The solution
is moderately transparent for a large number of rays in the
neighborhoodood of the green part of the spectrum; it is,
on the whole, much more opaque for red rays, but is readily
penetrated by certain red rays belonging to a narrow region
of the spectrum.  The small amount of red transmitted is at
first quite overpowered by the green, but having a smaller
coefficient of absorption, it becomes finally predominant. 
The effect is complicated, in the case of chlorophyll and
many other bodies, by selective reflexion and fluorescence.

For the molecular theory of absorption, see SPECTROSCOPY.
REFERENCES.---A.  Schuster's Theory of Optics (1904); P. K. L.
Drude's Theory of Optics (Eng. trans., 1902); F. H. Wullner's
Lehrbuch der Experimentalphysik, Bd. iv. (1899). (J. R. C.)

ABSTEMII (a Latin word. from abs. away from. temetum.
intoxicating liquor, from which is derived the English
``abstemious'' or temperate), a name formerly given to such
persons as could not partake of the cup of the Eucharist
on account of their natural aversion to wine.  Calvinists
allowed these to communicate in the species of bread only,
touching the cup with their lip; a course which was deemed a
profanation by the Lutherans.  Among several Protestant sects,
both in Great Britain and America, abstemii on a somewhat
different principle have appeared in modern times.  These are
total abstainers, who maintain that the use of stimulants is
essentially sinful, and allege that the wine used by Christ and
his disciples at the supper was unfermented.  They accordingly
communicate in the unfermented ``juice of the grape.''

ABSTINENCE (from Lat. abstinere, to abstain), the fact
or habit of refraining from anything, but usually from the
indulgence of the appetite and especially from strong drink.
``Total abstinence'' and ``total abstainer'' are associated
with taking the pledge to abstain from alcoholic liquor (see
TEMPERANCE.) In the discipline of the Christian Church
abstinence is the term for a less severe form of Fasting (q.v..)

ABSTRACTION (Lat. abs and trahere), the process or
result of drawing away; that which is drawn away, separated or
derived.  Thus the noun is used for a summary, compendium
or epitome of a larger work, the gist of which is given in
a concentrated form.  Similarly an absent-minded man is said
to be ``abstracted,'' as paying no attention to the matter in
hand.  In philosophy the word has several closely related
technical senses. (1) In formal logic it is applied to those
terms which denote qualities, attributes, circumstances,
as opposed to concrete terms, the names of things; thus
``friend'' is concrete, ``friendship'' abstract.  The term
which expresses the connotation of a word is therefore an
abstract term, though it is probably not itself connotative;
adjectives are concrete, not abstract, e.g. ``equal'' is
concrete, ``equality'' abstract (cf. Aristotle's aphaeresis
and prosthesis.) (2) The process of abstraction takes
an important place both in psychological and metaphysical
speculation.  The psychologist finds among the earliest
of his problems the question as to the process from the
perception of things seen and heard to mental conceptions,
which are ultimately distinct from immediate perception
(see PSYCHOLOGY.) When the mind, beginning with isolated
individuals, groups them together in virtue of perceived
resemblances and arrives at a unity in plurality, the process
by which attention is diverted from individuals and concentrated
on a single inclusive concept (i.e. classification) is one of
abstraction.  All orderly thought and all increase of knowledge
depend partly on establishing a clear and accurate connexion
between particular things and general ideas, rules and
principles.  The nature of the resultant concepts belongs
to the great controversy between Nominalism, Realism and
Conceptualism.  Metaphysics, again, is concerned with the
ultimate problems of matter and spirit; it endeavours to go
behind the phenomena of sense and focus its attention on the
fundamental truths which are the only logical bases of natural
science.  This, again, is a process of abstraction, the
attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete
individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence. 
The final step in the process is the conception of the Absolute
(q.v.), which is abstract in the most complete sense.

Abstraction differs from Analysis, inasmuch as its object is to
select a particular quality for consideration in itself as it is
found in all the ob)ects to which it belongs, whereas analysis
considers all the qualities which belong to a single object.

ABSTRACT OF TITLE, in English law, an epitome of the
various instruments and events under and in consequence
of which the vendor of an estate derives his title
thereto.  Such an abstract is, upon the sale or mortgage
of an estate, prepared by some competent person for the
purchaser or mortgagee, and verified by his solicitor by a
comparison with the original deeds. (See CONVEYANCING.)

ABT, FRANZ (1819-1885), German composer, was born on the
22nd of December 1819 at Eilenburg, Saxony, and died at
Wiesbaden on the 31st of March 1885.  The best of his popular
songs have become part of the recognized art-folk-music of
Germany; his vocal works, solos, part-songs, &c., enjoyed
an extraordinary vogue all over Europe in the middle of the
19th century, but in spite of their facile tunefulness have
few qualities of lasting beauty.  Abt was kapellmeister
at Bernburg in 1841, at Zurich in the same year and at
Brunswick from 1852 to 1882, when he retired to Wiesbaden.

ABU, a mountain of Central India, situated in 24 deg.  36' N.
lat. and 72 deg.  43' E. long., within the Rajputana state of
Sirohi.  It is an isolated spur of the Aravalli range, being
completely detached from that chain by a narrow valley 7
miles across, in which flows the western Banas.  It rises
from the surrounding plains of Marwar like a precipitous
granite island, its various peaks ranging from 4000 to 5653
feet.  The elevations and platforms of the mountain are
covered with elaborately sculptured shrines, temples and
tombs.  On the top of the hill is a small round platform
containing a cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the
impression of the feet of Data-Bhrigu, an incarnation of
Vishnu.  This is the chief place of pilgrimage for the
Jains, Shrawaks and Banians.  The two principal temples are
situated at Deulwara, about the middle of the mountain, and
five miles south-west of Guru Sikra, the highest summit. 
They are built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for
their beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in
India.  The more modern of the two was built by two brothers,
rich merchants, between the years 1197 and 1247, and for
delicacy of carving and minute beauty of detail stands
almost unrivalled, even in this land of patient and lavish
labour.  The other was built by another merchant prince, Vimala
Shah, apparently about A.D. 1032, and, although simpler and
bolder in style, is as elaborate as good taste would allow
in a purely architectural object.  It is one of the oldest as
well as one of the most complete examples of Jain architecture
known.  The principal object within the temple is a cell
lighted only from the door, containing a cross-legged seated
figure of the god Parswanath.  The portico is composed of
forty-eight pillars, the whole enclosed in an oblong courtyard
about 140 feet by 90 feet, surrounded by a double colonnade
of smaller pillars, forming porticos to a range of fifty-five
cells, which enclose it on all sides, exactly as they do in
a Buddhist monastery (vihara.) In this temple, however,
each cell, instead of being the residence of R monk, is
occupied by an image of Parswanath, and over the door, or on
the jambs of each, are sculptured scenes from the life. of the
deity.  The whole interior is magnificently ornamented.

Abu is now the summer residence of the governor-general's agent
for Rajputana, and a place of resort for Europeans in the hot
weather.  It is 16 miles from the Abu road station of the Rajputana
railway.  The annual mean temperature is about 70 deg. , rising to
90 deg.  in April; but the heat is never oppressive.  The annual
rainfall is about 68 inches.  The hills are laid out with
driving-roads and bridle-paths, and there is a beautiful little
lake.  The chief buildings are a church, club, hospital and a
Lawrence asylum school for the children of British soldiers.

ABU-BEKR (573-634), the name (``Father of the virgin'') of
the first of the Mahommedan caliphs (see CALIPH.) He was
originally called Abd-el-Ka'ba (``servant of the temple''),
and received the name by which he is known historically in
consequence of the marriage of his virgin daughter Ayesha to
Mahomet.  He was born at Mecca in the year A.D. 573, a
Koreishite of the tribe of Beni-Taim.  Possessed of immense
wealth, which he had himself acquired in commerce, and
held in high esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams
and a depositary of the traditions of his race, his early
accession to Islamism was a fact of great importance.  On
his conversion he assumed the name of Abd-Alla (servant of
God).  His own belief in Mahomet and his doctrines was
so thorough as to procure for him the title El Siddik
(the faithful), and his success in gaining converts was
correspondingly great.  In his personal relationship to the
prophet he showed the deepest veneration and most unswerving
devotion.  When Mahomet fled from Mecca, Abu-Bekr was
his sole companion, and shared both his hardships and his
triumphs, remaining constantly with him until the day of his
death.  During his last illness the prophet indicated Abu-Bekr
as his successor by desiring him to offer up prayer for the
people.  The choice was ratified by the chiefs of the army,
and ultimately confirmed, though Ali, Mahomet's son-in-law,
disputed it, asserting his own title to the dignity.  After
a time Ali submitted, but the difference of opinion as to his
claims gave rise to the controversy which still divides the
followers of the prophet into the rival factions of Sunnites and
Shiites.  Abu-Bekr had scarcely assumed his new position
(632), under the title Califet-Resul-Allah (successor of the
prophet of God), when he was called to suppress the revolt
of the tribes Hejaz and Nejd, of which the former rejected
Islamism and the latter refused to pay tribute.  He encountered
formidable opposition from different quarters, but in every
case he was successful, the severest struggle being that with
the impostor Mosailima, who was finally defeated by Khalid
at the battle of Akraba.  Abu-Bekr's zeal for the spread of
the new faith was as conspicuous as that of its founder had
been.  When the internal disorders had been repressed and
Arabia completely subdued, he directed his generals to foreign
conquest.  The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single
campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into
Syria.  After the hard-won victory over Mosailima, Omar, fearing
that the sayings of the prophet would be entirely forgotten
when those who had listened to them had all been removed by
death, induced Abu-Bekr to see to their preservation in a written
form.  The record, when completed, was deposited with Hafsa,
daughter of Omar, and one of the wives of Mahomet.  It was held
in great reverence by all Moslems, though it did not possess
canonical authority, and furnished most of the materials out
of which the Koran, as it now exists, was prepared.  When
the authoritative version was completed all copies of Hafsa's
record were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and
divisions.  Abu-Bekr died on the 23rd of August 634. Shortly
before his death, which one tradition ascribes to poison,
another to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor,
after the manner Mahomet had observed in his own case.

ABU HAMED, a town of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan on the right
bank of the Nile, 345 m. by rail N. of Khartum.  It stands
a4 the centre of the great S-shaped bend of the Nile, and
from it the railway to Wadi Halfa strikes straight across
the Nubian desert, a little west of the old caravan route to
Korosko.  A branch railway, 138 m. long, from Abu Hamed
goes down the right bank of the Nile to Kareima in the
Dongola mudiria.  The town is named after a celebrated
sheikh buried here, by whose tomb travellers crossing the
desert used formerly to deposit all superfluous goods,
the sanctity of the saint's tomb ensuring their safety.

lawyer, was born at Kufa in A.H. 80 (A.D. 699) of non-Arab
and probably Persian parentage.  Few events of his life are
known to us with any certainty.  He was a silk-dealer and a
man of considerable means, so that he was able to give his
time to legal studies.  He lectured at Kufa upon canon law
(fiqh) and was a consulting lawyer (mufti), but refused
steadily to take any public post.  When al-Mansur, however,
was building Bagdad (145--140) Abu Hanifa was one of the
four overseers whom he appointed over the craftsmen (G. Le
Strange, Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate, p. 17). In
A.H. 150 (A.D. 767) he died there under circumstances which
are very differently reported.  A persistent but apparently
later tradition asserts that he died in prison after severe
beating, because he refused to obey al-Mansur's command to act
as a judge (cadi, qadi.) This was to avoid a responsibility
for which he felt unfit ---a frequent attitude of more pious
Moslems.  Others say that al-Mahdi, son of al-Mansur, actually
constrained him to be a judge and that he died a few days
after.  It seems certain that he did suffer imprisonment and
beating for this reason, at the hands of an earlier governor
of Kufa under the Omayyads (Ibn Qutaiba, Ma`arif, p.
248).  Also that al-Mansur desired to make him judge, but
compromised upon his inspectorship of buildings (so in Tabari). 
A late story is that the judgeship was only a pretext with
al-Mansur, who considered him a partisan of the `Alids and
a helper with his wealth of Ibrahim ibn'Abd Allah in his
insurrection at Kufa in 145 (Weil, Geschichte, ii. 53 ff.).

For many personal anecdotes see de Slane's transl. of
Ibn Khalhkan iii. 555 ff., iv. 272 ff.  For his place
as a speculative jurist in the history of canon law, see
MAHOMMEDAN LAW.  He was buried in eastern Bagdad, where
his tomb still exists, one of the few surviving sites from
the time of ahmansur, the founder. (Le Strange 191 ff.)

See C. Brockelmann, Geschichte, i. 169 ff.; Nawawi's Biogr. 
Dict. pp. 698-770: Ibn Hajar al-Haitami's Biography, publ.  Cairo,
A.H. 1304; legal bibliography under MAHOMMEDAN LAW) (D. B. MA.)

ABU KLEA, a halting-place for caravans in the Bayuda
Desert, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.  It is on the road from Merawi
to Metemma and 20 m.  N. of the Nile at the last-mentioned
place.  Near this spot, on the 17th of January 1885, a British
force marching to the relief of General Gordon at Khartum
was attacked by the Mahdists, who were repulsed.  On the
19th, when the British force was nearer Metemma, the Mahdists
renewed the attack, again unsuccessfully.  Sir Herbert
Stewart, the commander of the British force, was mortally
wounded on the 19th, and among the killed on the 17th was
Col. F. G. Burnaby (see EGYPT, Military Operations.)

ABU-L-`ALA UL-MA.ARRI [Abu-l-`Alaa Ahmad ibn `Abdallah
ibn Sulaiman] (973-1057), Arabian poet and letter-writer,
belonged to the South Arabian tribe Tanukh, a part of which
had migrated to Syria before the time of Islam.  He was born
in 973 at Ma'arrat un-Nu`man, a Syrian town nineteen hours'
journey south of Aleppo, to the governor of which it was
subject at that time.  He lost his father while he was still
an infant, and at the age of four lost his eyesight owing to
smallpox.  This, however, did not prevent him from attending
the lectures of the best teachers at Aleppo, Antioch and
Tripoli.  These teachers were men of the first rank, who
had been attracted to the court of Saif-ud-Daula, and their
teaching was well stored in the remarkable memory of the
pupil.  At the age of twenty-one Abu-l-'Ala returned to
Ma`arra, where he received a pension of thirty dinars
yearly.  In 1007 he visited Bagdad, where he was admitted
to the literary circles, recited in the salons, academies
and mosques, and made the acquaintance of men to whom he
addressed some of his letters later.  In 1009 he returned to
Ma`arra, where he spent the rest of his life in teaching and
writing.  During this period of scholarly quiet he developed
his characteristic advanced views on vegetarianism, cremation
of the dead and the desire for extinction after death.

Of his works the chief are two collections of his poetry and
two of his letters.  The earlier poems up to 1029 are of the
kind usual at the time.  Under the title of Saqt uz-Zand they
have been published in Bulaq (1869), Beirut (1884) and Cairo
(1886).  The poems of the second collection, known as the
Luzum ma lam ralzann, or the Luzumiy'yat, are written
with the difficult rhyme in two consonants instead of one,
and contain the more original, mature and somewhat pessimistic
thoughts of the author on mutability, virtue, death, &c.
They have been published in Bombay (1886) and Cairo (1889)
. The letters on various literary and social subjects were
published with commentary by Shain Effendi in Beirut (1894),
and with English translation, &c., by prof.  D. S. Margoliouth
in Oxford (1898).  A second collection of letters, known
as the Risalat ul-Ghufran, was summarized and partially
translated by R. A. Nicholson in the Journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society (1900, pp. 637 ff.; 1902, pp. 75 ff., 337
ff., 813 ff.).

BIBLIOGRAPHY.---C.  Rieu, De Abu-l-`Alae
Poetae Arabici vita et carminibus (Bonn, 1843); A. von
Kremer, Uber die philosophischen Gedichte des Abu-l-.Ala
(Vienna, 1888); cf. also the same writer's articles in the
Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenlandischen Gesellschaft
(vols. xxix., xxx., xxxi. and xxxviii.).  For his life see the
introduction to D. S. Margoliouth's edition of the letters,
supplemented by the same writer's articles ``Abu-l-`Ala
al-Ma`arri's Correspondence on Vegetarianism'' in the Journal
of the Royal Asiatic Society (1902, pp. 289 ff.). (G. W. T.)

ABU-L-`ATAHIYA [Abu Ishaq Isma`il ibn Qasim
al-`Anazi] (748-828), Arabian poet, was born at Ain ut-Tamar
in the Hijaz near Medina.  His ancestors were of the tribe of
Anaza.  His youth was spent in Kufa, where he was engaged
for some time in selling pottery.  Removing to Bagdad, he
continued his business there, but became famous for his
verses, especially for those addressed to Utba, a slave of
the caliph al-Mahdi.  His affection was unrequited, although
al-Mahdi, and after him Harun al-Rashid, interceded for
him.  Having offended the caliph, he was in prison for a short
time.  The latter part of his life was more ascetic.  He died in
828 in the reign of al-Ma`mun.  The poetry of Abu-l-'Atahiya
is notable for its avoidance of the artificiality almost
universal in his days.  The older poetry of the desert had
been constantly imitated up to this time, although it was
not natural to town life.  Abu-l-'Atahiya was one of the
first to drop the old qasida (elegy) form.  He was very
fluent and used many metres.  He is also regarded as one of
the earliest philosophic poets of the Arabs.  Much of his
Poetry is concerned with the observation of common life and
morality, and at times is pessimistic.  Naturally, under
the circumstances, he was strongly suspected of heresy.

His poems (Diwan) with life from Arabian sources have
been published at the Jesuit Press in Beirut (1887,
2nd ed. 1888).  On his position in Arabic literature
see W. Ahlwardt, Diwan des Abu Nowas (Greifswald,
1861), pp. 21 ff.; A. von Kremer, Culturgeschichte des
Orients (Wien, 1877), vol. ii. pp. 372 ff. (G. W. T.)

ABULPARAJ [Abu-l-Faraj,Ah ibn ul-Husain ul-Isbahani]
(897--967), Arabian scholar, was a member of the tribe of the
Quraish (Koreish) and a direct descendant of Marwan, the last
of the Omayyad caliphs.  He was thus connected with the Omayyad
rulers in Spain, and seems to have kept up a correspondence with
them and to have sent them some of his works.  He was born in
Ispahan, but spent his youth and made his early studies in
Bagdad.  He became famous for his knowledge of early Arabian
antiquities.  His later life was spent in various parts of
the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he
dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier
Ibn'Abbad and elsewhere.  In his last years he lost his
reason.  In religion he was a Shiite.  Although he wrote
poetry, also an anthology of verses on the monasteries of
Mesopotamia and Egypt, and a genealogical work, his fame rests
upon his Book of Songs (Kitab ul-Aghani), which gives
an account of the chief Arabian songs, ancient and modern,
with the stories of the composers and singers.  It contains
a mass of information as to the life and customs of the early
Arabs, and is the most Valuable authority we have for their
pre-Islamic and early Moslem days.  A part of it was published
by J. G. L. Rosegarten with Latin translation (Greifswald,
1840).  The text was published in 20 vols. at Bulaq in
1868.  Vol. xxi. was edited by R. E. Brunnow (Leyden,
1888).  A volume of elaborate indices was edited by I. Guidi
(Leyden, 1900), and a missing fragment of the text was
published by J. Wellhausen in the Zeitschrift der deutschen
morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, vol; 50, pp. 146 ff.
Biographical Dictionary, vol. ii. pp. 249 ff. (G. W. T.)

ABUL PAZL, wazir and historiographer of the great Mogul
emperor, Akbar, was born in the year A.D. 1551.  His
career as a minister of state, brilliant though it was,
would probably have been by this time forgotten but for the
record he himself has left of it in his celebrated history. 
The Akbar Nameh, or Book of Akbar, as Abul Fazl's chief
literary work, written in Persian, is called, consists of two
parts--the first being a complete history of Akbar's reign
and the second, entitled Ain-i-Akbari, or Institutes of
Akbar, being an account of the religious and political
constitution and administration of the empire.  The style is
singularly elegant, and the contents of the second part possess
a unique and lasting interest.  An excellent translation
of the Ain by Francis Gladwin was published in Calcutta,
1783-1786.  It was reprinted in London very inaccurately,
and copies of the original edition are now exceedingly rare
and correspondingly valuable.  It was also translated by
Professor Blockmann in 1848.  Abul Fazl died by the hand of
an assassin, while returning from a mission to the Deccan in
1602.  The murderer was instigated by Prince Sehm, afterwards
Jahangir, who had become jealous of the minister's influence.

ABULFEDA [Abud-Fida' Isma'Il ibn'Ah,Imad-ud-Dni]
(1273-1331), Arabian historian and geographer, was born at
Damascus, whither his father Malik ul-Afdal, brother of
the prince of Hamah, had fled from the Mongols.  He was a
descendant of Ayyub, the father of Saladin.  In his boyhood
he devoted himself to the study of the Koran and the sciences,
hut from his twelfth year was almost constantly engaged in
military expeditions, chiefly against the crusaders.  In 1285
he was present at the assault of a stronghold of the knights
of St John, and he took part in the sieges of Tripoli, Acre
and Qal'at ar-Rum.  In 1298 he entered the service of the
Mameluke Sultan Malik al-Nasir and after twelve years was
invested by him with the governorship of Hamah.  In 1312 he
became prince with the title Malik us-Salhn, and in 1320
received the hereditary rank of sultan with the title Malik
ul-Mu'ayyad.  For more than twenty years altogether he reigned
in tranquillity and splendour, devoting himself to the duties
of government and to the composition of the works to which
he is chiefly indebted for his fame.  He was a munificent
patron of men of letters, who came in large numbers to his
court.  He died in 1331.  His chief historical work in
An Abridgment of the History at the Human Race, in the
form of annals extending from the creation of the world
to the year 1329 (Constantinople, 2 vols. 1869).  Various
translations of parts of it exist, the earliest being a Latin
rendering of the section relating to the Arabian conquests in
Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic professor at Palermo, in 1610
(preserved in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol.
i.).  The section dealing with the pre-Islamitic period
was edited with Latin translation by H. O. Fleischer under
the title Abulfedae Historia Ante-Islamica (Leipzig,
1831).  The part dealing with the Mahommedan period was
edited, also with Latin translation, by J. J. Reiske as
Annales Muslemici (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1789--1794) . His
Geography is, like much of the history, founded on the
works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of
Ptolemy.  A long introduction on various geographical matters
is followed by twenty-eight sections dealing in tabular
form with the chief towns of the world.  After each name
are given the longitude, latitude, ``climate,'' spelling,
and then observations generally taken from earlier authors. 
Parts of the work were published and translated as early
as 1650 (cf. Carl Brockelmann's Geschichte der Arabischen
Litteratur, Berlin, 1902, vol. ii. pp. 44-46).  The text
of the whole was published by M`G. de Slane and M. Reinaud
(Paris, 1840), and a French translation with introduction by
M. Reinaud and Stanislas Guyard (Paris, 1848-1883). (G. W. T.)

ABU-L-QASIM [Khalaf ibn'Abbas uz-Zahrawi], Arabian
physician and surgeon, generally known in Europe as
ABULCASIS, flourished in the tenth century at Cordova as
physician to the caliph 'Abdur-Rahman III. (912--961).  No
details of his life are known.  A part of his compendium
of medicine was published in Latin in the 16th century as
Liber theoricae nec non practicae Alsaharavii (Augsburg,
1519).  His manual of surgery was published at Venice in
1497, at Basel in 1541, and at Oxford Abulcasis de Chirurgia
arabice et latine cura Johannis Channing (2 vols. 1778).

For his other works see Carl Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen
Litteratur (Weimar, 1898), vol. i. pp. 239-240. (G. W. T.)

ABUNDANTIA (``Abundance''), a Roman goddess, the personification
of prosperity and good fortune.  Modelled after the Greek Demeter,
she is practically identical with Copia, Annona and similar
goddesses.  On the coins of the later Roman emperors she is
frequently represented holding a cornucopia, from which she
shakes her gifts, thereby at the same time in- dicating the
liberality of the emperor or empress.  She may be compared
with Domina Abundia (Old Fr. Dame Habonde, Notre Dame
d'Abondance), whose name often occurs in poems of the Middle
Ages, a beneficent fairy, who brought plenty to those whom she
visited (Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, tr. 1880, i. 286-287).

ABU NUWAS [Abu,Ah Hal-asan ibn Hani'al-Hakami] (c.
756-810), known as Abu Nuwas, Arabian poet, was born in al
Ahwaz, probably about 756. His mother was a Persian, his
father a soldier, a native of Damascus.  His studies were made
in Basra under Abu Zaid and Abu'Ubaida (q.v.), and in
Kufa under Khalaf al-Ahmar.  He is also said to have spent a
year with the Arabs in the desert to gain purity of language. 
Settling in Bagdad he enjoyed the favour of Harun al-Rashid
and al-Amin, and died there probably about 810. The greater
part of his life was characterized by great licentiousness
and disregard of religion, but in his later days he became
ascetic.  Abu Nuwas is recognized as the greatest poet of his
time.  His mastery of language has led to extensive quotation
of his verses by Arabian scholars.  Genial, cynical, immoral, he
drew on all the varied life of his time for the material of his
poems.  In his wine-songs especially the manners of the upper
classes of Bagdad are revealed.  He was one of the first to
ridicule the set form of the qasida (elegy) as unnatural,
and has satirized this form in several poems.  See I. Goldziher,
Abhandlungen zur Arabischen Philologie (Leyden, 1896),
i. pp. 145 ff.  His poems were collected by several Arabian
editors.  One such collection (the MS. of which is now in
Vienna) contains nearly 5000 verses grouped under the ten
headings: wine, hunting, praise, satire, love of youths, love
of women, obscenities, blame, elegies, renunciation of the
world.  His collected poems (Diwan) have been published
in Cairo (1860) and in Beirut (1884).  The wine-songs
were edited by W. Ahlwardt under the title Diwan des Abu
Nowas. 1. Die lveinlieder (Greifswald, 1861). (G. W. T.)

ABU SIMBEL, or IPSAMBUL, the name of a group of temples
of Rameses II. (c. 1250 B.C.) in Nubia, on the left
bank of the Nile, 56 m. by river S. of Korosko.  They are
hewn in the cliffs at the riverside, at a point where the
sandstone hills on the west reach the Nile and form the
southern boundary of a wider portion of the generally barren
valley.  The temples are three in number.  The principal
temple, probably the greatest and most imposing of all rock-hewn
monuments, was discovered by Burckhardt in 1812 and opened by
Belzoni in 1817. (The front has been cleared several times,
most recently in 1892, but the sand is always pressing forward
from the north end.) The hillside was recessed to form the
facade, backed against which four immense seated colossi of
the king, in pairs on either side of the entrance, rise from
a platform or forecourt reached from the river by a flight of
steps.  The colossi are no less than 65 ft. in height, of
nobly placid design, and are accompanied by smaller figures
of Rameses' queen and their sons and daughters; behind and
over them is the cornice, with the dedication below in a
line of huge hieroglyphs, and a long row of apes, standing in
adoration of the rising sun above.  The temple is dedicated
primarily to the solar gods Amenre of Thebes and Raharakht of
Heliopolis, the true sun god; it is oriented to the east so
that the rays of the sun in the early morning penetrate the
whole length of two great halls to the innermost sanctuary and
fall upon the central figures of Amenre and Rameses, which are
there enthroned with Ptah of Memphis and Raharakht on either
side.  The interior of the temple is decorated with coloured
sculpture of fine workmanship and in good preservation; the
scenes are more than usually interesting; some are of religious
import (amongst them Rameses as king making offerings to
himself as god), others illustrate war in Syria, Libya and
Ethiopia: another series depicts the events of the famous
battle with the Hittites and their allies at Kadesh, in which
Rameses saved the Egyptian camp and army by his personal
valour.  Historical stelae of the same reign are engraved
inside and outside the temple; the most interesting is that
recording the marriage with a Hittite princess in the 34th
year.  Not the least important feature of the temple belongs
to a later age, when some Greek, Carian and Phoenician
soldiers of one of the kings named Psammetichus (apparently
Psammetichus II., 594-589 B.C.) inscribed their names upon
the two southern colossi, doubtless the only ones then clear of
sand.  These graffiti are of the highest value for the early
history of the alphabet, and as proving the presence of Greek
mercenaries in the Egyptian armies of the period.  The upper
part of the second colossus (from the south) has fallen;
the third was repaired by Sethos II. not many years after
the completion of the temple.  This great temple was wholly
rock-cut, and is now threatened by gradual ruin by sliding
on the planes of stratification.  A small temple, immediately
to the south of the first, is believed to have had a built
antechamber: it is the earliest known example of a ``birth
chapel,'' such as was usually attached to Ptolemaic temples
for the accommodation of the divine mother-consort and her
son.  The third and northernmost temple, separated from
the others by a ravine, is on a large scale; the colossi of
the facade are six in number and 53 ft. high, representing
Rameses and his queen Nefrere, who dedicated the temple
to the goddess Hathor.  The whole group forms a singular
monument of Rameses' unbounded pride and self-glorification.

See EGYPT; J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records, Egypt,
vol. iii. pp. 124 et seq., esp. 212; ``The Temples
of Lower Nubia,'' in the American Journal of Semitic
Languages and Literatures, October 1906. (F. LL. G.)

ABU TAMMAM [Habib ibn Aus] (807-846), Arabian poet,
was, like Buhturi, of the tribe of Tai (though some say
he was the son of a Christian apothecary named Thaddeus,
and that his genealogy was forged).  He was born in Jasim
(Josem), a place to the north-east of the Sea of Tiberias or
near Manbij (Hierapolis).  He seems to have spent his youth
in Homs, though, according to one story, he was employed
during his boyhood in selling water in a mosque in Cairo. 
His first appearance as a poet was in Egypt, but as he failed
to make a living there he went to Damascus and thence to
Mosul.  From this place he made a visit to the governor of
Armenia, who awarded him richly.  After 833 he lived mostly in
Bagdad, at the court of the caliph Mo,tasim.  From Bagdad he
visited Khorassan, where he enjoyed the favour of Abdallah ibn
Tahir.  About 845 he was in Ma'arrat un Nu`man, where he met
Buhturi.  He died in Mosul.  Abu Tammam is best known in
literature as the compiler of the collection of early poems
known as the Hamasa (q.v..) Two other h collections of
a similar nature are ascribed to him.  His own poems I
have been somewhat neglected owing to the success of his
compilations, but they enjoyed great repute in his lifetime,
and were distinguished for the purity of their style, the merit
of the verse and the excellent manner of treating subjects. 
His poems (Diwan) were published in Cairo (A.D. 1875).

See Life in Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary,
trans. by M`G. de Slane (Paris and London, 1842), vol. i.
pp. 348 ff.; and in the Kitab ul-Aghani (Book of Songs)
of Abulfaraj (Bulaq, 1869), vol. xv. pp. 100-108. (G.W.  T.)

ABUTILON (from the Arabic aubutilun, a name given by
Avicenna to this or an allied genus), in botany, a genus of
plants, natural order Malvaceae (Mallows), containing about
eighty species, and widely distributed in the tropics.  They
are free-growing shrubs with showy bell-shaped flowers, and
are favorite greenhouse plants.  They may be grown outside
in England during the summer months, but a few degrees of
frost is fatal to them.  They are readily propagated from
cuttings taken in the spring or at the end of the summer.  A
large number of horticultural varieties have been developed
by hybridization, some of which have a variegated foliage.

ABUTMENT, a construction in stone or brickwork designed to
receive and resist the lateral pressure of an arch, vault or
strut.  When built outside a wall it is termed a buttress.

ABU UBAIDA [Ma,mar ibn ul-Muthanna] (728-825), Arabian
scholar, was born a slave of Jewish Persian parents in Basra,
and in his youth was a pupil of Abu,Amr ibn ul-,Ala.  In
803 he was called to Bagdad by Harun al-Rashjd.  He died in
Basra.  He was one of the most learned and authoritative
scholars of his time in all matters pertaining to the Arabic
language, antiquities and stories, and is constantly cited by
later authors and compilers.  Juhiz held him to be the most
learned scholar in all branches of human knowledge, and Ibn
Hisbam accepted his interpretation even of passages in the
Koran.  The titles of 105 of his works are mentioned in the
Fihrist, and his Book of Days is the basis of parts of
the history of Ibn al-Athir and of the Book of Songs
(see ABULFARAJ), but nothing of his (except a song) seems to
exist now in an independent form.  He is often described as a
Kharijite.  This, however, is true only in so far as he
denied the privileged position of the Arab people before
God. He was, however, a strong supporter of the Shu'ubite
movement, i.e. the movement which protested against the
idea of the superiority of the Arab race over all others. 
This is especially seen in his satires on Arabs (which made
him so hated that no man followed his bier when he died).  He
delighted in showing that words, fables, customs, &c., which
the Arabs believed to be peculiarly their own, were derived
from the Persians.  In these matters he was the great rival
of Asma'i (q.v..) M`G. de Slane (Paris and London, 1842),
vol. iii. pp. 388-398; also I. Goldziher's Muhammedanische
Studien (Halle, 1888), vol. i. pp. 194-206. (G. W. T.)

ABYDOS, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at
Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile
broad.  It probably was originally a Thracian town, but was
afterwards colonized by Milesians.  Here Xerxes crossed the
strait on his bridge of boats when he invaded Greece.  Abydos
is celebrated for the vigorous resistance it made against Philip
V. of Macedon (200 B.C.), and is famed in story for the loves
of Hero and Leander.  The town remained till late Byzantine
times the toll station of the Hellespont, its importance being
transferred to the Dardanelles (q.v.), after the building
of the ``Old Castles'' by Sultan Mahommed II. (c. 1456).

See Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage dans l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1842).

ABYDOS, one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt,
about 7 m.  W. of the Nile in lat. 26 deg.  10' N. The Egyptian
name was Abdu, ``the hill of the symbol or reliquary,''
in which the sacred head of Osiris was preserved.  Thence
the Greeks named it Abydos, like the city on the Hellespont;
the modern Arabic name is Arabet el Madfuneh. The history
of the city begins in the late prehistoric age, it having
been founded by the pre-Menite kings (Petrie, Abydos,
ii. 64), whose town, temple and tombs have been found
there.  The kings of the Ist dynasty, and some of the IInd
dynasty, were also buried here, and the temple was renewed
and enlarged by them.  Great forts were built on the desert
behind the town by three kings of the IInd dynasty.  The
temple and town continued to be rebuilt at intervals down
to the times of the XXXth dynasty, and the cemetery was used
continuously.  In the XIIth dynasty a gigantic tomb was
cut in the rock by Senwosri (or Senusert) III. Seti I. in
the XIXth dynasty founded a great new temple to the south
of the town in honour of the ancestral kings of the early
dynasties; this was finished by Rameses (or Ramessu) II., who
also built a lesser temple of his own.  Mineptah (Merenptah)
added a great Hypogeum of Osiris to the temple of Seti.  The
latest building was a new temple of Nekhtnebf in the XXXth
dynasty.  From the Ptolemaic times the place continued to decay
and no later works are known (Petrie, Abydos, i. and ii.).

The worship here was of the jackal god Upuaut (Ophols,
Wepwoi), who ``opened the way'' to the realm of the dead,
increasing from the Ist dynasty to the time of the XIIth
dynasty and then disappearing after the XVIIIth.  Anher
appears in the XIth dynasty; and Khentamenti, the god of the
western Hades, rises to importance in the middle kingdom and
then vanishes in the XVIIIth.  The worship here of Osiris
in his various forms begins in the XIIth dynasty and becomes
more important in later times, so that at last the whole
place was considered as sacred to him (Abydos, ii. 47).

The temples successively built here on one site were nine
or ten in number, from the Ist dynasty, 5500 B.C. to the
XXVIth dynasty, 500 B.C..  The first was an enclosure,
about 30X 50 ft., surrounded by a thin wall of unbaked
bricks.  Covering one wall of this came the second temple of
about 40 ft. square in a wall about 10 ft. thick.  An outer
temenos (enclosure) wall surrounded the ground.  This outer
wall was thickened about the IInd or IIIrd dynasty.  The old
temple entirely vanished in the IVth dynasty, and a smaller
building was erected behind it, enclosing a wide hearth of black
ashes.  Pottery models of offerings are found in the ashes,
and these were probably the substitutes for sacrifices decreed
by Cheops (Khufu) in his temple reforms.  A great clearance of
temple offerings was made now, or earlier, and a chamber full
of them has yielded the fine ivory carvings and the glazed
figures and tiles which show the splendid work of the Ist
dynasty.  A vase of Menes with purple inlaid hieroglyphs
in green glaze and the tiles with relief figures are the
most important pieces.  The noble statuette of Cheops in
ivory, found in the stone chamber of the temple, gives
the only portrait of this greatest ruler.  The temple was
rebuilt entirely on a larger scale by Pepi I. in the VIth
dynasty.  He placed a great stone gateway to the temenos, an
outer temenos wall and gateway, with a colonnade between the
gates.  His temple was about 40X50 ft. inside, with stone
gateways front and back, showing that it was of the processional
type.  In the XIth dynasty Menthotp (Mentuhotep) III. added
a colonnade and altars.  Soon after, Sankhkere entirely
rebuilt the temple, laying a stone pavement over the area,
about 45 ft. square, besides subsidiary chambers.  Soon after
Senwosri (Senusert) I. in the XIIth dynasty laid massive
foundations of stone over the pavement of his predecessor.  A
great temenos was laid out enclosing a much larger area, and
the temple itself was about three times the earlier size. .

The XVIIIth dynasty began with a large chapel of Amasis
(Ahmosi, Aahmes) I., and then Tethmosis (Thothmes, Tahutmes)
III. built a far larger temple, about 130X200 ft.  He made
also a processional way past the side of the temple to the
cemetery beyond, with a great gateway of granite.  Rameses III.
added a large building; and Amasis II. in the XXVIth dynasty
rebuilt the temple again, and placed in it a large monolith
shrine of red granite, finely wrought.  The foundations of
the successive temples were comprised within about 18 ft.
depth of ruins; these needed the closest examination to
discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by over
4000 measurements and 1000 levellings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.).

The temple of Seti I. was built on entirely new ground
half a mile to the south of the long series of temples just
described.  This is the building best known as the Great
Temple of Abydos, being nearly complete and an impressive
sight.  A principal object of it was the adoration of the early
kings, whose cemetery, to which it forms a great funerary
chapel, lies behind it.  The long list of the kings of the
principal dynasties carved on a wall is known as the ``Table
of Abydos.'' There were also seven chapels for the worship of
the king and principal gods.  At the back were large chambers
connected with the Osiris worship (Caulfield, Temple of the
Kings); and probably from these led out the great Hypogeum
for the celebration of the Osiris mysteries, built by Mineptah
(Murray, Osireion.) The temple was originally 550 ft. long,
but the forecourts are scarcely recognizable, and the part in
good state is about 250 ft. long and 350 ft. wide, including
the wing at the side.  Excepting the list of kings and a
panegyric on Rameses II., the subjects are not historical but
mythological.  The work is celebrated for its delicacy and
refinement, but lacks the life and character of that in earlier
ages.  The sculptures have been mostly published in hand copy,
not facsimile, by Mariette in his Abydos, i.  The adjacent
temple of Rameses II. was much smaller and simpler in plan; but
it had a fine historical series of scenes around the outside,
of which the lower parts remain.  A list of kings, similar
to that of Seti, formerly stood here; but the fragments were
removed by the French consul and sold to the British Museum.

The Royal Tombs of the earliest dynasties were placed about
a mile back on the great desert plain.  The earliest is about
10X20ft. inside, a pit lined with brick walls, and originally
roofed with timber and matting.  Others also before Menes
are 15X25 ft.  The tomb probably of Menes is of the latter
size.  After this the tombs increase 111 size and complexity. 
The tomb-pit is surrounded by chambers to hold the offerings,
the actual sepulchre being a great wooden chamber in the
midst of the brick-lined pit.  Rows of small tomb-pits for the
servants of the king surround the royal chamber, many dozens
of such burials being usual.  By the end of the IInd dynasty
the type changed to a long passage bordered with chambers
on either hand, the royal burial heing in the middle of the
length.  The greatest of these tombs with its dependencies
covered a space of over 3000 square yards.  The contents of
the tombs have been nearly destroyed by successive plunderers;
enough remained to show that rich jewellery was placed on the
mummies, a profusion of vases of hard and valuable stones
from the royal table service stood about the body, the
store-rooms were filled with great jars of wine, perfumed
ointment and other supplies, and tablets of ivory and of
ebony were engraved with a record of the yearly annals of the
reigns.  The sealings of the various officials, of which
over 200 varieties have been found, give an insight into
the public arrangements (Petrie, Royal Tombs, i. and ii.).

The cemetery of private persons begins in the Ist dynasty with
some pit tombs in the town.  It was extensive in the XIIth
and XIIIth dynasties and contained many rich tombs.  In the
XVIIIth-XXth dynasties a large number of fine tombs were made,
and later ages continued to bury here till Roman times.  Many
hundred funeral steles were removed by Mariette's workmen,
without any record of the burials (Mariette, Abydos, ii. and
iii.).  Later excavations have been recorded by Ayrton, Abydos,
iii.; Maclver, El Amrah and Abydos; and Garstang, El Arabah.

The forts lay behind the town.  That known as Shunet ez
Zebib is about 450X250 ft. over all, and still stands 30 ft.
high.  It was built by Rhasekhemui, the last king of the IInd
dynasty.  Another fort nearly as large adjoined it, and
is probably rather older.  A third fort of a squarer form
is now occupied by the Coptic convent; its age cannot
be ascertained (Ayrton, Abydos, iii.). (W. M. F. P.)

ABYSS (Gr. a-, privative, bussos, bottom), a bottomless
depth; hence any deep place.  From the late popular abyssimus
(superlative of Lon Latin abyssus) through the French abisme
(i.e. abime) is derived the poetic form abysm, pronounced
as late as 1616 to rhyme with time. The adjective ``abyssal''
or ``abysmal'' has been used by zoologists to describe deep
regions of the sea; hence abysmal zone, abysmal flora and
fauna, abysmal accumulations, the deposit on the abysmal
bed of the ocean.  In heraldry, the abyss is the middle of an
escutcheon.  In the Greek version of the Old Testament the
word represents (1) the,-original chaos (Gen. i. 2), (2)
the Hebrew tehom (``a surging water-deep''), which is used
also in apocalyptic and kabbalistic literature and in the New
Testament for hell; the place of punishment (cf. Eurip. Phoen.
for the ``yawning chasm of Tartarus''); in the Revised (not
the Authorized) version abyss is generally used for this
idea.  Primarily in the Septuagint cosmography the word is
applied (a) to the waters under the earth which originally
covered it, and from which the springs and rivers are supplied,
(b) to the waters of the firmament which were regarded as
closely connected with those below.  Derivatively, from the
general idea of depth, it acquired the meaning of the place
of the dead, though apparently never quite the same as Sheol. 
In Revelation it is the prison of evil spirits whence they
may occasionally be let loose, and where Satan is doomed to
spend 1000 years.  Beneath the altar in the temple of Jerusalem
there was believed to be a passage which led down to the abyss
of the world, where the foundation-stone of the earth was
laid.  In rabbinical cosmography the abyss is a region of
Gehenna situated below the ocean bed and divided into three or
seven parts imposed one above the other.  In the Kabbalah the
abyss as the opening into the lower world is the abode of evil
spirits, and corresponds to the opening of the abyss to the
world above.  In general the abyss is regarded vaguely as a
place of indefinite extent, the abode of mystery and sorrow.

See G. Schiaparelli, Astronomy in tha Old
Testament (Eng. trans., Oxford, 1905).

ABYSSINIA (officially ETHIOPIA), an inland country and
empire of N.E. Africa lying, chiefly, between 5 deg.  and 15 deg.  N.
and 35 deg.  and 42 deg.  E. It is bounded N. by Eritrea (Italian). 
W. by the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, S. by British East Africa,
S.E. and E. by' the British.  Ita!ian and French possessions
in Somaliland and on the Red Sea. The coast lands held by
European powers, which cut off Abyssinia from access to the
sea, vary in width from 40 to 250 miles.  The country approaches
nearest to the ocean on its N.E. border, where the frontier is
drawn about 40 m. from the coast of the Red Sea. Abyssinia is
narrowest in the north, being here 230 n1. across from east to
west.  It broadens out southward to a width of 900 m. along
the line of 9 deg.  N., and resembles in shape a triangle with
its apex to the north.  It is divided into Abyssinia proper
(i.e. Tigre, Amhara, Gojam, &c.), Shoa, Kaffa and Galla
land----all these form a geographical unit---and central
Somaliland with Harrar.  To the S.W. Abyssinia also includes
part of the low country of the Sobat tributary of the
Nile.  The area of the whole state is about 350,000 sq.
m., of which Abyssinian Somaliland covers fully a third.

(1) Physical Features.-- Between the valley of the Upper Nile
and the low lands which skirt the south-western shores of the
Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden is a region of elevated plateaus
from which rise various mountain ranges.  These tablelands
and mountains constitute Abyssinia, Shoa, Kaffa and Galla
land.  On nearly every side the walls of the plateaus rise
with considerable abruptness from the plains, constituting
outer mountain chains.  The Abyssinian highlands are thus
a clearly marked orographic division.  From Ras Kasar (18 deg. 
N.) to Annesley Bay (15 deg.  N.) the eastern wall of the plateau
runs parallel to the Red Sea. It then turns due S. and follows
closely the line of 40 deg.  E. for some 400 m.  About 9 deg.  N. there
is a break in the wall, through which the river.  Hawash flows
eastward.  The main range at this point trends S.W., while
south of the Hawash valley, which is some 3000 ft. below the
level of the mountains, another massif rises in a direct line
south.  This second range sends a chain (the Harrar hills)
eastward to the Gulf of Aden.  The two chief eastern ranges
maintain a parallel course S. by W., with a broad upland
valley between---in which valley are a series of lakes---to
about 3 deg.  N., the outer (eastern) spurs of the plateau still
keeping along the line of 40 deg.  E. The southern escarpment of
the plateau is highly irregular, but has a general direction
N.W. and S.E. from 6 deg.  N. to 3 deg.  N. It overlooks the depression
in which is Lake Rudolf and---east of that lake--southern
Somaliland.  The western wall of the plateau from 6 deg.  N.
to 11 deg.  N. is well marked and precipitous.  North of 11 deg. 
N. the hills turn more to the east and fall more gradually
to the plains at their base.  On its northern face also
the plateau falls in terraces to the level of the eastern
Sudan.  The eastern escarpment is the best defined of these
outer ranges.  It has a mean height of from 7000 to 8000
ft., and in many places rises almost perpendicularly from the
plain.  Narrow and deep clefts, through which descend mountain
torrents to lose themselves in the sandy soil of the coast
land, afford means of reaching the plateau, or the easier
route through the Hawash valley may be chosen.  On surmounting
this rocky barrier the traveller finds that the encircling
rampart rises little above the normal level of the plateau.

(2) The aspect of the highlands is most impressive.  The
northern portion, lying mainly between 10 deg.  and 15 deg.  N.,
consists of a huge mass of Archaean rocks with a mean height
of from 7000 to 7500 ft. above the sea, and is fl00ded in a
deep central depression by the waters of Lake Tsana.  Above
the plateau rise several irregular and generally ill-defined
mountain ranges which attain altitudes of from 12,000 to over
15,000 ft.  Many of the mountains are of weird and fantastic
shape.  Characteristic of the country are the enormous
fissures which divide it, formed in the course of ages by
the erosive action of water.  They are in fact the valleys
of the rivers which, rising on the uplands or mountain
sides, have cut their way to the surrounding lowlands.  Some
of the valleys are of considerable width; in other cases the
opposite walls of the gorges are but two or three hundred
yards apart, and fall almost vertically thousands of feet,
representing an erosion of hard rock of many millions of cubic
feet.  One result of the action of the water has been the
formation of numerous isolated flat-topped hills or small
plateaus, known as ambas, with nearly perpendicular sides. 
The highest peaks are found in the Simen (or Semien) and Gojam
ranges.  The Simen Mountains he N.E. of Lake Tsana and
culminate in the snow-covered peak of Daschan (Dajan), which
has an altitude of 15,160 ft.  A few miles east and north
respectively of Dajan are Mounts Biuat and Abba Jared, whose
summits are a few feet only below that of Dajan.  In the Chok
Mountains in Gojam Agsias Fatra attains a height of 13,600 ft.

Parallel with the eastern escarpment are the heights of Baila
(12,500 ft.), Abuna Josef (13,780 ft.), and Kollo (14,100
ft.), the last-named being S.W. of Magdala.  The valley
between these hills and the eastern escarpment is one of
the longest and most profound chasms in Abyssinia.  Between
Lake Tsana and the eastern hills are Mounts Guna (13,800
ft.) and Uara Sahia (13,000 ft.).  The figures given are,
however, approximate only.  The southern portion of the
highlands---the 10 deg.  N. roughly marks the division between
north and south---has more open tableland than the northern
portion and fewer lofty peaks.  Though there are a few heights
between 10,000 and 12,000 ft., the majority do not exceed 8000
ft.  But the general character of the southern regions is
the same as in the north---a much-broken hilly plateau.

Most of the Abyssinian uplands have a decided slope to the
north-west, so that nearly all the large rivers find their way
in that direction to the Nile.  Such are the Takazze in the
north, the Abai in the centre, and the Sobat in the south, and
through these three arteries is discharged about four-fifths
of the entire drainage.  The rest is carried off, almost due
north by the Khor Baraka, which occasionally reaches the Red
Sea south of Suakin; by the Hawash, which runs out in the
saline lacustrine district near the head of Taiura Bay; by the
Webi Shebeli (Wabi Shebeyli) and Juba, which flow S.E. through
Somaliland, though the Shebeli fails to reach the Indian Ocean;
and by the Omo. the main feeder of the closed basin of Lake Rudolf.

The Takazze, which is the true upper course of the Atbara,
has its head-waters in the central tableland; and falls from
about 7000 to 2500 ft. in the tremendous crevasse through
which it sweeps round west, north and west again down to the
western terraces, where it passes from Abyssinian to Sudan
territory.  During the rains the Takazze (i.e. the
``Terrible'') rises some 18 ft. above its normal level, and
at this time forms an impassable barrier between the northern
and central provinces.  In its lower course the river is
known by the Arab name Setit.  The Setit is joined (14 deg.  10'
N., 36 deg.  E.) by the Atbara, a river formed by several streams
which rise in the mountains W. and N.W. of Lake Tsana. 
The Gash or Mareb is the most northerly of the Abyssinian
rivers which flow towards the Nile valley.  Its head-waters
rise on the landward side of the eastern escarpment within
50 miles of Annesley Bay on the Red Sea. It reaches the
Sudan plains near Kassala, beyond which place its waters are
dissipated in the sandy soil.  The Mareb is dry for a great
part of the year, but like the Takazze is subject to sudden
freshets during the rains.  Only the left bank of the upper
course of the river is in Abyssinian territory, the Mareb
here forming the boundary between Eritrea and Abyssinia.

(3) The Abai---that is, the upper course of the Blue Nile--has
its source near Mount Denguiza in the Goiam highlands (about
11 deg.  N. and 37 deg.  E.), and first flows for 70 m. nearly due
north to the south side of Lake Tsana.  Tsana (q.v.), which
stands from 2500 to 3000 ft. below the normal level of the
plateau, has somewhat the aspect of a flooded crater.  It has
an area of about 1100 sq. m., and a depth in some parts of 250
ft.  At the south-east corner the rim of the crater is, as
it were. breached by a deep crevasse through which the Abai
escapes, and here dovelb. ps a great semicircular bend like that
of the Takazzo, but in the reverse direction---east, south
and north-west---down to the plains of Sennar, where it takes
the name of Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile.  The Abai has many
tributaries.  Of these the Bashilo rises near Magdala and
drains eastern Amhara; the Jamma rises near Ankober and drains
northern Shoa; the Muger rises near Adis Ababa and drains
south-western Shoa; the Didessa, the largest of the Abai's
affluents, rises in the Kaffa hills and has a generally S. to
N. course; the Yabus runs near the western edge of the plateau
escarpment.  All these are perennial rivers.  The right-hand
tributaries, rising mostly on the western sides of the
plateau, have steep slopes and are generally torrential in
character.  The Bolassa, however, is perennial, and the
Rahad and Dinder are important rivers in flood-time.

In the mountains and plateaus of Kaffa and Galla in the
south-west of Abyssinia rise the Baro, Gelo, Akobo and
other of the chief affluents of the Sobat tributary of the
Nile.  The Akobo, in about 7 deg.  50' N. and 33 deg.  E., joins the
Pibor, which in about 8 1/2 deg.  N. and 33 deg.  20' E. unites with
the Baro, the river below the confluence taking the name of
Sobat.  These rivers descend from the mountains in great
falls, and like the other Abyssinian streams are unnavigable in
their upper courses.  The Baro on reaching the plain becomes,
however, a navigable stream affording an open waterway to the
Nile.  The Baro, Pibor and Akobo form for 250 m. the W. and
S.W. frontiers of Abyssinia (see NILE, SOBAT and SUDAN.)

The chief river of Abyssinia flowing east is the Hawash
(Awash, Awasi), which rises in the Shoan uplands and makes
a semicircular bend first S.E. and then N.E. It reaches the
Afar (Danakil) lowlands through a broad breach in the eastern
escarpment of the plateau, beyond which it is joined on its
left bank by its chief affluent, the Germama (Kasam), and
then trends round in the direction of Tajura Bay. Here the
Hawash is a copious stream nearly 200 ft. wide and 4 ft.
deep, even in the dry season, and during the floods rising
50 or 60 ft. above low-water mark, thus inundating the plains
for many miles along both its banks.  Yet it fails to reach
the coast, and after . a winding course of about 500 m.
passes (in its lower reaches) through a series of badds
(lagoons) to Lake Aussa, some 60 or 70 m. from the head.of
Tajura Bay. In this lake the river is lost.  This remarkable
phenomenon is explained by the position of Aussa in the
centre of a saline lacustrine depression several hundred
feet below sea-level.  While most of the other lagoons are
highly saline, with thick incrustations of salt round their
margins, Aussa remains fresh throughout the year, owing to
the great body of water discharged into it by the Hawash.

Another lacustrine region extends from the Shoa heights
south-west to the Samburu (Lake Rudolf) depression. 
In this chain of lovely upland lakes, some fresh, some
brackish, some completely closed, others connected by short
channels, the chief links in their order from north to south
are:---Zwai, communicating southwards with Hara and Lamina,
all in the Arusi Galla territory; then Abai with an outlet
to a smaller tarn in the romantic Baroda and Gamo districts,
skirted on the west sides by grassy slopes and wooded ranges
from 6000 to nearly 9000 ft. high; lastly, in the Asille
country, Lake Stefanie, the Chuwaha of the natives, completely
closed and falling to a level of about 1800 ft. above the
sea.  To the same system obviously belongs the neighbouring
Lake Rudolf (q.v.), which is larger than all the rest put
together.  This lake receives at its northern end the waters
of the ()mo, which rises in the Shoa highlands and is a
perennial river with many affluents.  In its course of some
370 m. it has a total fall of about 6000 ft. (from 7600
at its source to 1600 at lake-level), and is consequently
a very rapid stream, being broken by the Kokobi and other
falls, and navigable only for a short distance above its
mouth.  The chief rivers of Somaliland (q.v.), the Webi
Shebeli and the Juba (q.v.), have their rise on the
south-eastenn slopes of the Abyssinian escarpment, and the
greater part of their course is through territory belonging to
Abyssinia.  There are numerous hot springs in Abyssinia, and
earthquakes, though of no great severity, are not uncommon.

(4) Geology.----The East African tableland is continued
into Abyssinia.  Since the visit of W. T. Blanford in
1870 the geology has received little attention from
travellers.  The following formations are represented:--

Sedimentary and Metamorphic.
Recent.                        Coral, alluvium, sand.
Tertiary.                      (?) Limestones of Harrar.
Jurassic.                      Antalo Limestones.
Triassic (?).                  Adigrat Sandstones.
Archaean.                      Gneisses, schists, slaty rocks.

Recent.                        Aden Volcanic Series.
Tertiary, Cretaceous (?).      Magdala group.
Jurassic.                      Ashangi group.

Archaean.--The metamorphic rocks compose the main mass
of the tableland, and are exposed in every deep valley
in Tigre and along the valley of the Blue Nile.  Mica
schists form the prevalent rocks.  Hornblende schist
also occur and a compact felspathic rock in the Suris
defile.  The foliae of the schists strike north and south.

Triassic (?).---In the region of Adigrat the metamorphic
rocks are invariably overlain by white and brown sandstones,
unfossiliferous, and attaining a maximum thickness of 1000
feet.  They are overlain by the fossiliferous limestones of
the Antalo group.  Around Chelga and Adigrat coal-bearing beds
occur, which Blanford suggests may be of the same age as the
coal-bearing strata of India.  The Adigrat Sandstone possibly
represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.

Jurassic.---The fossiliferous limestones of Antalo are
generally horizontal, but are in places much disturbed
when interstratified with trap rocks.  The fossils are
all characteristic Oolite forms and include species of
Hemicidaris, Pholadomya, Ceromya, Trigonia and Alaria.

Igneous Rocks.---Above a height of 8000 ft. the country consists
of bedded traps belonging to two distinct and unconformable
groups.  The lower (Ashangi group) consists of basalts and
dolerites often amygdaloidal.  Their relation to the Antalo
limestones is uncertain, but Blanford considers them to be
not later in age than the Oolite.  The upper (Magdala group)
contains much trachytic rock of considerable thickness,
lying perfectly horizontally, and giving rise to a series of
terraced ridges characteristic of central Abyssinia.  They are
interbedded with unfossiliferous sandstones and shales.  Of
more recent date (probably Tertiary) are some igneous rocks,
rich in alkalis, occurring in certain localities in southern
Abyssinia.  Of still more recent date are the basalts and
ashes west of Massawa and around Annesley Bay and known as
the Aden Volcanic Series.  With regard to the older igneous
rocks, the enormous amount they have suffered from denudation
is a prominent feature.  They have been worn into deep and
narrow ravines, sometimes to a depth of 3000 to 4000 ft.

(5) Climate.---The climate of Abyssinia and its dependent
territories varies greatly.  Somaliland and the Danakil lowlands
have a hot, dry climate producing semi-desert conditions; the
country in the lower basin of the Sobat is hot, swampy and
malarious.  But over the greater part of Abyssinia as well
as the Galla highlands the climate is very healthy and
temperate.  The country lies wholly within the tropics, but
its nearness to the equator is counterbalanced by the elevation
of the land.  In the deep valleys of the Takazze and Abai,
and generally in places below 4000 ft., the conditions are
tropical and fevers are prevalent.  On the uplands, however,
the air is cool and bracing in summer, and in winter very
bleak.  The mean range of temperature is between 60 deg.  and
80 deg.  F. On the higher mountains the climate is Alpine in
character.  The atmosphere on the plateaus is exceedingly
clear, so that objects are easily recognizable at great
distances.  In addition to the variation in climate dependent
on elevation, the year may be divided into three seasons. 
Winter, or the cold season, lasts from October to February,
and is followed by a dry hot period, which about the middle of
June gives place to the rainy season.  The rain is heaviest in
the Takazze basin in July and August.  In the more southern
districts of Gojam and Wallega heavy rains continue till
the middle of September, and occasionally October is a wet
month.  There are also spring and winter rains; indeed rain
often falls in every month of the year.  But the rainy season
proper, caused by the south-west monsoon, lasts from June to
mid-September, and commencing in the north moves southward. 
In the region of the Sobat sources the rains begin earlier
and last longer.  The rainfall varies from about 30 in. a
year in Tigre and Amhara to over 40 in. in parts of Galla
land.  The rainy season is of great importance not only to
Abyssinia but to the countries of the Nile valley, as the
prosperity of the eastern Sudan and Egypt is largely dependent
upon the rainfall.  A season of light rain may be sufficient
for the needs of Abyssinia, but there is little surplus water
to find its way to the Nile; and a shortness of rain means
a low Nile, as practically all the flood water of that river
is derived from the Abyssinian tributaries (see NILE.)

(6) Flora and Fauna.--As in a day's journey the traveller
may pass from tropical to almost Alpine conditions of
climate, so great also is the range of the flora and fauna. 
In the valleys and lowlands the vegetation is dense, but
the general appearance of the plateaus is of a comparatively
bare country with trees and bushes thinly scattered over
it.  The glens and ravines on the hillside are often thickly
wooded, and offer a delightful contrast to the open downs. 
These conditions are particularly characteristic of the northern
regions; in the south the vegetation on the uplands is more
luxuriant.  Among the many varieties of trees and plants
found are the date palm, mimosa, wild olive, giant sycamores,
junipers and laurels, the myrrh and Other gum trees (gnarled
and stunted, these flourish most on the eastern foothills),
a magnificent pine (the Natal yellow pine, which resists the
attacks of the white ant), the fig, orange, lime, pomegranate,
peach, apricot, banana and other fruit trees; the grape vine
(rare), blackberry and raspberry; the cotton and indigo
Plants, and occasionally the sugar cane.  There are in the
south large forests of valuable timber trees; and the coffee
plant is indigenous in the Kaffa country, whence it takes its
name.  Many kinds of grasses and flowers abound.  Large areas
are covered by the kussa, a hardy member of the rose family,
which grows from 8 to 10 ft. high and has abundant pendent red
blossoms.  The flowers and the leaves of this plant are
highly prized for medicinal purposes.  The fruit of the
hurarina, a tree found almost exclusively in Shoa, yields
a black grain highly esteemed as a spice.  On the tableland
a great variety of grains and vegetables are cultivated. 
A fibrous plant, known as the sanseviera, grows in a wild
state in the semi-desert regions of the north and south-east.

In addition to the domestic animals enumerated below (sec.  8) the
fauna is very varied.  Elephant and rhinoceros are numerous in
certain low-lying districts, especially in the Sobat valley. 
The Abyssinian rhinoceros has two horns and its skin has no
folds.  The hippopotamus and crocodile inhabit the larger
rivers flowing west, but are not found in the Hawash, in which,
however, otters of large size are plentiful.  Lions abound
in the low countries and in Somaliland.  In central Abyssinia
the lion is no longer found except occasionally in the river
valleys.  Leopards, both spotted and black, are numerous and
often of great size; hyaenas are found everywhere and are
hardy and fierce; the lynx, wolf, wild dog and jackal are also
common.  Boars and badgers are more rarely seen.  The giraffe
is found in the western districts, the zebra and wild ass
frequent the lower plateaus and the rocky hills of the
north.  There are large herds of buffalo and antelope, and
gazelles of many varieties and in great numbers are met
with in most parts of the country.  Among the varieties are
the greater and lesser kudu (both rather rare); the duiker,
gemsbuck, hartebeest, gerenuk (the most common--it has
long thin legs and a camel-like neck); klipspringer, found
on the high plateaus as well as in the lower districts;
and the dik-dik, the smallest of the antelopes, its weight
rarely exceeding 10 lb. , common in the low countries and the
foothills.  The civet is found in many parts of Abyssinia,
but chiefly in the Galla regions.  Squirrels and hares
are numerous, as are several kinds of monkeys, notably
the guereza, gelada, guenon and dog-faced baboon.  They
range from the tropical lowlands to heights of 10,000 ft.

Birds are very numerous, and many of them remarkable for the
beauty of their plumage.  Great numbers of eagles, vultures, hawks,
bustards and other birds of prey are met with; and partridges,
duck, teal, guinea-fowl, sand-grouse, curlews, woodcock, snipe,
pigeons, thrushes and swallows are very plentiful.  A fine
variety of ostrich is commonly found.  Among the birds prized
for their plumage are the marabout, crane, heron, blacks bird,
parrot, jay and humming-birds of extraordinary brilliance,
Among insects the most numerous and useful is the bee, honey
everywhere constituting an important part of the food of the
inhabitants.  Of an opposite class is the locust.  Serpents
are not numerous, but several species are poisonous.  There
are thousands of varieties of butterflies and other insects.

(7) Provinces and Towns.--Politically, Abyssinia is divided
into provinces or kingdoms and dependent territories.  The
chief provinces are Tigro, which occupies the N.E. of the
country; Amhara or Gondar, in the centre; Gojam, the district
enclosed by the great semicircular sweep of the Abai; and Shoa
(q.v.), which lies east of the Abai and south of Amhara. 
Besides these ancient provinces and several others of smaller
size, the empire includes the Wallega region, lying S.W. of
Gojam; the Harrar province in the east; Kaffa (q.v.) and Galla
land, S.W. and S. of Shoa; and the central part of Somaliland.

With the exception of Harrar (q.v.), a city of Arab
foundation, there are no large towns in Abyssinia.  Harrar
is some 30 m.  S.E. of Dire Dawa, whence there is a railway
(188 m. long) to Jibuti on the Gulf of Aden.  The absence
of large towns in Abyssinia proper is due to the provinces
into which the country is divided having been for centuries
in a state of almost continual warfare, and to the frequent
change of the royal residences on the exhaustion of fuel
supplies.  The earliest capital appears to have been Axum
(q.v.) in Tigre, where there are extensive ruins.  In
the middle ages Gondar in Amhara became the capital of the
country and was so regarded up to the middle of the 19th
century. Since 1892 the capital has been Adis Ababa in the
kingdom of Shoa.

The other towns of Abyssinia worthy of mention may be grouped
according to their geographical position.  None of them has
a permanent population exceeding 6000, but at several large
markets are held periodically.  In Tigre there are Adowa
or Adua ( 17 m.  E. by N. of Axum), Adigrat, Macalle and
Antalo The three last-named places are on the high plateau
near its eastern escarpment and on the direct road south
from Massawa to Shoa.  West of Adigrat is the monastery of
Debra-Domo, one of the most celebrated sanctuaries in Abyssinia.

In Amhara there are:---Magdala (q.v.), formerly the residence
of King Theodore, and the place of imprisonment of the British
captives in 1866.  Debra-Tabor (``Mount Tabor''), the chief
royal residence during the reign of King John, occupies a strong
strategic position overlooking the fertile plains east of Lake
Tsana, at a height of about 8,620 ft. above the sea; it has
a population of 3000, including the neighbouring station of
Samara, headquarters of the Protestant missionaries in the
time of King Theodore.  Ambra-Mariam, a fortified station
midway between Gondar and Debra-Tabor near the north-east
side of Lake Tsana, with a population of 3000; here is the
famous shrine and church dedicated to St Mary, whence the
name of the place, ``Fort St Mary.'' Mahdera-Mariam (``Mary's
Rest''), for some time a royal residence, and an important
market and great place of pilgrimage, a few miles south-west
of Debra-Tabor; its two churches of the ``Mother'' and the
``Son'' are held in great veneration by all Abyssinians; it
has a permanent population estimated at over 4000, Gallas and
Amharas, the former mostly Mahommedan.  Sokota, one of the
great central markets, and capital of the province of Waag in
Amhara, at the converging point of several main trade routes;
the market is numerously attended, especially by dealers in the
salt blocks which come from Lake Alalbed.  The following towns
are in Shoa:---Ankober, formerly the capital of the kingdom;
Aliu-Amba, east of Ankober on the trade route to the Gulf of
Aden; Debra-Berhan (Debra-Bernam) (``Mountain of Light''),
once a royal residence; Liche (Litche), one of the largest
market towns in southern Abyssinia.  Licka, the largest market
in Galla land, has direct communications with Gojam, Shoa and
other parts of the empire.  Bonga, the commercial centre of
Kaffa, and Jiren, capital of the neighbouring province of
Jimma, are frequented by traders from all the surrounding
provinces, and also by foreign merchants from the seaports
on the Gulf of Aden.  Apart from these market-places there
are no settlements of any size in southern Abyssinia.

Communications.--The J'buti-Dire Dawa railway has been mentioned
above.  The continuation of this railway to the capital was
begun in 1906 from the Adis Ababa end.  There are few roads
in Abyssinia suitable for wheeled traffic.  Transport is
usually carried on by mules, donkeys, pack-horses and (in the
lower regions) camels.  From Dire Dawa to Harrar there is a
well-made carriage road, and from Harrar to Adis Ababa the
caravan track is kept in good order, the river Hawash being
spanned by an iron bridge.  There is also a direct trade
route from Dire Dawa to the capital.  Telegraph lines connect
Adis Ababa and several important towns in northern Abyssinia
with Massawa, Harrar and Jibuti.  There is also a telephonic
service, the longest line being from Harrar to the capital.

(8) Agriculture.--The soil is exceedingly fertile, as is
evident from the fact that Egypt owes practically all its
fertility to the sediment carried into the Nile by its Abyssinian
tributaries.  Agriculture is extensively followed, chiefly
by the Gallas, the indolence of the Abyssinians preventing
them from being good farmers.  In the lower regions a wide
variety of crops are grown --among them maize, durra, wheat,
barley, rye, teff, pease, cotton and sugar-cane---and many
kinds of fruit trees are cultivated. Teff is a kind of
millet with grains about the size of an ordinary pin-head,
of which is made the bread commonly eaten.  The low grounds
also produce a grain, tocussa, from which black bread is
made.  Besides these, certain oleaginous plants, the
suf, nuc and selite (there are no European equivalents
for the native names), and the ground-nut are largely
grown.  The castor bean grows wild, the green castor in the
low, damp regions, the red castor at medium altitudes.  The
kat plant, a medicinal herb which has a tonic quality, is
largely grown in the Harrar province.  On the higher plateaus
the hardier cereals only are cultivated.  Here the chief
crops are wheat, barley, teff, peppers, vegetables of all
kinds and coffee.  Above 10,000 ft. the crops are confined
practically to barley, oats, beans and occasionally wheat.

Coffee is one of the most important products of the country,
and its original home is believed to be the Kaffa highlands. 
It is cultivated in the S., S.E. and S.W. provinces, and to
a less extent in the central districts.  Two qualities of
coffee are cultivated, one known as Abyssinian, the other as
Harrar-Mocha.  The ``Abyssinian'' coffee is grown very extensively
throughout the southern highlands.  Little attention is paid
to the crop, the berries being frequently gathered from the
ground, and consequently the coffee is of comparatively low
grade. ``Harrar-Mocha'' is of first-class quality.  It is
grown in the highlands of Harrar, and cultivated with extreme
care.  The raising of cotton received a considerable impetus
in the early years of the 20th century.  The soil of the
Hawash valley proved particularly suitable for raising this
crop.  In the high plateaus the planting of seeds begins in
May, in the lower plateaus and the plains in June, but in
certain parts where the summer is long and rain abundant
sowing and reaping are going on at the same time.  Most
regions yield two, many three crops a year.  The methods
of culture are primitive, the plough commonly used being a
long pole with two vertical iron teeth and a smaller pole
at right angles to which oxen are attached.  This implement
costs about four shillings.  The ploughing is done by the
men, but women and girls do the reaping.  The grain is usually
trodden out by cattle and is often stored in clay-lined
pits.  Land comparatively poor yields crops eight to tenfold
the quantity sown; the major part of the land yields twenty to
thirtyfold.  In the northern parts of the empire very little
land is left uncultivated.  The hillsides are laid out in
terraces and carefully irrigated in the dry season, the
channels being often two miles or more long.  Of all the
cereals barley is the most widely grown.  The average rate
of pay to an agricultural labourer is about threepence a
day in addition to food, which may cost another penny a day.

The Abyssinians keep a large number of domestic animals.  Among
cattle the Sanga or Galla ox is the most common.  The bulls
are usually kept for ploughing, the cow being preferred for
meat.  Most of the cattle are of the zebu or hump-backed
variety, hut there are also two breeds----one large, the other
resembling the Jersey cattle---which are straight-backed. 
The horns of the zebu variety are sometimes four feet long. 
Sheep, of which there are very large flocks, belong to the short
and fat-tailed variety.  The majority are not wool-bearing,
but in one district a very small black sheep is raised for
wool.  The small mountain breed of sheep weigh no more than 20
to 30 lb. apiece.  Goats are of both the long and short-haired
varieties.  The horns of the large goats are often thirty
inches in length and stand up straight from the head.  The
goats from the Arusi Galla country have fine silky hair which
is sometimes sixteen inches long.  The meat of both sheep and
goats is excellent; that of the latter is preferred by the
natives.  In 1904 the estimated number of sheep and goats
in the country was 20,000,000.  Large quantities of butter,
generally rancid, are made from the milk of cows, goats and
sheep.  In the Leka province small black pigs are bred in
considerable numbers.  The horses (very numerous) are small hut
strong; they are generally about 14 hands in height.  The best
breeds come from the Shoa uplands.  The ass is also small and
strong; and the mule, bred in large numbers, is of excellent
quality, and both as a transport animal and as a mount is
preferred to the horse.  The mule thrives in every condition
of climate, is fever-proof, travels over the most difficult
mountain passes with absolute security, and can carry with
ease a load of 200 lb.  The average height of a mule is 124
hands.  The country is admirably adapted for stock-raising.

(9) Minerals.---In the south and south-west provinces
placer gold mines by the banks of watercourses are worked by
Gallas as an industry subsidiary to tending their flocks and
fields.  In the Wallega district are veins of gold-bearing
quartz, mined to a certain extent.  There are also gold
mines in southern Shoa The annual output of gold is worth not
less than L. 500,000.  Only a small proportion is exported. 
Besides gold, silver, iron, coal and other minerals are
found.  Rock-salt is obtained from the province of Tigre.

Trade and Currency.---Abyssinia being without seaports,
the external trade is through Massawa (Italian) in the
north, Jibuti (French), Zaila and Berbera (British) in the
south, and for all these ports Aden is a distributing
centre.  For Tigre and Amhara products Massawa is the best
port, for the rest of the empire, Jibuti.  For southern
Abyssinia, Kaffa and Galla lands, Harrar is the great
entrepot, goods being forwarded thence to Jibuti and the other
Somaliland ports.  There is also a considerable trade with the
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan through the frontier towns of Rosaires and
Gallabat.  At the French and British ports thore is freedom
of trade, but on goods for Abyssinia entering Massawa a
discriminating tax is levied if they are not imported from Italy.

The chief articles of export are coffee, skins, ivory, civet,
ostrich feathers, gum, pepper, kat plant (used by Moslems for
its stimulating properties), gold (in small quantities) and
live stock.  The trade in skins is mainly with the L 1ited
States through Aden; America also takes a large proportion
of the coffee exported.  For live stock there is a good
trade with Madagascar.  The chief imports are cotton goods,
the yearly value of this trade being fully L. 250,000; the
sheetings are largely American; the remainder English and
Indian.  No other article of import approaches cotton in
importance, but a considerable trade is done in arms and
ammunition, rice, sugar, flour and other foods, and a still
larger trade in candles and matches (from Sweden), oil,
carpets (oriental and European), hats and umbrellas.  Commerce
long remained in a backward condition; but under the Emperor
Menelek II. efforts were made to develop the resources of
the country, and in 1905 the total volume of trade exceeded

Until the end of the 19th century the usual currency was the
Maria Theresa dollar, bars of rock-salt and cartridges.  In
1894 a new coinage was introduced, with the Menelek dollar
or talari, worth about two shillings, as the standard. 
This new coinage gradually superseded the older currency. 
In 1905 the Bank of Abyssinia, the first banking house in the
country, was founded, with its headquarters at Adis Ababa. 
The bank, which was granted a monopoly of banking business in
the empire for fifty years, has a capital of L. 500,000, has
the power to issue notes, to mint the Abyssinian coinage,
and to engage in commercial operations.  It was founded under
Egyptian law by the National Bank of Egypt, which institution
had previously obtained a concession from the emperor Menelek.

(10) Government.---The political institutions are of a feudal
character.  Within their provinces the rases (princes)
exercise large powers.  The emperor, styled negus negusti
(king of kings), is occasionally assisted by a council of
rases.  In October 1907 an imperial decree announced the
constitution of a cabinet on European lines, ministers
being appointed to the portfolios of foreign affairs, war,
commerce, justice and finance.  The legal system is said to
be based on the Justinian code.  From the decisions of the
judges there is a right of appeal to the emperor.  The chief
judicial official is known as the affh-negus (breath of the
king).  The Abyssinian church (q.v.) is presided over
by an abuna, or archbishop.  The land is not held in fee
simple, but is subject to the control of the emperor or the
church.  Revenue is derived from an ad valorem tax on all
imports; the purchase and sale of animals; from royalties on
trading concessions, and in other ways, including fees for
the administration of justice.  Education, of a rudimentary
character, is given by the clergy.  In 1907 a system of compulsory
education ``of all male children over the age of 12'' was
decreed.  The education was to be state provided, Coptic teachers
were brought from Egypt and school buildings were erected.

The Abyssinian calendar is as follows:---The Abyssinian year
of 365 days (366 in leap-year) begins on the 1st of Maskarram,
which corresponds to about the 10th of September.  The
months have thirty days each, and are thus named: Maskarram,
Tekemt, Hadar, Tahsas, Tarr, Yekatit, Magawit, Miaziah,
Genbot, Sanni, Hamle, Nas'hi.  The remaining five days in
the year, termed Pagmen or Quaggimi (six in leap-year, the
extra day being named Kadis Yohannis), are put in at the
end and treated as holidays.  Abyssinian reckoning is about
seven years eight months behind the Gregorian.  Festivals,
such as Easter, fall a week later than in western Europe.

Army.--A small standing army is maintained in each province
of Abyssinia proper.  Every able-bodied Abyssinian is expected
to join the army in case of need, and a force, well armed with
modern weapons, approaching 250,000 can be placed in the field. 
The cavalry is chiefly composed of Galla horsemen. (F. R. C.)

ETHNOLOGY (i1) The population of the empire is estimated
at from 3,500,000 to 5,000,000.  The inhabitants consist
mainly of the Abyssinians, the Galla and the Somali (the two
last-named peoples are separately noticed).  Of non-African
races the most numerous are Armenians, Indians, Jews and
Greeks.  There is a small colony of British, French, Italians and
Russians.  The following remarks apply solely to Abyssinia
proper and its inhabitants.  It should be remembered that the
term ``Abyssinian'' is purely geographical, and has little
or no ethnical significance; it is derived from the Arabic
Habesh, ``mixed,'' and was a derisive name applied by the
Arabs to the heterogeneous inhabitants of the Abyssinian plateau.

Abyssinia appears to have been originally peopled by the eastern
branch of the Hamitic family, which has occupied this region
from the remotest times, and still constitutes the great bulk
of its inhabitants, though the higher classes are now strongly
Semitized.  The prevailing colour in the central provinces
(Amhara, Gojam) is a deep brown, northwards (Tigre, Lasta)
it is a pale olive, and here even fair complexions are
seen.  Southwards (Shoa, Kobbo, Amuru) a decided chocolate
and almost sooty black is the rule.  Many of the people
are distinctly negroid, with big lips, small nose, broad
at the base, and frizzly or curly black hair.  The negroid
element in the population is due chiefly to the number of
negro women who have been imported into the harems of the
Abyssinians.  The majority, however, may be described as a
mixed Hamito-Semitic people, who are in general well formed and
handsome, with straight and regular features, lively eyes,
hair long and straight or somewhat curled and in colour dark
olive, approaching to black.  The Galla, who came originally
from the south, are not found in many parts of the country,
but predominate in the Wollo district, between Shoa and
Amhara.  It is from the Galla that the Abyssinian army is
largely recruited, and, indeed, there are few of the chiefs
who have not an admixture of Galla blood in their veins.

As regards language, several of the indigenous groups, such as
the Khamtas of Lasta, the Agau or Agaos of Agaumeder (``Agao
land'') and the Falashas (q.v.), the so-called ``Jews''
of Abyssinia, still speak rude dialects of the old Hamitic
tongue.  But the official language and that of all the
upper classes is of Semitic origin, derived from the ancient
Himyaritic, which is the most archaic member of the Semitic
linguistic family.  Geez, as it is called, was introduced
with the first immigrants from Yemen, and although no longer
spoken is still studied as the liturgical language of the
Abyssinian Christians.  Its literature consists of numerous
translations of Jewish, Greek and Arabic works, besides a
valuable version of the Bible. (See ETHIOPIA.) The best
modern representative of Geez is the Tigrina of Tigre and
Lasta, which is much purer but less cultivated than the Amharic
dialect, which is used in state documents, is current in the
central and southern provinces and is much affected by Hamitic
elements.  All are written in a peculiar syllabic script
which, un- like all other Semitic forms, runs from left to
right, and is derived from that of the Sabaeans and Minaeans,
still extant in the very old rock-inscriptions of south Arabia.

The hybridism of the Abyssinians is reflected in their
political and social institutions, and especially in their
religious beliefs and practices.  On a seething mass of African
heathendom, already in early times affected by primitive
Semitic ideas, was suddenly imposed a form of Christianity
which became the state religion.  While the various ethnical
elements have been merged in the composite Abyssinian nation,
the primitive and more advanced religious ideas have nowhere
been fused in a uniform Christian system.  Foreigners are
often surprised at the strange mixture of savagery and lofty
notions in a Christian community which, for instance, accounts
accidental manslaughter as wilful murder.  Recourse is still
had to dreams as a means of detecting crime.  A priest is
summoned, and, if his prayers and curses fail, a small boy is
drugged, and ``whatever person he dreams of is fixed on as
the criminal. . . . If the boy does not dream of the person
whom the priest has determined on as the criminal, he is kept
under drugs until he does what is required of him'' (Count
Gleichen, With the Mission to Menelik, chap. xvi., 1898).

The Abyssinian character reflects the country's history. 
Murders and executions are frequent, yet cruelty is not a marked
feature of their character; and in war they seldom kill their
prisoners.  When a man is convicted of murder, he is handed
over to the relatives of the deceased, who may either put him
to death or accept a ransom.  When the murdered person has no
relatives, the priests take upon themselves the office of
avengers.  The natural indolence of the people has been
fostered by the constant wars, which have discouraged peaceful
occupations.  The soldiers live by plunder, the monks by alms. 
The haughtiest Abyssinian is not above begging, excusing himself
with the remark, ``God has given us speech for the purpose of
begging.'' The Abyssinians are vain and selfish, irritable but
easily appeased; and are an intelligent bright people, fond of
gaiety.  On every festive occasion, as a saint's day, birth,
marriage, &c., it is customary for a rich man to collect
his friends and neighbours, and kill a cow and one or two
sheep.  The principal parts of the cow are eaten raw while yet
warm and quivering, the remainder being cut into small pieces
and cooked with the favourite sauce of butter and red pepper
paste.  The raw meat eaten in this way is considered to
be very superior in taste and much more tender than when
cold.  The statement by James Bruce respecting the cutting
of steaks from a live cow has frequently been called in
question, but there can be no doubt that Bruce actually saw
what he narrates.  Mutton and goat's flesh are the meats
most eaten: pork is avoided on religious grounds, and the
hare is never touched, possibly, as in other countries, from
superstition.  Many forms of game are forbidden; for
example, all water-fowl.  The principal drinks are me'mse,
a kind of mead, and bousa, a sort of beer made from
fermented cakes.  The Abyssinians are heavy eaters and
drinkers, and any occasion is seized as an excuse for a
carouse.  Old and young, of both sexes, pass days and nights
in these symposia, at which special customs and rules
prevail.  Little bread is eaten, the Abyssinian preferring
a thin cake of durra meal or teE, kneaded with water and
exposed to the sun till the dough begins to rise, when it is
baked.  Salt is a luxury; ``he eats salt'' being said of a
spendthrift.  Bars of rock-salt, after serving as coins, are,
when broken up, used as food.  There is a general looseness of
morals: marriage is a very slight tie, which can be dissolved
at any time by either husband or wife.  Polygamy is by no means
uncommon.  Hence there is little family affection, and what
exists is only between children of the same father and mother. 
Children of the same father, but of different mothers, are
said to be ``always enemies to each other.'' (Samuel Gobat's
Journal of a Three Years' Residence in Abyssinia, 1834.)

The dress of the Abyssinians is much like that of the
Arabs.  It consists of close-fitting drawers reaching below the
knees, with a sash to hold them, and a large white robe.  The
Abyssinian, however, is beginning to adopt European clothes
on the upper part of the body, and European hats are becoming
common.  The Christian Abyssinians usually go barehead and barefoot,
in contrast to the Mahommedans, who wear turbans and leather
sandals.  The women's dress is a smock with sleeves loose to the
wrist, where they fit tightly.  The priests wear a white jacket
with loose sleeves, a head-cloth like a turban and a special
type of shoe with turned-up toes and soles projecting at the
heel.  In the Woldeba district hermits dress in ochre-yellow
cloths, while the priests of some sects wear hides dyed
red.  Clothes are made of cotton, though the nobles and great
people wear silk robes presented by the emperor as a mark of
honour.  The possessor of one of these is allowed to appear in
the royal presence wearing it instead of having one shoulder
bared, as is the usual Abyssinian method of showing respect. 
A high-born man covers himself to the mouth in the presence of
inferiors.  The men either cut their hair short or plait it;
married women plait their hair and wind round the head a black
or parti-coloured silk handkerchief; girls wear their hair
short.  In the hot season no Abyssinian goes without a
flag-shaped fan of plaited rushes.  The Christian Abyssinians,
men and women, wear a blue silk cord round the neck, to
which is often attached a crucifix.  For ornament women wear
silver ankle-rings with bells, silver necklaces and silver
or gold rosettes in the ears.  Silver rings on fingers and
also on toes are common.  The women are very fond of strong
scents, which are generally oils imported from India and
Ceylon.  The men scarcely ever appear without a long curved
knife, generally they carry shield and spear as well.  Although
the army has been equipped with modern rifles, the common
weapon of the people is the matchlock, and slings are still in
use.  The original arms were a sickle-shaped sword, spear and
shield.  The Abyssinians are great hunters and are also
clever at taming wild beasts.  The nobles hunt antelopes with
leopards, and giraffes and ostriches with horse and greyhound. 
In elephant-hunting iron bullets weighing a quarter of a pound
are used; throwing-clubs are employed for small game, and
lions are hunted with the spear.  Lion skins belong to the
emperor, but the slayer keeps a strip to decorate his shield.

Stone and mortar are used in building, but the Abyssinian
houses are of the roughest kind, being usually circular huts,
ill made and thatched with grass.  These huts are sometimes
made simply of straw and are surrounded by high thorn hedges,
but, in the north, square houses, built in stories, flat-roofed,
the roof sometimes laid at the same slope as the hillside,
and some with pitched thatched roofs, are common.  The inside
walls are plastered with cow-dung, clay and finely chopped
straw.  None of the houses have chimneys, and smoke soon
colours the interior a dark brown.  Generally the houses are
filthy and ill ventilated and swarm with vermin.  Drainage
and sanitary arrangements do not exist.  The caves of the
highlands are often used as dwellings.  The most remarkable
buildings in Abyssinia are certain churches hewn out of the
solid rock.  The chief native industries are leather-work,
embroidery and filigree metal-work; and the weaving of straw
mats and baskets is extensively practised.  The baskets are
particularly well made, and are frequently used to contain milk.

Abyssinian art is crude and is mainly reserved for rough
frescoes in the churches.  These frescoes, however, often
exhibit considerable skill, and are indicative of the lively
imagination of their painters.  They are in the Byzantine style
and the colouring is gaudy.  Saints and good people are always
depicted full face, the devil and all bad folk are shown in
profile.  Among the finest frescoes are those in the church
of the Holy Trinity at Adowa and those in the church at
Kwarata, on the shores of Lake Tsana.  The churches are usually
circular in form, the walls of stone, the roof thatched.

The chief musical instruments are rough types of trumpets and
flutes, drums, tambourines and cymbals, and quadrangular harps.


(12) Abyssiania, or at least the northern portion of it, was
included in the tract of country known to the ancients as
Ethiopia, the northern limits of which reached at one time to
about Syene.  The connexion between Egypt and Ethiopia was in
early times very intimate, and occasionally the two countries
were under the same ruler, so that the arts and civilization
of the one naturally found their way into the other.  In early
times, too, the Hebrews had commercial intercourse with the
Ethiopians; and according to Abyssinian tradition the queen
of Sheba who visited Solomon was a monarch of their country,
and from their son Menelek the kings of Abyssinia claim
descent.  During the Captivity many of the Jews settled here
and brought with them a knowledge of the Jewish religion. 
Under the Ptolemies, the arts as well as the enterprise of the
Greeks entered Ethiopia, and led to the establishment of Greek
colonies.  A Greek inscription at Adulis, no longer extant,
but copied by Cosmas of Alexandria, and preserved in his
Topographia Christiana, records that Ptolemy Euergetes, the
third of the Greek dynasty in Egypt, invaded the countries
on both sides of the Red Sea, and having reduced most of the
provinces of Tigre to subjection, returned to the port of
Adulis, and there offered sacrifices to Jupiter, Mars and
Neptune.  Another inscription, not so ancient, found at Axum,
states that Aizanas, king of the Axumites, the Homerites,
&c., conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned thanks
to his father, the god Mars, for his victory.  Out of these
Greek colonies appears to have arisen the kingdom of Auxume
which flourished from the ist to the 7th century A.D.
and was at one time nearly coextensive with Abyssinia
proper.  The capital Auxume and the seaport Adulis were then
the chief centres of the trade with the interior of Africa
in gold dust, ivory, leather, aromatics, &c. At Axum, the
site of the ancient capital, many vestiges of its former
greatness still exist; and the ruins of Adulis, which was
once a seaport on the bay of Annesley, are now about 4 m.
from the shore (see ETHIOPIA, The Axumite Kingdom.)

Introduction of Christianity.

(13) Christianity was introduced into the country by Frumentius
(q.v.), who was consecrated first bishop of Ethiopia by St
Athanasius of Alexandria about A.D. 330. From the scanty
evidence available it would appear that the new religion
at first made little progress, and the Axumite kings seem
to have been among the latest converts.  Towards the close
of the 5th century a great company of monks are believed to
have established themselves in the country.  Since that time
monachism has been a power among the people and not without
its influence on the course of events.  In the early part of
the 6th century the king of the Homerites, on the opposite
coast of the Red Sea, having persecuted the Christians, the
emperor Justinian I. requested the king of Auxume, Caleh or
El-Esbaha, to avenge their cause.  He accordingly collected
an army, crossed over into Arabia, and conquered Yemen (c.
525), which remained subject to Ethiopia for about fifty
years.  This was the most flourishing period in the annals
of the country.  The Ethiopians possessed the richest part of
Arabia, carried on a large trade, which extended as far as
India and Ceylon, and were in constant communication with
the Greek empire.  Their expulsion from Arabia, followed
by the conquest of Egypt by the Mahommedans in the middle
of the 7th century, changed this state of affairs, and the
continued advances of the followers of the Prophet at length
cut them off from almost every means of communication with
the civilized world; so that, as Gibbon says, ``encompassed
by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for
near a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they
were forgotten.'' About A.D. 1000, a Jewish princess,
Judith, conceived the design of murdering all the members
of the royal family, and of establishing herself in their
stead.  During the execution of this project, the infant king
was carded off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to
Shoa, where his authority was acknowledged, while Judith
reigned for forty years over the rest of the kingdom, and
transmitted the crown to her descendants.  In 1268 the kingdom
was restored to the royal house in the person of Yekunu Amlak.

Portuguese Influence.

(14) Towards the close of the 15th century the Portuguese
missions into Abyssinia began.  A belief had long prevailed
in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom in the far
east, whose monarch was known as Prester John, and various
expeditions had been sent in quest of it.  Among others who
had engaged in this search was Pedro de Covilham, who arrived
in Abyssinia in 1490, and, believing that he had at length
reached the far-famed kingdom, presented to the negus, or
emperor of the country, a letter from his master the king of
Portugal, addressed to Prester John.  Covilham remained in the
country, but in 1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the
negus to the king of Portugal to request his aid against the
Mahommedans.  In 1520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on
board, entered the Red Sea in compliance with this request,
and an embassy from the fleet visited the negus, Lebna Dengel
Dawit (David) II., and remained in Abyssinia for about six
years.  One of this embassy was Father Francisco Alvarez,
from whom we have the earliest and not the least interesting
account of the country.  Between 1528 and 1540 armies of
Mahommedans, under the renowned general Mahommed Gran (or
Granye, probably a Somali or a Galla), entered Abyssinia
from the low country to the south-east, and overran the
kingdom, obliging the emperor to take refuge in the mountain
fastnesses.  In this extremity recourse was again had to the
Portuguese.  John Bermudez, a subordinate member of the
mission of 1520, who had remained in the country after the
departure of the embassy, was, according to his own statement
(which is untrustworthy), ordained successor to the abuna
(archbishop), and sent to Lisbon.  Bermudez certainly came to
Europe, but with what credentials is not known.  Be that as
it may, a Portuguese fleet, under the command of Stephen da
Gama, was sent from India and arrived at Massawa in February
1541.  Here he received an ambassador from the negus beseeching
him to send help against the Moslems, and in the July following
a force of 450 musqueteers, under the command of Christopher
da Gama, younger brother of the admiral, marched into the
interior, and being joined by native troops were at first
successful against the enemy; but they were subsequently
defeated, and their commander taken prisoner and put to death
(August 1542).  On the 21st of February 1543, however, Mahommed
Granye was shot in an engagement and his forces totally
routed.  After this, quarrels arose between the negus and
Bermudez, who had returned to Abyssinia with Christopher
da Gama and who now wished the emperor publicly to profess
himself a convert to Rome.  This the negus refused to do,
and at length Bermudez was obliged to make his way out of the
country.  The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the da
Gama expedition into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters
at Fremona (near Adowa), were oppressed and neglected, but
not actually expelled.  In the beginning of the 17th century
Father Pedro Paez arrived at Fremona, a man of great tact and
judgment, who soon rose into high favour at court, and gained
over the emperor to his faith.  He directed the erection of
churches, palaces and bridges in different parts of the
country, and carried out many useful works.  His successor
Mendez was a man of much less conciliatory manners, and
the feelings of the people became strongly excited against
the intruders, till at length, on the death of the negus
Sysenius, Socinius or Seged I., and the accession of his son
Fasilidas in 1633, they were all sent out of the country, after
having had a footing there for nearly a century and a half.

Visits of Poncet and Bruce.

The French physician C. J. Poncet, who went there in 1698,
via Sennar and the Blue Nile, was the only European
that afterwards visited the country before Bruce in
1769.  James Bruce's main object was to discover the sources
of the Nile, which he was convinced lay in Abyssinia. 
Accordingly, leaving Massawa in September 1769, he travelled
via Axum to Gondar, where he was well received by King
Tekla Haimanot II. He accompanied the king on a warlike
expedition round Lake Tsana, moving S. round the eastern
shore, crossing the genuine Blue Nile (Abai) close to its
point of issue from the lake and returning via the western
shore.  On a second expedition of his own he proved to his
own satisfaction that the river originated some 4o miles
S.W. of the lake at a place called Geesh (4th of November
1770).  He showed that this river flowed into the lake, and
left it by its now well-known outlet.  Bruce subsequently
returned to Egypt (end of 1772) via Gondar, the upper Atbara,
Sennar, the Nile, and the Korosko desert (see BRUCE, JAMES).

(15) In order to attain a clear view of native Abyssinian
history, as distinct from the visits and influence of
Europeans, it must be borne in mind that during the last
three hundred years, and indeed for a longer period, for
the old chroniclers may be trusted to have given a somewhat
distorted view of the importance of the particular chieftains
with whom they came in contact, the country has been merely
a conglomeration of provinces and districts, ill defined,
loosely connected and generally at war with each other.  Of
these the chief provinces have been Tigre (northern), Amhara
(central) and Shoa (southern).  The seat of government, or
rather of overlordship, has usually been in Amhara, the ruler
of which, calling himself negus negusti (king of kings, or
emperor), has exacted tribute, when he could, from the other
provinces.  The title of negus negusti has been to a
considerable extent based on the blood in the veins of the
claimant.  All the emperors have based their claims on their
direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba; but it
is needless to say that in many, if not in most, cases their
success has been due more to the force of their arms than
to the purity of their lineage.  Some of the rulers of the
larger provinces have at times been given, or have given
themselves, the title of negus or king, so that on occasion
as many as three, or even more, neguses have been reigning
at the same time; and this must be borne in mind by the
student of Abyssinian history in order to avoid confusion of
rulers.  The whole history of the country is in fact one
gloomy record of internecine wars, barbaric deeds and unstable
governments, of adventurers usurping thrones, only to be
themselves unseated, and of raids, rapine and pillage.  Into
this chaos enter from time to time broad rays of sunshine,
the efforts of a few enlightened monarchs to evolve order from
disorder, and to supply to their people the blessings of peace and
civilization.  Bearing these matters in mind, we find that during
the 18th century the most prominent and beneficent rulers were
the emperor Yesu of Gondar, who died about 1720, Sebastie,
negus of Shoa (1703-1718), Amada Yesus of Shoa, who extended
his kingdom and founded Ankober (1743-1774), Tekla Giorgis
of Amhara (1770-1798?) and Asfa Nassen of Shoa (1774-1807),
the latter being especially renowned as a wise and benevolent
monarch.  The first years of the 19th century were disturbed
by fierce campaigns between Guxa, ras of Gondar, and Wolda
Selassie, ras of Tigre, who were both striving for the
crown of Guxa's master, the emperor Eguala Izeion.  Wolda
Selassie was eventually the victor, and practically ruled
the whole country till his death in 1816 at the age of eighty.

British mission and missionary enterprise.

(16) Mention must here be made of the first British mission,
under Lord Valentia and Mr Henry Salt, which was sent in 1805
to conclude an alliance with Abyssinia, and obtain a port on
the Red Sea in case France secured Egypt by dividing up the
Turkish empire with Russia.  This mission was succeeded by many
travellers, missionaries and merchants of all countries, and
the stream of Europeans continued until well into Theodore's
reign.  For convenience' sake we insert at this point a
partial list of missionaries and others who visited the country
during the second third of the 19th century---merely calling
attention to the fact that their visits were distributed
over widely different parts of the country, ruled by distinct
lines of monarchs or governors.  In 1830 Protestant missionary
enterprise was begun by Samuel Gobat and Christian Kugler,
who were sent out by the Church Missionary Society, and were
well received by the ras of Tigre.  Mr Kugler died soon
after his arrival, and his place was subsequently supplied
by Mr C. W. Isenberg, who was followed by Dr Ludwig Krapf,
the discoverer of Mount Kenya, and others.  Mr (afterwards
Bishop) Gobat proceeded to Gondar, where he also met with
a favourable reception.  In 1833 he returned to Europe, and
published a journal of his residence in Abyssinia.  In 1834
Gobat went back to Tigre, but in 1836 ill health compelled
him to leave.  In 1838 other missionaries were obliged to
leave the country, owing to the opposition of the native
priests.  Messrs Isenberg and Krapf went south, and established
themselves at Shoa.  The former soon after returned to England,
but Mr Krapf remained in Shoa till March 1842, when he
removed to Mombasa.  Dr E. Ruppell, the German naturalist,
visited the country in 1831, and remained nearly two years.
M. E. Combes and M. Tamisier arrived at Massawa in 1835, and
visited districts which had not been traversed by Europeans
since the time of the Portuguese.  One who did much at the
time to extend our geographical knowledge of the country was
Dr C. T. Boke (q.v.), who was there from 1840 to 1843. 
Mr Mansfield Parkyns was there from 1843 to 1846, and wrote
the most interesting book on the country since the time of
Bruce.  Bishop Gobat having conceived the idea of sending lay
missionaries into the country, who would engage in secular
occupations as well as carry on missionary work, Dr Krapf
returned to Abyssinia in 1855 with Mr Flad as pioneers of that
mission; Krapf, however, was not permitted to remain in the
country.  Six lay workers came out at first, and they were
subsequently joined by others.  Their secular work, however,
appears to have been more valuable to Theodore than their
preaching, so that he employed them as workmen to himself,
and established them at Gaffat, near his capital.  Mr Stern
arrived in Abyssinia in 1860, and after a visit to Europe
returned in 1863, accompanied by Mr and Mrs Rosenthal.1

Rivalry of British and French factions

(17) Wolda Selassie of Tigre was succeeded in 1817, through
force of arms, by Sabagadis of Agame, and the latter, as
ras of Tigre, introduced various Englishmen, whom he much
admired, into the country.  He increased the prosperity of
his land considerably. but by so doing roused the jealousy
of Ras Marie of Amhara--to whom he had refused tribute--and
Ubie, son of Hailo Mariam, a governor of Simen.  In an
ensuing battle (in January 1831), both Sabagadis and Marie
were killed, and Ubie retired to watch events from his own
province.  Marie was shortly succeeded in the ras-ship
of Amhara by Ali, a nephew of Guxa and a Mahommedan.  But
Ubie, who was aiming at the crown, soon attacked Ras Ali,
and after several indecisive campaigns proclaimed himself
negus of Tigre.  To him came many French missionaries and
travellers, chief of whom were Lieut.  Lefebvre, charged
(1839) with political and geographical missions, and
Captains Galinier and Ferret, who completed for him a useful
triangulation and survey of Tigre and Simen (1840-1842). 
The brothers Antoine and Arnaud d'Abbadie (q.v.) spent
ten years (1838-1848) in the country, making scientific
investigations of great value, and also involving themselves
in the stormy politics of the country.  Northern Abyssinia
was now divided into two camps, the one, Amhara and Ras
Ali, under Protestant British, and the other, Tigre and
Ubie, under Roman Catholic French, influence.  The latent
hostility between the two factions threatened at one time to
develop into a religious war, but no serious campaigns took
place until Kassa (later Theodore) appeared on the scene.

Rise of the emperor Theodore.

(18) Lij (= Mr) Kassa was born in Kwara, a small district
of Western Amhara, in 1818.  His father was a small local
chief, and his uncle was governor of the districts of Dembea,
Kwara and Chelga between Lake Tsana and the undefined N.W.
frontier.  He was educated in a monastery, but preferred a
more active life, and by his talents and energy came rapidly
to the front.  On the death of his uncle he was made chief of
Kwara, but in consequence of the arrest of his brother Bilawa
by Ras Ali, he raised the standard of revolt against the
latter, and, collecting a large force, repeatedly beat the
troops that were sent against him by the ras (1841-1847). 
On one occasion peace was restored by his receiving Tavavich,
daughter of Ras Ali, in marriage; and this lady is said to
have been a good and wise counsellor during her lifetime. He
next turned his arms against the Turks, in the direction of
Massawa, but was defeated; and the mother of Ras Ali having
insulted him in his fallen condition, he proclaimed his
independence.  As his power was increasing, to the detriment
of both Ras Ali and Ubie, these two princes combined against
him, but were heavily defeated by him at Gorgora (on the
southern shore of Lake Tsana) in 1853.  Ubie retreated to
Tigre, and Ras Ali fled to Begemeder, where he eventually
died.  Kassa now ruled in Amhara, but his ambition was to
attain to supreme power, and he turned his attention to
conquering the remaining chief divisions of the country,
Gojam, Tigre and Shoa, which still remained unsubdued. 
Berro, ras of Gojam, in order to save himself, attempted
to combine with Tigre, but his army was intercepted by
Kassa and totally destroyed, himself being taken prisoner
and executed (May 1854). Shortly afterwards Kassa moved
against Tigre, defeated Ubie's forces at Deragie,
in Simen (February 1855), took their chief prisoner and
proclaimed himself negus negusti of Ethiopia under the
name of Theodore III. He now turned his attention to Shoa.

Growing power of Shoa

(19) Retracing our steps for a moment in that direction, we
find that in 1813 Sahela (or Sella) Selassie, younger son
of the preceding ras, Wassen Seged, had proclaimed himself
negus or king.  His reign was long and beneficent.  He
restored the towns of Debra-Berhan and Angolala, and founded
Entotto, the strong stone-built town whose ruins overlook
the modern capital, Adis Ababa.  In the terrible ``famine of
St Luke'' in 1835, Selassie still further won the hearts of
his subjects by his wise measures and personal generosity;
and by extending his hospitality to Europeans, he brought
his country within the closer ken of civilized European
powers.  During his reign he received the missions of Major
W. Cornwallis Harris, sent by the governor-general of India
(1841), and M. Rochet d'Hericourt, sent by Louis Philippe
(1843), with both of whom he concluded friendly treaties on
behalf of their respective governments.  He also wrote to Pope
Pius IX., asking that a Roman Catholic bishop should be sent to
him.  This request was acceded to, and the pope despatched
Monsigneur Massaja to Shoa.  But before the prelate could
reach the country, Selassie was dead (1847), leaving his
eldest son, Haeli Melicoth, to succeed him. Melicoth at once
proclaimed himself negus, and by sending for Massaja, who
had arrived at Gondar, gave rise to the suspicion that he
wished to have himself crowned as emperor.  By increasing
his dominions at the expense of the Gallas, he still further
roused the jealousy of the northerners, and a treaty which
he concluded with Ras Ali against Kassa in 1850 determined
the latter to crush him at the earliest opportunity.

Thus it was that in 1855 Kassa, under the name of the emperor
Theodore, advanced against Shoa with a large army. Dissensions
broke out among the Shoans, and after a desperate and futile
attack on Theodore at Debra-Berhan, Haeli Melicoth died of
exhaustion and fever, nominating with his last breath his
eleven-year-old son Menelek2 as successor (November 1855).
Darge, Haeli's brother, took charge of the young prince, but
after a hard fight with Angeda, one of Theodore's rases, was
obliged to capitulate.  Menelek was handed over to the negus,
taken to Gondar, and there trained in Theodore's service.

(20) Theodore was now in the zenith of his career.  He is
described as being generous to excess, free from cupidity,
merciful to his vanquished enemies, and strictly continent,
but subject to violent bursts of anger and possessed of
unyielding pride and fanatical religious zeal.  He was also
a man of education and intelligence, superior to those among
whom he lived, with natural talents for governing and gaining
the esteem of others. He had, further, a noble bearing and
majestic walk, a frame capable of enduring any amount of
fatigue, and is said to have been ``the best shot, the best
spearman, the best runner, and the best horseman in Abyssinia.''
Had he contented himself with the sovereignty of Amhara and
Tigre, he might have maintained his position; but he was led
to exhaust his strength against the Wollo Gallas, which was
probably one of the chief causes of his ruin.  He obtained
several victories over that people, ravaged their country,
took possession of Magdala, which he afterwards made his
principal stronghold, and enlisted many of the chiefs and
their followers in his own ranks.  As has been shown, he also
reduced the kingdom of Shoa, and took Ankober, the capital;
but in the meantime his own people were groaning under his
heavy exactions, rebellions were breaking out in various parts
of his provinces, and his good queen Tavavich was now dead.

Theodore's quarrel with great Britain

The British consul, Walter C. Plowden, who was strongly
attached to Theodore, having been ordered by his government
in 1860 to return to Massawa, was attacked on his way by a
rebel named Garred, mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. 
Theodore attacked the rebels, and in the action the murderer
of Mr Plowden was slain by his friend and companion Mr J. T.
Bell, an engineer, but the latter lost his life in preserving
that of Theodore.  The deaths of the two Englishmen were
terribly avenged by the slaughter or mutilation of nearly
2000 rebels. Theodore soon after married his second wite
Terunish, the proud daughter of the late governor of Tigre,
who felt neither affection nor respect for the upstart who had
dethroned her father, and the union was by no means a happy
one.  In 1862 he made a second expedition against the Gallas,
which was stained with atrocious cruelties.  Theodore had
now given himself up to intoxication and lust.  When the
news of Mr Plowden's death reached England, Captain C. D.
Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and arrived
at Massawa in February 1862.  He proceeded to the camp of the
king, to whom he presented a rifle, a pair of pistols and a
letter in the queen's name. In October Captain Cameron was
sent home by Theodore, with a letter to the queen of England,
which reached the Foreign Office on the 12th of February
1863.  This letter was put aside and no answer returned,
and to this in no small degree are to be attributed the
difficulties that subsequently arose with that country. In
November despatches were received from England, but no answer
to the emperor's letter, and this, together with a visit paid
by Captain Cameron to the Egyptian frontier town of Kassala,
greatly offended him; accordingly in January 1864 Captain
Cameron and his suite, with Messrs Stern and Rosenthal, were
cast into prison.  When the news of this reached England, the
government resolved, when too late, to send an answer to the
emperor's letter, and selected Mr Hormuzd Rassam to be its
bearer.  He arrived at Massawa in July 1864, and immediately
despatched a messenger requesting permission to present
himself before the emperor.  Neither to this nor a subsequent
application was any answer returned till August 1865, when
a curt note was received, stating that Consul Cameron had
been released, and if Mr Rassam still desired to visit the
king, he was to proceed by the route of Gallabat.  Later
in the year Theodore became more civil, and the British
party on arrival at the king's camp in Damot, on the 25th
of January 1866, were received with all honour, and were
afterwards sent to Kwarata, on Lake Tsana, there to await
the arrival of the captives.  The latter reached Kwarata
on the 12th of March, and everything appeared to proceed
favourably.  A month later they started for the coast, but had
not proceeded far when they were ail brought back and put into
confinement.  Theodore then wrote a letter to the queen,
requesting European workmen and machinery to be sent to
him, and despatched it by Mr Flad.  The Europeans, although
detained as prisoners, were not at first unkindly treated;
but in the end of June they were sent to Magdala, where they
were soon afterwards put in chains.  They suffered hunger,
cold and misery, and were in constant fear of death, till the
spring of 1869 when they were relieved by the British troops.

Sir Robert Napier's expedition. (21) In the meantime
the power of Theodore in the country was rapidly waning. 
Shoa had already shaken off his yoke; Gojam was virtually
independent; Walkeit and Simen were under a rebel chief;
and Lasta, Waag and the country about Lake Ashangi had
submitted to Wagshum Gobassie, who had also overrun
Tigre and appointed Dejaj Kassai his governor. The latter,
however, in 1867 rebelled against his master and assumed
the supreme power of that province.  This was the state of
matters when the English troops made their appearance in the
country.  With a view if possible to effect the release of
the prisoners by conciliatory measures, Mr Flad was sent
back, with some artisans and machinery, and a letter from
the queen, stating that these would be handed over to his
majesty on the release of the prisoners and their return to
Massawa.  This, however, failed to influence the emperor,
and the English government at length saw that they must have
recourse to arms. In July 1867, therefore, it was resolved
to send an army into Abyssinia to enforce the release of
the captives, under Sir Robert Napier (1st Baron Napier of
Magdala).  The landingplace selected was Mulkutto (Zula),
on Annesley Bay, the point of the coast nearest to the site
of the ancient Adulis, and we are told that ``the pioneers
of the English expedition followed to some extent in the
footsteps of the adventurous soldiers of Ptolemy. and met
with a few faint traces of this old-world enterprise'' (C. R.
Markham).  The force amounted to upwards of 16,000 men,
besides 12,640 belonging to the transport service, and
followers, making in all upwards of 32,000 men.  The task to
be accomplished was to march over 400 miles of a mountainous
and little-known country, inhabited by savage tribes, to
the camp or fortress of Theodore, and compel him to deliver
up his captives.  The commander-in-chief landed on the 7th
of January 1868, and soon after the troops began to move
forward through the pass of Senafe, and southward through
the districts of Agame, Tera, Endarta, Wojerat, Lasta and
Wadela.  In the meantime Theodore had been reduced to great
straits.  His army, which at one time numbered over 100,000
men, was rapidly deserting him, and he could hardly obtain
food for his followers.  He resolved to quit his captial
Debra-Tabor, which he burned, and set out with the remains
of his army for Magdala.  During this march he displayed an
amount of engineering skill in the construction of roads, of
military talent and fertility of resource, that excited the
admiration and astonishment of his enemies.  On the afternoon
of the 10th of April a force of about 3000 men suddenly poured
down upon the English in the plain of Arogie, a few miles from
Magdala.  They advanced again and again to the charge, but
were each time driven back, and finally retired in good
order.  Early next morning Theodore sent Lieut.  Prideaux, one
of the captives, and Mr Flad, accompanied by a native chief,
to the English camp to sue for peace.  Answer was returned,
that if he would deliver up all the Europeans in his hands, and
submit to the queen of England, he would receive honourable
treatment.  The captives were liberated and sent away, and
accompanying a letter to the English general was a present
of 1000 cows and 500 sheep, the acceptance of which would,
according to Eastern custom, imply that peace was granted.
Through some misunderstanding, word was sent to Theodore
that the present would be accepted, and he felt that he was
now safe; but in the evening he learned that it had not been
received, and despair again seized him.  Early next morning
he attempted to escape with a few of his followers, but
subsequently returned. The same day (13th April) Magdala was
stormed and taken, practically without loss, and within they
found the dead body of the emperor, who had fallen by his own
hand.  The inhabitants and troops were subsequently sent
away, the fortifications destroyed and the town burned.  The
queen Terunish having expressed her wish to go back to her own
country, accompanied the British army, but died during the
march, and her son Alamayahu, the only legitimate son of the
emperor, was brought to England, as this was the desire of
his father.3 The success of the expedition was in no small
degree owing to the aid afforded by the several native chiefs
through whose country it passed, and no one did more in this
way than Dejaj Kassa or Kassai of Tigre.  In acknowledgment of
this, several pieces of ordnance, small arms and ammunition,
with much of the surplus stores, were handed over to
him, and the English troops left the country in May 1868.

Menelek II., king of Shoa (22) It is now time to return
to the story of the young prince Menelek, who, as we have
seen, had been nominated by his late father as ruler of Shoa,
but was in Theodore's power in Tigre.  The following table
shows his descent since the beginning of the 19th century:--

Asfa Nassen, d. 1807
Wassan Seged = Woizero Zenebe Work
d. 1811  |
|                               |
Becurraye                    Sella Selassie = Woizero Betsabesh
(1795-1847)    |
|                              |                  |
Haeli Melicoth = Ejigayu             Siefu             Darge
(1825-1855)    |                   (1826-1860)         b. 1827
|                        |
Menelek II. = Taitu       Mashasha
b. 1844  |
|                |                     |
1 son          Zauditu             Tanina Work
(dead)         (Judith)             (daughter)

On the retirement of Theodore's forces from Shoa in 1855,
Siefu, brother of Haeli Melicoth, proclaimed himself negus
of Shoa at Ankober, and beat the local representatives of
the northern government.  The emperor returned, however,
in 1858, and after several repulses succeeded in entering
Ankober, where he behaved with great cruelty, murdering or
mutilating all the inhabitants.  Siefu kept up a gallant
defence for two more years, but was then killed by Kebret,
one of his own chiefs. Thus chaos again reigned supreme in
Shoa.  In 1865, Menelek, now a desjazmach 4 of Tigre,
took advantage of Theodore's difficulties with the British
government and escaped to Workitu, queen of the Wollo Galla
country.  The emperor, who held as hostage a son of Workitu,
threatened to kill the boy unless Menelek were given up;
but the gallant queen refused, and lost both her son and her
throne.  The fugitive meanwhile arrived safely in Shoa, and
was there acclaimed as negus.  For the next three years
Menelek devoted himself to strengthening and disciplining
his army, to legislation, to building towns, such as Liche
(near Debra-Berhan), Worra Hailu (Wollo Galla country),
&c., and to repelling the incursions of the Gallas.

King John attains supreme power.

On the death of Theodore (13th April 1868) many Shoans,
including Ras Darge, were released, and Menelek began to
feel himself strong enough, after a few preliminary minor
campaigns, to undertake offensive operations against the
northern princes.  But these projects were of little avail,
for Kassai of Tigre, as above mentioned, had by this time
(1872) risen to supreme power in the north.  With the help
of the rifles and guns presented to him by the British,
he had beaten Ras Bareya of Tigre, Wagshum Gobassie of
Amhara and Tekla Giorgis of Condar, and after proclaiming
himself negus negusti under the name of Johannes or John,
was now preparing to march on Shoa.  Here, however, Menelek
was saved from probable destruction through the action of
Egypt.  This power had, by the advice of Werner Munzinger
(q.v.), their Swiss governor of Massawa, seized and
occupied in 1872 the northern province of Bogos; and, later
on, insisted on occupying Hamasen also, for fear Bogos
should be attacked.  John, after futile protests, collected
an army, and with the assistance of Ras Walad Michael,
hereditary chief of Bogos, advanced against the Egyptian
forces, who were under the command of one Arendrup, a
Dane.  Meeting near the Mareb, the Egyptians were beaten in
detail, and almost annihilated at Gundet (13th November
1875).  An avenging expedition was prepared in the spring
of the following year, and, numbering 14,000 men under Ratib
Pasha, Loring (American), and Prince Hassan, advanced to
Gura and fortified a position in the neighbouthood.  Although
reinforced by Walad Michael, who had now quarrelled with
John, the Egyptians were a second time (25th March 1876)
heavily beaten by the Abyssinians, and retired, losing an
enormous quantity of both men and rifies. Colonel C. G.
Gordon, governor-general of the Sudan, was now ordered to
go and make peace with John, but the king had moved south
with his army, intending to punish Menelek for having raided
Gondar whilst he, John, was engaged with the Egyptians.

(23) Menelek's kingdom was meanwhile torn in twain by serious
dissensions, which had been instigated by his concubine
Bafana.  This lady, to whom he was much attached, had been
endeavouring to secure the succession of one of her own sons
to the throne of Shoa, and had almost succeeded in getting
rid of Mashasha, son of Siefu and cousin of Menelek, who
was the apparent heir.  On the approach of John, the Shoans
united for a time against their common enemy.  But after a
few skirmishes they melted away, and Menelek was obliged to
submit and do obeisance to John.  The latter behaved with
much generosity, but at the same time imposed terms which
effectually deprived Shoa of her independence (March 1878). 
In 1879 Gordon was sent on a fresh mission to John on behalf of
Egypt; but he was treated with scant courtesy, and was obllgcd
to leave the country without achieving anything permanent.

Beginning of Italian influence.

The Italians now come on the scene.  Assab, a port near the
southern entrance of the Red Sea, had been bought from the
focal sultan in March 1870 by an Italian company, which,
after acquiring more land in 1879 and 1880, was bought
out by the Italian government in 1882. In this year Count
Pietro Antonelli was despatched to Shoa in order to improve
the prospects of the colony by treaties with Menelek and
the sultan of Aussa.  Several missions followed upon this
one, with more or less successful results; but both John and
Menelek became uneasy when Beilul, a port to the north of
Assab Bay, was occupied by the Italians in January 1885, and
Massawa taken over by them from Egypt in the following month.
This latter act was greatly resented by the Abyssinians, for
by a treaty concluded with a British and Egyptian mission
under Admiral Hewett and Mason Pasha 5 in the previous
year, free transit of goods was to be allowed through this
port.  Matters came to a head in January 1887, when the
Abyssinians, in consequence of a refusal from General Gene
to withdraw his troops, surrounded and attacked a detachment
of 500 Italian troops at Dogali, killing more than 400 of
them.  Reinforcements were sent from Italy, whilst in the
autumn the British government stepped in and tried to mediate
by means of a mission under Mr (afterwards Sir Gerald)
Portal.  His mission, however proved abortive, and after many
difficulties and dangers he returned to Egypt at the end of the
year.  In April 1888 the Italian forces, numbering over 20,000
men, came into touch with the Abyssinian army; but negotiations
took the place of fighting, with the result that both forces
retired, the Italians only leaving some 5000 troops in
Eritrea, as their colony was now called. Meanwhile John had
not been idle with regard to the dervishes, who had in the
meantime become masters of the Egyptian Sudan.  Although he
had set his troops in motion too late to relieve Kassala,
Ras Alula, his chief general, had succeeded in inflicting
a handsome defeat on Osman Digna at Kufit in September
1885.  Fighting between the dervishes and the Abyssinians
continued, and in August 1887 the dervishes entered and
sacked Gondar.  After some delay, King John took the field
in force against the enemy, who were still harassing the
north-west of his territory.  A great battle ensued at
Gallabat, in which the dervishes, under Zeki Tumal, were
beaten.  But a stray bullet struck the king, and the Abyssinians
decided to retire. The king died during the night, and his
body fell into the hands of the enemy (9th March 1889).

Menelek emperor.

(24) Immediately the news of John's death reached Menelek,
he proclaimed himself emperor, and received the submission
of Gondar, Gojam and several other provinces.  In common
with other northern princes, Mangasha, reputed son and heir
of King John, with the yellow-eyed Ras Alula,6 refused to
acknowledge the sovereignty of Menelek; but, on the latter
marching against them in the following January with a large
army, they submitted.  As it happened, Count Antonelli
was with Menelek when he claimed the throne, and promptly
concluded (2nd of May 1889) with him on behalf of Italy a
friendly treaty, to be known hereafter as the famous Uccialli
treaty.  In consequence of this the Italians occupied Asmara,
made friends with Mangasha and received Ras Makonnen7,
Menelek's nephew, as his plenipotentiary in Italy.  Thus it
seemed as though hostilities between the two countries had
come to a definite end, and that peace was assured in the
land.  For the next three years the land was fairly quiet,
the chief political events being the convention (6th February
1891) between Italy and Abyssinia, protocols between Italy
and Great Britain (24th March and 15th April 1891) and a
proclamation by Menelek (10th April 1891), all on the subject of
boundaries.  As, however, the Italians became more and more
friendly with Mangasha and Tigre the apprehensions of Menelek
increased, till at last, in February 1893, he wrote denouncing
the Uccialli treaty, which differed in the Italian and Amharic
versions.  According to the former, the negus was bound
to make use of Italy as a channel for communicating with
other powers, whereas the Amharic version left it optional.
Meanwhile the dervishes were threatening Eritrea.  A fine
action by Colonel Arimondi gained Agordat for Italy (21st
December 1893), and a brilliant march by Colonel Baratieri
resulted in the acquisition of Kassala (17th July 1894).

On his return Baratieri found that Mangasha was intriguing
with the dervishes, and had actually crossed the frontier
with a large army.  At Koatit and Senafe (13th to 15th
January 1895) Mangasha was met and heavily defeated by
Baratieri, who occupied Adrigat in March.  But as the year
wore on the Italian commander pushed his forces unsupported
too far to the south. Menelek was advancing with a large
army in national support of Mangasha, and the subsequent
reverses at Amba Alagi (7th December 1895) and Macalle
(23rd January 1896) forced the Italians to fall back.

Battle of Adowa. Reinforcements of many thousands were
meanwhile arriving at Massawa, and in February Baratieri took
the field at the head of over 13,000 men.  Menelek's army,
amounting to about 90,000, had during this time advanced,
and was occupying a strong position at Abba Garima, near
Adua (or Adowa).  Here Baratieri attacked him on the 1st
of March, but the difficulties of the country were great,
and one of the four Italian brigades had pushed too far
forward.  This brigade was attacked by overwhelming numbers,
and on the remaining brigades advancing in support, they were
successively cut to pieces by the encircling masses of the
enemy.  The Italians lost over 4500 white and 2000 native
troops killed and wounded, and over 2500 prisoners, of which
1600 were white, whilst the Abyssinians owned to a loss of over
3000.  General Baldissera advanced with a large body of
reinforcements to avenge this defeat, but the Abyssinians,
desperately short of supplies, had already retired, and beyond
the peaceful relief of Adrigat no further operations took
place.  It may here be remarked that the white prisoners
taken by Menelek were exceedingly well treated by him, and
that he behaved throughout the struggle with Italy with
the greatest humanity and dignity.  On the 26th of October
following a provisional treaty of peace was concluded at
Adis Ababa, annulling the treaty of Uccialli and recognizing
the absolute independence of Abyssinia.  This treaty was
ratified, and followed by other treaties and agreements
defining the Eritrean-Abyssinian and the Abyssinian-Italian
Somaliland frontiers (see ITALY, History, and SOMALILAND, Italian

Menelek as independent monarch.

(25) The war, so disastrous to Italy, attracted the attention of
all Europe to Abyssinia and its monarch, and numerous
missions, two Russian, three French and one British, were
despatched to the country, and hospitably received by
Menelek.  The British one, under Mr (afterwards Sir) Rennell
Rodd, concluded a friendly treaty with Abyssinia (15th
of May 1897), but did not, except in the direction of
Somaliland, touch on frontier questions, which for several
years continued a subject of discussion.  During the same
year (1897) a small French expedition under Messrs Clochette
and de Bonchamps endeavoured to reach the Nile, but, after
surmounting many difficulties, stuck in the marshes of the
Upper Sobat, and was obliged to return.  Another expedition
of Abyssinians, under Dejaj Tasamma and accompanied by three
Europeans---Faivre (French), Potter (Swiss) and Artomonov
(Russian)--started early in 1898, and reached the Nile at the
Sobat mouth in June, a few days only before Major Marchand
and his gallant companions arrived on the scene. But no
contact was made, and the expedition returned to Abyssinia.

In the same year Menelek proceeded northwards with a large
army for the purpose of chastising Mangasha, who was again
rebelling against his authority.  After some trifling fighting
Mangasha submitted, and Ras Makonnen despatched a force
to subdue Beni Shangul, the chief of which gold country,
Wad Tur el Guri, was showing signs of disaffection.  This
effected, the Abyssinians almost came into contact with the
Egyptian troops sent up the Blue Nile (after the occupation
of Khartum) to Famaka and towards Gallabat; but as both
sides were anxious to avoid a collision over this latter
town, no hostile results ensued.  An excellent understanding
was, in fact, established between these two contiguous
countries, in spite of occasional disturbances by bandits
on the frontier.  On this frontier question, a treaty
was concluded on the 15th of May 1902 between England and
Abyssinia for the delimitation of the Sudan-Abyssinian
frontier.  Menelek, in addition, agreed not to obstruct the
waters of Lake Tsana, the Blue Nile or the Sobat, so as not
to interfere with the Nile irrigation question, and he also
agreed to give a concession, if such should be required,
for the construction of a British railway through his
dominions, to connect the Sudan with Uganda.  A combined
British-Abyssinian expedition (Mr A. E. Butter's) was despatched
in 1901 to propose and survey a boundary between Abyssinia
on the one side and British East Africa and Uganda on the
other; and the report of the expedition was made public by
the British government in November 1904.  It was followed
in 1908 by an agreement defining the frontiers concerned.

Co-operation with Britain against the Somali mullah.

(26) In 1899 the rebellion of the so-called ``mad'' mullah
(Hajji Mahommed Abdullah) began on the borders of British
Somaliland.  An Abyssinian expedition was,  at Great
Britain's request, sent against the mullah,  but without much
effect.  In the spring and  summer of 1901 a fresh expedition
from Harrar was  undertaken against the mullah, who was
laying waste  the Ogaden country.  Two British officers
accompanied this force, which was to co-operate with British
troops advancing from Somaliland; but little was achieved
by the Abyssinians, and after undergoing considerable
privations and losses, and harassing the country generally,
including that of some friendly tribes, it returned to
Harrar.  During the 1902-3 campaign of General (Sir) W. H.
Manning, Menelek provided a force of 5000 to co-operate with
the British and to occupy the Webi Shebeli and south-western
parts of the Hand.  This time the Abyssinians were more
successful, and beat the rebels in a pitched fight; but
the difficulties of the country again precluded effective
co-operation.  During General Egerton's campaign (1903-4)
yet another force of 5000 Abyssinians was despatched towards
Somaliland. Accompanied by a few British officers, it worked
its way southward, but did not contribute much towards the
final solution. In any case, however, it is significant
that the Abyssinians have repeatedly been willing to
co-operate with the British away from their own country.

Growth of European influence. Regarding the question of
railways, the first concession for a railway from the coast
at Jibuti (French Somaliland) to the interior was granted
hy Menelek to a French company in 1894.  The company having
met with numberless difficulties and financial troubles, the
French government, on the extinction of the company's funds,
came to the rescue and provided money for the construction.
(In the alternative British capitalists interested in the
company would have obtained control of the line.) The French
government's help enabled the railway to be completed to
Dire Dawa, 28 m. from Harrar, by the last day of 1902. 
Difficulties arose over the continuation of the railway to
Adis Ababa and beyond, and the proposed internationalization
of the line.  These difficulties, which hindered the work
of construction for years, were composed (so far as the
European Powers interested were concerned) in 1906.  By the
terms of an Anglo-French-Italian agreement, signed in London
on the 13th of December of that year, it was decided that
the French company should fund the railway as far as Adis
Ababa, while railway construction west of that place should
be under British auspices, with the stipulation that any
railway connecting Italy's possessions on the Red Sea with
its Somaliland protectorate should be built under Italian
auspices.  A British, an Italian and an Abyssinian representative
were to be appointed to the board of the French company, and a
French director to the board of any British or Italian company
formed.  Absolute equality of treatment on the railway and
at Jibuti was guaranteed to the commerce of all the Powers.

Meanwhile the country slowly developed in parts and opened
out cautiously to European influences.  Most of the Powers
appointed representatives at Menelek's capital--the British
minister-plenipotentiary and consul-general, Lieut.-Colonel
Sir J. L. Harrington, having been appointed shortly after
the British mission in 1897.  In December 1903 an American
mission visited Adis Ababa, and a commercial treaty between
the United States and Abyssinia was signed.  A German
mission visited the country early in 1905 and also concluded
a treaty of commerce with the negus.  Later in the year a
German minister was appointed to the court of the emperor.

After 1897 British influence in Abyssinia, owing largely no
doubt to the conquest of the Sudan, the destruction of the
dervish power and the result of the Fashoda incident, was
sensibly on the increase.  Of the remaining powers France
occupied the most important position in the country.  Ras
Makonnen, the most capable and civilized of Menelek's probable
successors, died in March 1906, and Mangasha died later in
the same year; the question of the succession therefore
opened up the possibility that, in spite of recent civilizing
influences, Abyssinia might still relapse in the future
into its old state of conflict.  The Anglo-French-Italian
agreement of December 1906 contained provisions in view of
this contingency.  The preamble of the document declared
that it was the common interest of the three Powers ``to
maintain intact the integrity of Ethiopia,'' and Article
I. provided for their co-operation in maintaining ``the
political and territorial status quo in Ethiopia.'' Should,
however, the status quo be disturbed, the powers were to
concert to safeguard their special interests.  The terms
of the agreement were settled in July 1906, and its text
forthwith communicated to the negus.  After considerable
hesitation Menelek sent, early in December, a note to the
powers, in which, after thanking them for their intentions,
he stipulated that the agreement should not in any way limit
his own sovereign rights. In June 1908, by the nomination of
his grandson, Lij Yasu (b. 1896), as his heir, the emperor
endeavoured to end the rivalry between various princes
claiming the succession to the throne. (See MENELEK.) A
convention with Italy, concluded in the same year, settled
the frontier questions outstanding with that country. (G.*)

BIBLIOGRAPHY.--For general information see A. B. Wylde's
Modern Abyssinia (London, 1901), a volume giving the result
of many years' acquaintance with the country and people;
Voyage en Abyssinie . . . 1839-43, par une commission
scientifique, by Th. Lefebvre and others (6 vols. and atlas, 3
vols., Paris, 1845--54); Elisee Reclus, Nouvelle geographie
universelle, vol. x. chap. v. (Paris, 1885).  For latest
geographical and kindred information consult the Geographical
Journal (London), especially ``A Journey through Abyssinia,''
vol. xv. (1900), and ``Exploration in the Abai Basin,'' vol.
xxvii. (1906), both by H. Weld Blundell, and ``From the
Somali Coast through S. Ethiopia to the Sudan,'' vol. xx.
(1902), by C. Neumann; Antoine d'Abbadie, Geographie de
l'Ethiopie (Paris, 1890).  The British parliamentary paper
Africa, No. 13 (1904), is a report on the survey of the
S.E. frontier by Capt.  P. Maud, R.E., and contains a valuable
map.  For geology, &c., see W. T. Blanford, Observations
on the Geology and Zoology of Abyssinia (London, 1870); C.
Futterer, ``Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Jura in Ost-Afrika,''
Zeit. Deutsch.  Geol.  Gesell. xlix. p. 568 (1897); C.
A. Raisin, ``Rocks from Southern Abyssinia,'' Quart. 
Journ.  Geol.  Soc. vol. lix. pp. 292-306 (1903).

Among works by travellers describing the country are---James
Bruce's Travels to discover the Source of the Nile 1768-1773
(Edinburgh, 1813, 3rd ed., 8 vols.); The Highlands of
Aethiopia (3 vols., London, 1844), by Sir W. Cornwallis
Harris, dealing with the Danakil country, Harrar and
Shoa; Mansfield Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia; being notes
collected during three years' residence and travels (2nd
ed., London, 1868); Antoine d'Abbadie, Douze ans dans
La Haute Ethiopie (Paris, 1868); P. H. G. Powell-Cotton,
A Sporting Trip through Abyssinia (London, 1902); A.
Donaldson Smith, Through Unknown African Countries (London,
1897); M. S. Wellby, Twixt Sirdar and Menelik (London,
1901).  For history see -- A. M. H. J. Stokvis' Manuel
d'histoire, vol. i. pp. 439-46, and vol. ii. pp. lxxiv-v
(Leiden, 1888-89), which contains lists of the sovereigns
of Abyssinia, Shoa and Harrar, from the earliest times,
with brief notes.  Texts of treaties between Abyssinia and
the European Powers up to 1896 will be found in vol. i. of
Sir E. Hertslet's The Map of Africa by Treaty (London,
1896).  L. J. Morie's Histoire de l'Ethiopie: Tome ii,
``L'Abyssinie'' (Paris, 1904), is a comprehensive survey
(the views on modern affairs being coloured by a strong
anti-British bias). For more detailed historical study consult
C. Beccari's Notizia e Saggi di opere e documenti inediti
riguardanti la Storia di Etiopia durante i Secoli XVI.,
XVII. e XVIII. (Rome. 1903), a valuable guide to the period
indicated; E. Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien und Afrika
(Munich, 1895); The Portuguese Expedition to Abysinnia in
1541-1543 as narrated by Castanhoso (with the account of
Bermudez), translated and edited by R. S. Whiteway (London,
Hakluyt Society, 1902), which contains a bibliography; Futu
el-Habacha, a contemporary Arab chronicle of the wars of
Mahommed Gran, translated into French by Antoine d'Abbadie
and P. Paulitschke (Paris,1898); A Voyage to Abyssinia by
Father Jerome Lobo, from the French [by Samuel Johnson]
(London, 1735); Record of the Expedition to Abyssinia, 3
vols., an official history of the war of 1868, by Major T. J.
Holland and Capt.  H. Hosier (London, 1870); Hormuzd Rassam,
Narrative of the British Mission to Theodore [1865-1868]
(2 vols., London, 1869); Henry Blanc, A Narrative of
Captivity in Abyssinia (London, 1868 ), by one of Theodore's
prisoners; Sir Gerald H. Portal, My Mission to Abyssinia
(London, 1892), an account of the author's embassy to King
John in 1887; Count A. E. W. Gleichen, With the Mission to
Menelik, 1897 (London, 1898), containing the story of the
Rennell Rodd mission; R. P. Skinner, Abyssinia of To-Day
(London, 1906), a record of the first American mission to the
country; G. F. H. Berkeley, The Campaign of Adowa and the
Rise of Menelik (London, 1902).  Books dealing with missionary
enterprise are---Journal of a Three Years' Residence in
Abyssinia, by Bishop Samuel Gobat (London, 1834); J. L.
Krapf, Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours during
an 18 years' residence in Eastern Africa (London, 1860);
Cardinal G. Massaja, I miei Trentacinque anni di Missione
nell' Alta Etiopia (10 vols., Milan, 1886-1893).  Political
questions are referred to by T. Lennox Gilmour, Abyssinia:
the Ethiopian Railway and the Powers (London, 1906);
H. le Roux, Menelik et nous (Paris, 1901); Charles
Michel, La question d'Ethiopie (Paris, 1905). (F. R. C.)

1 Since Theodore's time Protestant missionary
work, except by natives, has been stopped.

2 Menelek means ``a second self.''

3 He was subsequently sent to school at Rugby, but
died in his nineteenth year, on the 14th of Nnvember
1879.  He was buried at St George's Chapel, Windsor.

4 A title variously translated.  A dejazmach (dejaj)
is a high official, ranking immediately belaw a ras,

5 The main object of this mission was to seek John's
assistance in evacuating the Egyptian garrisons in
the Sudan, which were threatened by the dervishes.

6/0 Ras Alula died February 1897, aged about 52. He had
raised himself by his military talents from being a groom and
private soldier to the position of generalissimo of the army.

7 Ras of Harrar, which province had been conquered
and occupied by Menelek in January 1887.

ABYSSINIAN CHURCH. As the chronicle of Axum relates,
Christianity was adopted in Abyssinia in the 4th century.
About A.D. 330 Frumentius was made first bishop of Ethiopia by
Athanasius, patriarch of Alexandria.  Cedrenus and Nicephorus
err in dating Abyssinian Christianity from Justinian, c.
542. From Frumentius to the present day, with one break, the
Metropolitan (Abuna) has always been appointed from Egypt,
and, oddly enough, he is always a foreigner.  Little is
known of church history down to the period of Jesuit rule,
which broke the connexion with Egypt from about 1500 to
1633.  But the Abyssinians rejected the council of Chalcedon,
and still remain monophysites.  Union with the Coptic Church
(q.v.) continued after the Arab conquest in Egypt.  Abu
Sallh records (12th century) that the patriarch used always to
send letters twice a year to the kings of Abyssinia and Nubia,
till Al Hakim stopped the practice.  Cyril, 67th patriarch,
sent Severus as bishop, with orders to put down polygamy
and to enforce observance of canonical consecration for all
churches.  These examples show the close relations of the two
churches in the Middle Ages.  But early in the 16th century
the church was brought under the influence of a Portuguese
mission.  In 1439, in the reign of Zara Yakub, a religious
discussion between an Abyssinian, Abba Giorgis, and a Frank
had led to the despatch of an embassy from Abyssinia to the
Vatican; but the initiative in the Roman Catholic missions
to Abyssinia was taken, not by Rome, but by Portugal, as an
incident in the struggle with the Mussulmans for the command
of the trade route to India by the Red Sea. In 1507 Matthew,
or Matheus, an Armenian, had been sent as Abyssinian envoy
to Portugal to ask aid against the Mussulmans, and in 1520
an embassy under Dom Rodrigo de Lima landed in Abyssinia. 
An interesting account of this mission, which remained
for several years, was written by Francisco Alvarez, the
chaplain.  Later, Ignatius Loyola wished to essay the task
of conversion, but was forbidden.  Instead, the pope sent
out Joao Nunez Barreto as patriarch of the East Indies,
with Andre de Oviedo as bishop; and from Goa envoys went to
Abyssinia, followed by Oviedo himself, to secure the king's
adherence to Rome.  After repeated failures some measure of
success was achieved, but not till 1604 did the king make
formal submission to the pope.  Then the people rebelled and
the king was slain.  Fresh Jesuit victories were followed
sooner or later by fresh revolt, and Roman rule hardly
triumphed when once for all it was overthrown.  In 1633 the
Jesuits were expelled and allegiance to Alexandria resumed.

There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely
resembling the Coptic.  After these, two main types of
architecture are found--one basilican, the other native.  The
cathedral at Axum is basilican, though the early basilicas
are nearly all in ruin -e.g. that at Adulis and that of
Martula Mariam in Gojam, rebuilt in the 16th century on
the ancient foundations. These examples show the influence
of those architects who, in the 6th century, built the
splendid basilicas at Sanaa and elsewhere in Arabia.  Of
native churches there are two forms---one square or oblong,
found in Tigre; the other circular, found in Amhara and
Shoa.  In both, the sanctuary is square and stands clear in the
centre.  An outer court, circular or rectangular, surrounds the
body of the church.  The square type may be due to basilican
influence, the circular is a mere adaptation of the native
hut: in both, the arrangements are obviously based on Jewish
tradition.  Church and outer court are usually thatched,
with wattled or mud-built walls adorned with rude frescoes. 
The altar is a board on four wooden pillars having upon
it a small slab (tabut) of alabaster, marble, or shittim
wood, which forms its essential part.  At Martula Mariam,
the wooden altar overlaid with gold had two slabs of solid
gold, one 500, the other 800 ounces in weight.  The ark kept
at Axum is described as 2 feet high, covered with gold and
gems.  The liturgy was celebrated on it in the king's palace
at Christmas, Epiphany, Easter and Feast of the Cross.

Generally the Abyssinians agree with the Copts in ritual and
practice.  The LXX. version was translated into Geez, the
literary language, which is used for all services, though hardly
understood.  Saints and angels are highly revered, if not adored,
but graven images are forbidden.  Fasts are long and rigid.
Confession and absolution, strictly enforced, give great power
to the priesthood.  The clergy must marry, but once only.
Pilgrimage to Jerusalem is a religious duty and covers many sins.

AUTHORITIES.--Tellez, Historia de Ethiopia (Coimbra,
1660); Alvarez, translated and edited for the Hakluyt Soc.
by Lord Stanley of Aderley, under the title Narrative
of the Portuguese Embassy to Abyssinia (London, 1881);
Ludolphus, History of Ethiopia (London, 1684, and other
works); T. Wright, Christianity of Arabia (London, 1855);
C. T. Beke, ``Christianity among the Gallas,'' Brit.  Mag.
(London, 1847); J. C. Hotten, Abyssinia Described (London,
1868); ``Abyssinian Church Architecture,'' Royal Inst. 
Brit.  Arch.  Transactions, 1869; Ibid. Journal, March
1897; Archaeologia, vol. xxxii.; J. A. de Graca Barreto,
Documenta historiam ecclesiae Habessinarum illustrantia
(Olivipone, 1879); E. F. Kromrei, Glaubenlehre und Gebrauche
der alteren Abessinischen Kirche (Leipzig, 1895); F. M. E.
Pereira, Vida do Abba Samuel (Lisbon, 1894); Idem, Vida do
Abba Daniel (Lisbon, 1897); Idem, Historia dos Martyres de
Nagran (Lisbon, 1899); Idem, Chronica de Susenyos (Lisbon,
text 1892, tr. and notes 1900); Idem, Martyrio de Abba Isaac
(Coimbra, 1909); Idem, Vida de S. Paulo de Thebas (Coimbra,
1904); Archdeacon Dowling, The Abyssinian Church, (London,
1909); and periodicals as under COPTIC CHURCH. (A. J. B.)

ACACIA, a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the family
Leguminosae and the sub-family Mimoseae.  The small flowers
are arranged in rounded or elongated clusters.  The leaves are
compound pinnate in general (see fig.).  In some instances,
however, more especially in the Australian species, the leaflets
are suppressed and the leaf-stalks become vertically flattened,
and serve the purpose of leaves. The vertical position protects
the structure from the intense sunlight, as with their
edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light
so fully as ordinary horizontally placed leaves.  There
are about 450 species of acacia widely scattered over the
warmer regions of the globe. They abound in Australia and
Africa.  Various species yield gum.  True gum-arabic is the
product of Acacia Senegal, abundant in both east and west
tropical Africa. Acacia arabica is the gum-arabic tree of
India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-arabic. 
An astringent medicine, called catechu (q.v.) or cutch,
is procured from several species, but more especially from
Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating
the solution so as to get an extract.  The bark of Acacia
arabica, under the name of babul or babool, is used
in Scinde for tanning. The bark of various Australian
species, known as wattles, is also very rich in tannin
and forms an important article of export. Such are Acacia
pycnantha, golden wattle, A. decurrens, tan wattle, and A.
dealbata, silver wattle.  The pods of Acacia nilotica,
under the name of neb-neb, and of other African species

Acacia Senegal, flowering branch, natural size (after A. Meyer
and Schumann).
From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik.

is rich in tannin and used by tanners.  The seeds of Acacia
niopo are roasted and used as snuff in South America.
Some species afford valuable timber; such are Acacia
melanoxylon, black wood of Australia, which attains a great
size; its wood is used for furniture, and takes a high
polish; and Acacia homalophylla (also Australian), myall
wood, which yields a fragrant timber, used for ornamental
purposes. Acacia formosa supplies the valuable Cuba timber
called sabicu. Acacia seyal is supposed to be the shittah
tree of the Bible, which supplied shittim-wood. Acacia
heterophylla, from Mauritius and Bourbon, and Acacia koa
from the Sandwich Islands are also good timber trees.  The
plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid
districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa.  These
sometimes represent branches which have become short, hard
and pungent, or sometimes leaf-stipules. Acacia armata is
the kangaroo-thorn of Australia, A. giraffae, the African
camelthorn.  In the Central American Acacia sphaerocephala
(bullthorn acacia) and A. spadicigera, the large thorn-like
stipules are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which feed on
a secretion of honey on the leaf-stalk and curious food-bodies
at the tips of the leaflets; in return they protect the
plant against leaf-cutting insects.  In common language the
term Acacia is often applied to species of the genus Robinia
(q.v.) which belongs also to the Leguminous family, but
is placed in a different section. Robinia Pseud-acacia,
or false acacia, is cultivated in the milder parts of
Britain, and forms a large tree, with beautiful pea-like
blossoms. The tree is sometimes called the locust tree.

ACADEMIES. The word ``academy'' is derived from ``the
olive grove of Academe, Plato's retirement,'' the birthplace
of the Academic school of philosophy (see under ACADEMY,
GREEK).  The schools of Athens after the model of the
Academy continued to flourish almost without a break for
nine centuries till they were abolished by a decree of
Justinian.  It was not without significance in tracing the
history of the word that Cicero gave the name to his villa near
Puteoli.  It was there that he entertained his cultured
friends and held the symposia which he afterwards elaborated in
Academic Questions and other philosophic and moral dialogues.

``Academy,'' in its modern acceptation, may be defined
as a society or corporate body having for its object the
cultivation and promotion of literature, of science and
of art, either severally or in combination, undertaken
for the pure love of these pursuits, with no interested
motive.  Modern academies, moreover, have, almost without
exception, some form of public recognition; they are either
founded or endowed, or subsidized, or at least patronized,
by the sovereign of the state.  The term ``academy'' is
very loosely used in modern times; and, in essentials, other
bodies with the title of ``society'' or ``college,'' or even
``school,'' often embody the same idea; we are only concerned
here, however, with those which, bearing the title of academy,
are of historical importance in their various spheres.

Early History.---The first academy, as thus defined,
though it might with equal justice claim to be the first
of universities, was the museum of Alexandria founded at
the beginning of the 3rd century B.C. by the first of
the Ptolemies.  There all the sciences then known were
pursued, and the most learned men of Greece and of the
East gathered beneath its spacious porticos.  Here, too,
was the nucleus of the famous library of Alexandria.

Passing over the state institute for the promotion of
science founded at Constantinople by Caesar Bardas in the
9th century, and the various academies established by the
Moors at Granada, at Corduba and as far east as Samarkand,
we come to the academy over which Alcuin presided, a branch
of the School of the Palace established by Charlemagne in
782. This academy was the prototype of the learned coteries
of Paris which Moliere afterwards satirized.  It took
all knowledge for its province; it included the learned
priest and the prince who could not write his own name,
and it sought to solve all problems by witty definitions.

The David of Alcuin's academy (such was the name that the
emperor assumed) found no successors or imitators, and the
tradition of an Oxford academy of Alfred the Great has been
proved to rest on a forgery.  The academy of arts founded
at Florence in 1270 by Brunetto Latini was short-lived and
has left no memories, and modern literary academies may
be said to trace their lineage in direct descent from the
troubadours of the early 14th century.  The first Floral
Games were held at Toulouse in May 1324, at the summons of a
gild of troubadours, who invited ``honourable lords, friends
and companions who possess the science whence spring joy,
pleasure, good sense, merit and politeness'' to assemble
in their garden of the ``gay science'' and recite their
works.  The prize, a golden violet, was awarded to Vidal
de Castelnaudary for a poem to the glory of the Virgin.  In
spite of the English invasion and other adversities the Floral
Games survived till, about the year 1500, their permanence
was secured by the munificent bequest of Clemence Isaure,
a rich lady of Toulouse.  In 1694 the Academie des Jeux
Floraux was constituted an academy by letters patent of
Louis XIV.; its statutes were reformed and the number Of
members raised to 36. Suppressed during the Revolution it was
revived in 1806, and still continues to award amaranths of
gold and sliver lilies, for which there is keen competition.

Provence led the way, but Italy of the Renaissance is the
soil in which academies most grew and flourished.  The
Accademia Pontaniana, to give it its subsequent title,
was founded at Florence in 1433 by Antonio Beccadelli of
Palermo and fostered by Laurentius Valla.  Far more famous
was the Accademia Platonica, founded c. 1442 by Cosimo
de' Medici, which numbered among its members Marsilio
Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Machiavelli and Angelo
Poliziano.  It was, as the name implies, chiefly occupied
with Plato, but it added to its objects the study of Dante
and the purification of the Italian language, and though
it lived for barely half a century, yet its influence as a
model for similar learned societies was great and lasting.

Modern Academies.--Academies have played an important part
in the revival of learning and in the birth of scientific
inquiry.  They mark an age of aristocracies when letters
were the distinction of the few and when science had not
been differentiated into distinct branches, each with its
own specialists. Their interest is mainly historical, and
it cannot be maintained that at the present day they have
much direct influence on the advancement of learning either
by way of research or of publication.  For example, the
standard dictionaries of France, Germany and England are
the work, not of academies, but of individual scholars, of
Littre, Grimm and Murray.  Matthew Arnold's plea for an
English academy of letters to save his countrymen from
the note of vulgarity and provinciality has met with no
response.  Academies have been supplanted, socially by the
modern club, and intellectually by societies devoted to
special branches of science.  Those that survive from the past
serve, like the Heralds' College, to set an official stamp
on literary and scientific merit.  The principal academies
of Europe, past and present, may be dealt with in various
classes, according to the subjects to which they are devoted.

I. SCIENTIFIC ACADEMIES Austria.---The Kaiserliche Akademie
der Wissenschaften at Vienna, originally projected by Leibnitz,
was founded by the emperor Ferdinand I. in 1846, and has two
classes---mathematics and natural science, and history and philology.

Belgium and the Netherlands.-A literary society was founded at
Brussels in 1769 by Count Cobenzl, the prime minister of Maria
Theresa, which after various changes of name and constitution
became in 1816 the Academie imperiale et royale des
sciences et belles-lettres, under the patronage of William
I. of the Netherlands.  It has devoted itself principally to
natural history and antiquities.  The Royal Institute of the
Low Countries was founded in 1808 by King Louis Bonaparte. 
It was replaced in 1851 by the Royal Academy of Sciences at
Amsterdam, to which in 1856 a literary section was added.

Denmark.---The Kongelige danske videnskabernes selskab
(Royal Academy of Sciences) at Copenhagen owes its origin
to Christian VI., who in 1742 invited six Danish numismatists
to arrange his cabinet of medals.  Historians and antiquaries
were called in to assist at the sittings, and the commission
developed into a sort of learned club.  The king took it
under his protection, enlarged its scope by the addition
of natural history, physics and mathematics, and in 1743
constituted it a royal academy with an endowment fund.

France.---The old Academie des sciences had the same
origin as the more celebrated Academie francaise. A
number of men of science had for some thirty years met
together, first at the house of P. Marsenne, then at that of
Montmort, a member of the Council of State, afterwards at
that of Melchisedec Thevenot, the learned traveller.  It
included Descartes, Gassendi, Blaise and Etienne Pascal. 
Hobbes, the author of Leviathan, was presented to it during
his visit to Paris in 1640.  Colbert conceived the idea of
giving an official status to this learned club. A number of
chemists, physicians, anatomists and eminent mathematicians,
among whom were Christian Huyghens and Bernard Frenicle
de Bessy (1605-1675), the author of a famous treatise on
magic squares, were chosen to form the nucleus of the new
society.  Pensions were granted by Louis XIV. to each of
the members, and a fund for instruments and experiment was
placed at their disposal.  They began their session on the
22nd of December 1666 in the Royal Library, meeting twice a
week--the mathematicians on Wednesdays, the physicists on
Saturdays.  Duhamel was appointed permanent secretary, a post
he owed more to his polished Latinity than to his scientific
attainments, all the proceedings of the society being recorded
in Latin, and C. A. Couplet was made treasurer.  At first the
academy was rather a laboratory and observatory than an academy
proper.  Experiments were undertaken in common and results
discussed.  Several foreign savants, in particular the
Danish astronomer Roemer, joined the society, attracted hy the
liberality of the Grand Monarque; and the German physician and
geometer Tschirnhausen and Sir Isaac Newton were made foreign
associates.  The death of Colbert, who was succeeded by
Louvois, exercised a disastrous effect on the fortunes of the
academy.  The labours of the academicians were diverted
from the pursuit of pure science to such works as the
construction of fountains and cascades at Versailles, and
the mathematicians were employed to calculate the odds of
the games of lansquenet and basset.  In 1699 the academy was
reconstituted by Louis Phelypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain,
under whose department as secretary of state the academies
came.  By its new constitution it consisted of twenty-five
members, ten honorary, men of high rank interested in
science, and fifteen pensionaries, who were the working
members.  Of these three were geometricians, three
astronomers, three mechanicians, three anatomists, and three
chemists.  Each of these three had two associates, and,
besides, each pensionary had the privilege of naming a
pupil.  There were eight foreign and four free associates. 
The officers were, a president and a vice-president, named by
the king from among the honorary members, and a secretary and
treasurer chosen from the pensionaries, who held office for
life.  Fontenelle, a man of wit, and rather a popularizer of
science than an original investigator, succeeded Duhamel as
secretary.  The constitution was purely aristocratical,
differing in that respect from that of the French Academy, in
which the principle of equality among the members was never
violated. Science was not yet strong enough to dispense with
the patronage of the great.  The two leading spirits of the
academy at this period were Clairault and Reaumur.  To trace
the subsequent fortunes of this academy would be to write
the history of the rise and progress of science in France. 
It has reckoned among its members Laplace, Buffon, Lagrange,
D'Alembert, Lavoisier, and Jussieu, the father of modern
botany.  On the 21st of December 1792 it met for the last time,
and it was suppressed with its sister academies by the act of
the Convention on the 8th of April 1793.  Some of its members
were guillotined, some were imprisoned, more were reduced to
poverty.  The aristocracy of talent was almost as much
detested and persecuted by the Revolution as that of rank.

In 1795 the Convention decided on founding an Institut
National which was to replace all the academies, and its first
class corresponded closely to the old academy of sciences. 
In 1816 the Academie des sciences was reconstituted as a
branch of the Institute.  The new academy has reckoned among
its members, besides many other brilliant men, Carnot the
engineer, the physicists Fresnel, Ampere, Arago, Blot, the
chemists Gay-Lussac and Thenard, the zoologists G. Cuvier
and the two Geoffroy Saint-Hilaires.  In France there were
also considerable academies in most of the large towns. 
Montpellier, for example, had a royal academy of sciences,
founded in 1706 by Louis XIV., on nearly the same footing as
that of Paris, of which, indeed, it was in some measure the
counterpart.  It was reconstituted in 1847, and organized under
three sections--medicine, science and letters.  Toulouse also
has an academy, founded in 1640, under the name of Soeiete
de lanternistes; and there were analogous institutions
at Nimes, Arles, Lyons, Dijon, Bordeaux and elsewhere.

Germany.---The Collegium Curiosum was a scientific society,
founded by J. C. Sturm, professor of mathematics and natural
philosophy in the university of Altorf, in Franconia, in 1672, on
the plan of the Accademia del Cimento. It originally consisted
of twenty members, and continued to flourish long after the
death of its founder.  The early labours of the society were
devoted to the repetition (under varied conditions) of the most
notable experiments of the day, or to the discussion of the
results.  Two volumes (1676-1685) of proceedings were published by
Sturm.  The former, Collegium Experimentale sive Curiosum,
begins with an account of the diving-bell, ``a new invention'';
next follow chapters on the camera obscura, the Torricellian
experiment, the air-pump, microscope, telescope, &c.

The Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, if judged
by the work it has produced, holds the first place in
Germany.  Its origin was the Societas Regia Scientiarum,
constituted in 1700 by Frederick I. on the comprehensive
plan of Leibnitz, who was its first president.  Hampered and
restricted under Frederick William I., it was reorganized
under Frederick II. on the French model furnished by
Maupertuis, and received its present constitution in
1812.  It is divided into two classes and four sections
--physical and mathematical, philosophical and historical.
Each section has a permanent secretary with a salary of 1200
marks, and each of the 50 regular members is paid 600 marks a
year.  Among the contributors to its transactions (first
volume published in 1710), to name only the dead, we
find Immanuel Bekker, Bockling, Bernoulli, F. Bopp, P.
Buttmann, Encke (of comet fame), L. Euler, the brothers
Grimm, the two Humboldts, Lachmann, Lagrange, Leibnitz, T.
Mommsen, J. Muller, G. Niebuhr, C. Ritter (the geographer),
Savigny and Zumpt. Frederick II. presented in 1768 A
Dissertation on Ennui. To the Berlin Academy we owe the
Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum, the Corpus Inscriptionum
Latinarum, and the Monumenta Germaniae Historica.

The Akademie der Wissenschaflen zu Mannheim was founded
by the elector Palatine in 1755.  Since 1780 it has
devoted itself specially to meteorology, and has published
valuable observations under the title of Ephemerides
Societatis Meteorologicae Theodoro-Palatinae.

The Bavarian Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen was
founded in 1759.  It is distinguished from other academies
by the part it has played in national education.  Maximilian
Joseph, the enlightened elector (afterwards king) of
Bavaria, induced the government to hand over to it the
organization and superintendence of public instruction,
and this work was carried out by Privy-councillor Jacobi,
the president of the academy.  In recent years the academy
has specially occupied itself with natural history.

The Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, at Erfurt,
which dates from 1754 and devotes itself to applied science,
and the Hessian academy of sciences at Giessen, which
publishes medical transactions, also deserve mention.

Great Britain and Ireland.--- In 1616 a scheme for founding
a royal academy was started by Edmund Bolton, an eminent
scholar and antiquary, who in his petition to King James I.,
which was supported by George Villiers, marquis of Buckingham,
proposed that the title of the academy should be ``King James,
his Academe or College of honour.'' A list of the proposed
original members is still extant, and includes the names of
George Chapman, Michael Drayton, Ben Jonson, John Selden,
Sir Kenelm Digby and Sir Henry Wotton.  The constitution is
of interest as reflecting the mind of the learned king.  The
academy was to consist of three classes,---tutelaries, who
were to be Knights of the Garter, auxiliaries, all noblemen
or ministers of state, and the essentials, ``called from out
of the most famous lay gentlemen of England, and either living
in the light of things, or without any title of profession
or art of life for lucre.'' Among other duties to be assigned
to this academy was the licensing of all books other than
theological.  The death of King James put an end to the
undertaking.  In 1635 a second attempt to found an academy
was made under the patronage of Charles I., with the title of
``Minerva's Museum,'' for the instruction of young noblemen
in the liberal arts and sciences, but the project was soon
dropped. (For the ``British Academy'' see III. below.) About
1645 the more ardent followers of Bacon used to meet, some
in London, some at Oxford, for the discussion of subjects
connected with experimental science.  This was the original of
the Royal Society (q.v.), which received its charter in 1662.

A society was formed in Dublin, similar to the Royal Society
in London, as early as 1683; but the distracted state of
the country proved unpropitious to the cultivation of
philosophy and literature.  The Royal Irish Academy grew
from a society established in Dublin about 1782 by a number
of gentlemen, most of whom belonged to the university.  They
held weekly meetings and read, in turn, essays on various
subjects.  They professed to unite the advancement of
science with the history of mankind and polite literature. 
The first volume of transactions appeared in 1788.

Hungary.--The Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia (Hungarian
Academy of Sciences) was founded in 1825 by Count Stephen
Szechenyi for the encouragement of the study of the
Hungarian Ianguage and the various sciences.  It has about
300 members and a fine building in Budapest containing a
picture gallery and housing various national collections.

Italy.--The Academia Secretorum Natarae was founded
at Naples in 1560 by Giambattista della Porta.  It arose
like the French Academy from a little club of friends
who met at della Porta's house and called themselves
the Otiosi. The condition of membership was to have
made some discovery in natural science.  Della Porta was
suspected of practising the black arts and summoned to
Rome to justify himself before the papal court.  He was
acquitted by Paul V., but commanded to close his academy.

The Accademia dei Lincei, to which della Porta was admitted
when at Rome, and of which he became the chief ornament,
had been founded in 1603 by Federigo Cesi, the marchese di
Monticelli.  Galileo and Colonna were among its earliest
members. Its device was a lynx with upturned eyes, tearing a
Cerberus with its claws.  As a monument the Lincei have left
the magnificent edition of Fernandez de Oviedo's Natural
History of Mexico (Rome, 1651, fol.), printed at the
expense of the founder and elaborately annotated by the
members.  This academy was resuscitated in 1870 under the
title of Reale Accademia dei Lincei, with a literary
as well as a scientific side, endowed in 1878 by King
Humbert; and in 1883 it received official recognition from
the Italian government, being lodged in the Corsini palace,
whose owner made over to it his library and collections.

The Accademia del Cimento was founded at Florence in 1657 by
Leopold de' Medici, brother of the grand duke Ferdinand II.,
at the instigation of Vincenzo Viviani, the geometrician. 
It was an academy of experiment, a deliberate protest against
the deductive science of the quadrivium.  Its founder left
it when he was made a cardinal, and it lasted only ten
years, but the grand folio published in Italian (afterwards
translated into Latin) in 1667 is a landmark in the history of
science.  It contains experiments on the pressure of the
air (Torricelli and Borelli were among its members), on
the incompressibility of water and on universal gravity.

Science in Italy is now represented by the Reale Accademia
delle Scienze (Royal Academy of Sciences), founded in 1757
as a private society, and incorporated under its present name
by royal warrant in 1783.  It consists of 40 full members,
who must be residents of Turin, 20 non-resident, and 20
foreign members.  It publishes a yearly volume of proceedings
and awards prizes to learned works.  There are, besides,
royal academies of science at Naples, Lucca and Palermo.

Portugal.--The Academia Real das Sciencias (Royal
Academy of Sciences) at Lisbon dates from 1779.  It was
reorganized in 1851 and since then has been chiefly occupied
in the publication of Portugaliae Monumenta Historica.

Russia.--The Academie Imperiale des sciences de
Saint-Petersbourg, Imperatorskaya Akademiya nauk, was projected
by Peter the Great.  The advice of Wolff and Leibnitz was
sought, and several learned foreigners were invited to become
members. Peter himself drew the plan, and signed it on the
10th of February 1724; but his sudden death delayed its
fulfilment.  On the 21st of December 1725, however, Catherine
I. established it according to his plan, and on the 27th
the society met for the first time.  On the 1st of August
1726, Catherine honoured the meeting with her presence, when
Professor G. B. Bilfinger, a German scientist, delivered an
oration upon the determination of magnetic variations and
longitude.  Shortly afterwards the empress settled a fund
of L. 4982 per annum for the support of the academy; and
15 eminent members were admitted and pensioned, under the
title of professors in the various branches of science and
literature.  The most distinguished of these were Nicholas and
Daniel Bernouilli, the two Delisles, Bilfinger, and Wolff.

During the short reign of Peter II. the salaries of members
were discontinued, and the academy neglected by the Court;
but it was again patronized by the empress Anne, who added a
seminary under the superintendence of the professors.  Both
institutions flourished for some time under the direction
of Baron Johann Albrecht Korin (1697--1766).  At the
accession of Elizabeth the original plan was enlarged and
improved; learned foreigners were drawn to St Petersburg;
and, what was considered a good omen for the literature of
Russia, two natives, Lomonosov and Rumovsky, men of genius
who had prosecuted their studies in foreign universities,
were enrolled among its members.  The annual income was
increased to L. 10,659, and sundry other advantages were
conferred upon the institution.  Catherine II. utilized
the academy for the advancement of national culture.  She
altered the court of directors greatly to the advantage
of the whole body, corrected many of its abuses, added to
its means, and infused a new vigour and spirit into its
researches.  By her recommendation the most intelligent
professors visited all the provinces of her vast dominions,
with most minute and ample instructions to investigate the
natural resources, conditions and requirements, and report
on the real state of the empire.  The result was that no
country at that time could boast, within so few years, such
a number of excellent official publications on its internal
state, its natural productions, its topography, geography and
history, and on the manners, customs and languages of the
different tribes that inhabited it, as came from the press
of this academy.  In its researches in Asiatic languages,
oriental customs and religions, it proved itself the worthy
rival of the Royal Asiatic Society in England.  The first
transactions, Commentarii Academiae Scientiarum Imperialis
Petropolitanae ad annum 1726, with a dedication to Peter
II., were published in 1728.  This was continued until
1747, when the transactions were called Novi Commentarii
Academiae, &c.; and in 1777, Acta Academiae Scientiarum
Imperialis Petropolitanae, with some alteration in the
arrangements and plan of the work.  The papers, hitherto
in Latin only, were now written indifferently in Latin or
in French, and a preface added, Partie Historique, which
contains an account of the society's meetings.  Of the
Commentaries, fourteen volumes were published: of the New
Commentaries (1750--1776) twenty.  Of the Acta Academiae
two volumes are printed every year.  In 1872 there was
published at St Petersburg in 2 vols., Tableau general des
matieres contenues dans les publieations de l'Academie
Imperiale des Sciences de St Petersbourg. The academy is
composed, as at first, of fifteen professors, besides the
president and director.  Each of the professors has a house
and an annual stipend of from L. 200 to L. 600.  Besides the
professors, there are four pensioned adjuncts, who are present
at the meetings of the society, and succeed to the first
vacancies. The buildings and apparatus of this academy are
on a vast scale. There is a fine library, of 36,000 books and
manuscripts; and an extensive museum, considerably augmented
by the collections made by Pallas, Gmelin, Guldenstadt
and other professors, during their expeditions through the
Russian empire.  The motto of the society is Paulatim.

Spain.---The Real Academia Espanola at Madrid (see
below) had a predecessor in the Academia Naturae curiosorum
(dating from 1657) modelled on that of Naples.  It was
reconstituted in 1847 after the model of the French academy.

Sweden.--The Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps Akademien owes
its institution to six persons of distinguished learning,
among whom was Linnaeus.  They met on the 2nd of June 1739,
and formed a private society, the Collegium Curiosorum;
and at the end of the year their first publication made
its appeamnce. As the meetings continued and the members
increased the society attracted the notice of the king; and
on the 31st of March 1741 it was incorporated as the Royal
Swedish Academy. Though under royal patronage and largely
endowed, it is, like the Royal Society in England, entirely
self-governed.  Each of the members resident at Stockholm
becomes in turn president, and continues in office for
three months.  The dissertations read at each meeting
are published in the Swedish language, quarterly, and
make an annual volume.  The first forty volumes, octavo,
completed in 1779, are called the Old Transactions.

United States of America.--The oldest scientific association
in the United States is the American Philosophical Society
Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge.  It owed
its origin to Benjamin Franklin, who in 1743 published ``A
Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British
Plantations in America,'' which was so favourably received
that in the same year the society was organized, with
Thomas Hopkinson (1709-1751) as president and Franklin as
secretary.  In 1769 it united with another scientific society
founded by Franklin, called the American Society Held at
Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge, and adopted its
present name, adding the descriptive phrase from the title
of the American Society, and elected Franklin president,
an office which he held until his death (1790).  The
American Philosophical Society is national in scope and is
exclusively scientific; its Transactions date from 1771, and
its Proceedings from 1838.  It has a hall in Philadelphia,
with meeting-rooms and a valuable library and collection
of interesting portraits and relics. David Rittenhouse was
its second and Thomas Jefferson was its third president. 
In 1786 John Hyacinth de Magellan, of London, presented a
fund, the income of which was to supply a gold medal for
the author of the most important discovery ``relating to
navigation, astronomy or natural philosophy (mere natural
history excepted).'' An annual general meeting is held.

The American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Boston), the
second oldest scientific organization in the United States,
was chartered in Massachusetts in 1780 by some of the most
prominent men of that time.  James Bowdoin was its first
president, John Adams its second.  The Academy published
Memoirs beginning in 1785, and Proceedings from 1846.  The
Rumford Premium awarded through it for the most ``important
discovery or useful improvement on Heat, or on Light'' is
the income of $5000 given to the Academy by Count Rumford.

The National Academy of Sciences (1863) was incorporated
by Congress with the object that it ``shall, whenever called
upon by any department of the Government, investigate,
examine, experiment and report upon any subject of science
or art.'' Its membership was first limited to 50; after
the amendment of the act of incorporation in 1870 the limit
was placed at 100; and in 1907 it was prescribed that the
resident membership should not exceed 150 in number, that
not more than 10 members be elected in any one year, and
that the number of foreign associates be restricted to 50.
The Academy is divided into six committees: mathematics
and astronomy; physics and engineering; chemistry;
geology and palaeontology; biology; and anthropology.  It
gives several gold medals for meritorious researches and
discoveries.  It publishes scientific monographs (at the
expense of the Federal Government).  Its presidents have been
Alexander D. Bache, Joseph Henry, Wm. B. Rogers, Othuiel C.
Marsh, Wolcott Gibbs, Alexander Agassiz and Ira Remsen.

The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia was organized in
1812.  It has a large library, very rich in natural history,
and its museum, with nearly half a million specimens, is
particularly strong in conchology and ornithology.  The
society has published Journals since 1817, and Proceedings
since 1841; it also has published the American Journal
of Conchology. The American Entomological Society (in
1859-1867 the EntomoIogical Society of Philadelphia, and
since 1876 part of this academy) has published Proceedings
since 1861, and the Entomological news (a monthly).

There are also other scientific organizations like the American
Association for the Advancement of Science (chartered in 1874,
as a continuation of the American Association of Geologists,
founded in 1840 and becoming in 1842 the American Association
of Geologists and Naturalists), which publishes its proceedings
annually; the American Geographical Society (1852), with
headquarters in New Ynrk: the National Geographic Society
(1888), with headquarters in Washington, D.C.; the Geological
Society of America (1888), the American Ornithologists' Union
(1883), the American Society of naturalists (1883), the
Botanical Society of America (1893), the American Academy of
Medicine (1876); and local academies of science, or of special
sciences, in many of the larger cities.  The Smithsonian
Institution at Washington is treated in a separate article.

has always been famous for its literary societies.  The
little town of Diest boasts that it possessed a society
of poets in 1302, and the Catherinists of Alost date from
1107.  It is at least certain that numerous Chambers
of Rhetoric (so academies were then called) existed in
the first years of the rule of the house of Burgundy.

France.---The French Academy (l'Academie Francaise) was
established by order of the king in the year 1635, but in its
original form existed four or five years earlier.  About the
year 1629 certain literary friends in Paris agreed to meet
informally each week at the house of Valentin Courart, the
king's secretary. The conversation turned mostly on literary
topics; and when one of the number had finished some literary
work, he read it to the rest, and they gave their opinions upon
it.  The fame of these meetings, though the members were
bound to secrecy, reached the ears of Cardinal Richelieu,
who promised his protection and offered to incorporate the
society by letters patent.  Nearly all the members would have
preferred the charms of privacy, but, considering the risk
they would run in incurring the cardinal's displeasure, and
that by the letter of the law all meetings of any sort were
prohibited, they expressed their gratitude for the high honour
the cardinal thought fit to confer on them, proceeded at once
to organize their body, settle their laws and constitution,
appoint officers and choose a name.  Letters patent were
granted by the king on the 29th of January 1635.  The officers
consisted of a director and a chancellor, chosen by lot, and
a permanent secretary, chosen by vote.  They elected also a
publisher, not a member of the body.  The director presided
at the meetings, being considered as primus inter pares.
The chancellor kept the seals and sealed all the official
documents of the academy.  The cardinal was ex officio
protector.  The meetings were held weekly as before.

The object for which the academy was founded, as set forth
in its statutes, was the purification of the French language.
``The principal function of the academy shall be to labour with
all care and diligence to give certain rules to our language,
and to render it pure, eloquent and capable of treating the
arts and sciences'' (Art. 24). They proposed ``to cleanse
the language from the impurities it has contracted in the
mouths of the common people, from the jargon of the lawyers,
from the misusages of ignorant courtiers, and the abuses of
the pulpit'' (Letter of Academy to Cardinal Richelieu) .

The number of members was fixed at forty.  The original
members formed a nucleus of eight, and it was not till 1639
that the full number was completed.  Their first undertaking
consisted of essays written by the members in rotation.  To
judge by the titles and specimens which have come down to
us, these possessed no special originality or merit, but
resembled the epideixeis of the Greek rhetoricians. 
Next, at the instance of Cardinal Richelieu, they undertook a
criticism of Corneille's Cid, the most popular work of the
day.  It was a rule of the academy that no work could be
criticized except at the author's request, and fear of
incurring the cardinal's displeasure wrung from Corneille
an unwilling consent.  The critique of the academy was
re-written several times before it met with the cardinal's
approbation.  After six months of elaboration, it was published
under the title, Sentiments de l'academie francaise sur le
Cid. This judgment did not satisfy Corneille, as a saying
attributed to him on the occasion shows. ``Horatius,'' he
said, referring to his last play, ``was condemned by the
Duumviri, but he was absolved by the people.'' But the crowning
labour of the academy, begun in 1639, was a dictionary of
the French language. By the twenty-sixth article of their
statutes, they were pledged to compose a dictionary, a
grammar, a treatise on rhetoric and one on poetry.  Jean
Chapelain, one of the original members and leading spirits of
the academy, pointed out that the dictionary would naturally
be the first of these works to be undertaken, and drew up
a plan of the work, which was to a great extent carried
out.  A catalogue was to be made of all the most approved
authors, prose and verse: these were to be distributed among
the members, and all approved words and phrases were to be
marked for incorporation in the dictionary.  For this they
resolved themselves into two committees, which sat on other
than the regular days.  C. F. de Vaugelas was appointed editor
in chief.  To remunerate him for his labours, he received
from the cardinal a pension of 2000 francs.  The first
edition of this dictionary appeared in 1694, the sixth and
last in 1835, since when complements have been added.

This old Academie francaise perished with the other
prerevolutionary academies in 1793, and it has little
but the name in common with the present academy, a
section of the Institute. That Jean Baptiste Suard,
the first perpetual secretary of the new, had been a
member of the old academy, is the one connecting link.

The chronicles of the Institute down to the end of 1895
have been given in full by the count de Franqueville in Le
premier siecle de l'Institut de France, and from it we
extract a few leading facts and dates.  Before the Revolution
there were in existence the following institutions--(1)
the Academie de poesie et de musique, founded by
Charles IX. in 1570 at the instigation of Baif, which
counted among its members Ronsard and most of the Pleiade;
(2) the Academie des inscriptions et medailles, founded
in 1701; (3) the Academie des inscriptions et belles
lettres; (4) the old Academie des sciences; (5) the
Academie de peinture et de sculpture, a school as
well as an academy; (6) the Academie d'architecture.

The object of the Convention in 1795 was to rebuild all the
institutions that the Revolution had shattered and to combine
them in an organic whole; in the words of the preamble:--``
Il y a pour toute la Republique un Institut national charge
de recueiller les deconvertes, de perfectionner les arts
et les sciences.'' As Renan has remarked, the Institute
embodied two ideas, one disputable, the other of undisputed
truth--that science and art are a state concern, and that
there is a solidarity between all branches of knowledge and
human activities.  The Institute was at first composed of
184 members resident in Paris and an equal number living
in other parts of France, with 24 foreign members, divided
into three classes, (1) physical and mathematical science,
(2) moral and political science, (3) literature and the fine
arts.  It held its first sitting on the 4th of April
1796.  Napoleon as first consul suppressed the second class,
as subversive of government, and reconstituted the other
classes as follows: (1) as before, (2) French language and
literature, (3) ancient history and literature, (4) fine
arts.  The class of moral and political science was restored
on the proposal of M. Guizot in 1832, and the present
Institute consists of the five classes named above.  Each
class or academy has its own special jurisdiction and work,
with special funds; but there is a general fund and a common
library, which, with other common affairs, are managed by a
committee of the Institute---two chosen from each academy,
with the secretaries.  Each member of the Institute receives
an annual allowance of 1200 francs, and the secretaries
of the different academies have a salary of 6000 francs.

The class of the Institute which deals with the language and
literature takes precedence, and is known as the Academie
francaise. There was at first no perpetual secretary, each
secretary of sections presiding in turn.  Shortly afterwards
J. B. Suard was elected to the post, and ever since the history
of the academy has been determined by the reigns of its
successive perpetual secretaries.  The secretary, to borrow
an epigram of Sainte-Beuve, both reigns and governs. 
There have been in order: Suard (13 years), Francois Juste
Raynouard (9 years), Louis Simon Auger, Francois Andrieux,
Arnault, Villemain (34 years), Henri Joseph Patin, Charles
Camille Doucet (19 years), Gaston Boissier.  Under Raynouard
the academy ran a tilt against the abbe Delille and his
followers.  Under Auger it did battle with romanticism, ``a
new literary schism.'' Auger did not live to see the election
of Lamartine in 1829, and it needed ten more years for Victor
Hugo after many vain assaults to enter by the breach.  The
academy is professedly non-political. It accepted and even
welcomed in succession the empire, the restoration and the
reign of Louis Phillppe, and it tolerated the republic of
1848; but to the second empire it offered a passive resistance,
and no politician of the second empire, whatever his gifts as
an orator or a writer, obtained an armchair. The one seeming
exception, Emile Ollivier, confirms the rule. He was elected
on the eve of the Franco-German war, but his discours de
reception, a eulogy of the emperor, was deferred and never
delivered.  The Institute appears in the annual budget for a
grant of about 700,000 fr.  It has also large vested funds in
property, including the magnificent estate and library of
Chantilly bequeathed to it by the duc d'Aumale.  It awards
various prizes, of which the most considerable are the Montyon
prizes, each of 20,000 fr., one for the poor Frenchman who
has performed the most virtuous action during the year,
and one for the French author who has published the book
of most service to morality.  The conditions are liberally
interpreted; the first prize is divided among a number of
the deserving poor, and the second has been assigned for
lexicons to Moliere, Corneille and Madame de Sevigne.

One alteration in the methods of the French Academy has
to be chronicled: in 1869 it became the custom to discuss
the claims of the candidates at a preliminary meeting of
the members. In 1880, on the instance of the philosopher
Caro, supported by A. Dumas fils, and by the aged
Desire Nisard, it was decided to abandon this method.

A point of considerable interest is the degree in which,
since its foundation, the French Academy has or has not
represented the best literary life of France.  It appears
from an examination of the lists of members that a surprising
number of authors of the highest excellence have, from
one cause or another, escaped the honour of academic
``immortality.'' When the academy was founded in 1634, the
moment was not a very brilliant one in French letters. 
Among the forty original members we find only ten who are
remembered in literary history; of these four may reasonably
be considered famous still--Balzac, Chapelain, Racan and
Voiture.  In that generation Scarron was never one of the
forty, nor do the names of Descartes, Malebranche or Pascal
occur; Descartes lived in Holland, Scarron was paralytic,
Pascal was best known as a mathematician--(his Lettres
provinciales was published anonymously)---and when his fame
was rising he retired to Port Royal, where he lived the
life of a recluse.  The duc de la Rochefoucauld declined the
honour from a proud modesty, and Rotrou died too soon to be
elected.  The one astounding omission of the 17th century,
however, is the name of Moliere, who was excluded by his
profession as an actor.1 On the other hand, the French Academy
was never more thoroughly representative of letters than
when Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Racine, and Quinault
were all members. Of the great theologians of that and the
subsequent age, the Academy contained Bossuet, Flechier,
Fenelon, and Massillon, but not Bourdaloue.  La Bruyere
and Fontenelle were among the forty, but not Saint-Simon,
whose claims as a man of letters were unknown to his
contemporaries.  Early in the 18th century almost every
literary personage of eminence found his place naturally in the
Academy.  The only exceptions of importance were Vauvenargues,
who died too early for the honour, and two men of genius but
of dubious social position, Le Sage and the abbe Prevost
d'Exiles.  The approach of the Revolution affected gravely
the personnel of the Academy.  Montesquieu and Voltaire
belonged to it, but not Rousseau or Beaumarchais. Of the
Encyclopaedists, the French Academy opened its doors to
D'Alembert, Condorcet, Volney, Marmontel and La Harpe, but
not to Diderot, Rollin, Condillac, Helvetius or the Baron
d'Holbach.  Apparently the claims of Turgot and of Quesnay
did not appear to the Academy sufficient, since neither was
elected.  In the transitional period, when the social life
of Paris was distracted and the French Academy provisionally
closed, neither Andre Chenier nor Benjamin Constant nor
Joseph de Maistre became a member.  In the early years of the
19th century considerations of various kinds excluded from
the ranks of the forty the dissimilar names of Lamennais,
Prudhon, Comte and Beranger.  Critics of the French
Academy are fond of pointing out that neither Stendhal, nor
Balzac, nor Theophile Gautier, nor Flaubert, nor Zola
penetrated into the Mazarine Palace. It is not so often
remembered that writers so academic as Thierry and Michelet
and Quinet suffered the same exclusion.  In later times
neither Alphonse Daudet nor Edmond de Goncourt, neither Guy
de Maupassant nor Ferdinand Fabre, has been among the forty
immortals.  The non-election, after a long life of distinction,
of the scholar Fustel de Coulanges is less easy to account
for.  Verlaine, although a poet of genius, was of the
kind that no academy can ever be expected to recognize.

Concerning the influence of the French Academy on the
language and literature, the most opposite opinions have been
advanced.  On the one hand, it has been asserted that it
has corrected the judgment, purified the taste and formed
the language of French writers, and that to it we owe the
most striking characteristics of French literature, its
purity, delicacy and flexibility.  Thus Matthew Arnold,
in his Essay on the Literary Influence of Academies, has
pronounced a glowing panegyric on the French Academy as a
high court of letters, and a rallying-point for educated
opinion, as asserting the authority of a master in matters
of tone and taste.  To it he attributes in a great measure
that thoroughness, that openness of mind, that absence of
vulgarity which he finds everywhere in French literature;
and to the want of a similar institution in England he traces
that eccentricity, that provincial spirit, that coarseness
which, as he thinks, are barely compensated by English
genius.  Thus, too, Renan, one of its most distinguished
members, says that it is owing to the academy ``qu'on peut
tout dire sans appareil scholastique avec la langue des gens
du monde.'' ``Ah ne dites,'' he exclaims, ``qu'ils n'ont
rien fait, ces obscures beaux esprits dont la vie se passe
a instruire le proces des mots, a peser les syllables.
Ils ont fait un chef-d'oeuvre--la langue francaise.'' On the
other hand, its inherent defects have been well summed up by
P. Lanfrey in his Histoire de Napoleon: ``This institution
had never shown itself the enemy of despotism: Founded by
the monarchy and for the monarchy, eminently favourable to
the spirit of intrigue and favouritism, incapable of any
sustained or combined labour, a stranger to those great
works.pursued in common which legitimize and glorify the
existence of scientific bodies, occupied exclusively with
learned trifles, fatal to emulation, which it pretends to
stimulate, by the compromises and calculations to which it
subjects it, directed in everything by petty considerations,
and wasting all its energy in childish tournaments, in which
the flatteries that it showers on others are only a foretaste
of the compliments it expects in return for itself, the
French Academy seems to have received from its founders the
special mission to transform genius into bel esprit, and
it would be hard to introduce a man of talent whom it has
not demoralized. Drawn in spite of itself towards politics,
it alternately pursues and avoids them; but it is specially
attracted by the gossip of politics, and whenever it has
so far emancipated itself as to go into opposition, it does
so as the champion of ancient prejudices. If we examine its
influence on the national genius, we shall see that it has
given it a flexibility, a brilliance, a polish, which it never
possessed before; but it has done so at the expense of its
masculine qualities, its originality, its spontaneity, its vigour,
its natural grace.  It has disciplined it, but it has
emasculated. impoverished and rigidified it.  It sees in
taste, not a sense of the beautiful, but a certain type
of correctness, an elegant form of mediocrity.  It has
substituted pomp for grandeur, school routine for individual
inspiration, elaborateness for simplicity, fadeur and the
monotony of literary orthodoxy for variety, the source and
spring of intellectual life; and in the works produced under
its auspices we discover the rhetorician and the writer,
never the man.  By all its traditions the academy was made
to be the natural ornament of a monarchical society. 
Richelieu conceived and created it as a sort of superior
centralization applied to intellect, as a high literary
court to maintain intellectual unity and protest against
innovation.  Bonaparte, aware of all this, had thought of
re-establishing its ancient privileges; but it had in his eyes
one fatal defect--esprit. Kings of France could condone a
witticism even against themselves, a parvenu could not.''

On the whole the influence of the French Academy has been
conservative rather than creative.  It has done much by its
example for style, but its attempts to impose its laws on
language have, from the nature of the case, failed.  For,
however perfectly a dictionary or a grammar may represent
the existing language of a nation, an original genius is
certain to arise---a Victor Hugo or an Alfred de Musset--who
will set at defiance all dictionaries and academic rules.

Germany.---Of the German literary academies the most celebrated
was Die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (the Fruitful Society),
established at Weimar in 1617.  Five princes were among the
original members.  The object was to purify the mother tongue.
The German academies copied those of Italy in their quaint
titles and petty ceremonials, and exercised little permanent
influence on the language or literature of the country.

Italy.---Italy in the 16th century was remarkable for
the number of its literary academies.  Tiraboschi, in
his History of Italian Literature, has given a list of
171; and Jarkius, in his Specimen Historiae Academiarum
Conditarum, enumerates nearly 700. Many of these, with a
sort of Socratic irony, gave themselves ludicrous names, or
names expressive of ignorance. Such were the Lunatici of
Naples, the Estravaganti, the Fulminales, the Trapessati,
the Drowsy, the Sleepers, the Anxious, the Confused,
the Unstable, the Fantastic, the Transformed, the
Ethereal. ``The first academies of Italy chiefly directed
their attention to classical literature; they compared
manuscripts; they suggested new readings or new interpretations;
they deciphered inscriptions or coins, they sat in judgment
on a Latin ode or debated the propriety of a phrase.  Their
own poetry had, perhaps, never been neglected; but it was not
till the writings of Bembo furnished a new code of criticism
in the Italian language that they began to study it with the
same minuteness as modern Latin.'' ``They were encouragers
of a numismatic and lapidary erudition, elegant in itself,
and throwing for ever little specks of light on the still
ocean of the past, but not very favourable to comprehensive
observation, and tending to bestow on an unprofitable pedantry
the honours of real learning.'' s The Italian nobility,
excluded as they mostly were from politics, and living in
cities, found in literature a consolation and a career.
Such academies were oligarchical in their constitution; they
encouraged culture, but tended to hamper genius and extinguish
originality.  Far the most celebrated was the Accademia
della Crusca or Furfuratorum; that is, of bran, or of
the sifted, founded in 1582.  The title was borrowed from a
previous society at Perugia, the Accademia degli Scossi,
of the well-shaken. Its device was a sieve; its motto, ``Il
piu bel fior ne coglie'' (it collects the finest flower); its
principal object the purification of the language.  Its great
work was the Vocabulario della Crusca, printed at Venice in
1612.  It was composed avowedly on Tuscan principles, and
regarded the 14th century as the Augustan period of the
language.  Paul Beni assailed it in his Anti-Crusca, and
this exclusive Tuscan purism has disappeared in subsequent
editions.  The Accademia della Crusca is now incorporated
with two older societies--the Accademia degli Apatici
(the Impartials) and the Accademia Florentina.

Among the numerous other literary academies of Italy we may
mention the academy of Naples, founded about 1440 by Alphonso,
the king; the Academy of Florence, founded 1540, to illustrate
and perfect the Tuscan tongue, especially by the close study of
Petrarch; the Intronati of Siena, 1525; the Infiammati of
Padua, 1534; the Rozzi of Siena, suppressed by Cosimo, 1568.

The Academy of Humorists arose from a casual meeting of
witty noblemen at the marriage of Lorenzo Marcini, a Roman
gentleman.  It was carnival time, and to give the ladies some
diversion they recited verses, sonnets and speeches, first
impromptus and afterwards set compositions.  This gave them
the name, Beni Humori, which, after they resolved to form
an academy of belles lettres, they changed to Humoristi.

In 1690 the Accademia degli Arcadi was founded at Rome, for
the purpose of reviving the study of poetry, by Crescimbeni,
the author of a history of Italian poetry.  Among its members
were princes, cardinals and other ecclesiastics; and, to
avoid disputes about pre-eminence, all came to its meetings
masked and dressed like Arcadian shepherds.  Within ten years
from its establishment the number of academicians was 600.

The Royal Academy of Savoy dates from 1719, and was made a royal
academy by Charles Albert in 1848.  Its emblem is a gold orange
tree full of flowers and fruit; its motto ``Flores fructusque
oerennes,'' the same as that of the famous Florimentane Academy,
founded at Annecy by St Francis de Sales.  It has published
valuable memoirs on the history and antiquities of Savoy.

Spain.--The Real Academia Espanola at Madrid held its
first meeting in July 1713, in the palace of its founder, the
duke d'Fscalona.  It consisted at first of 8 academicians,
including the duke; to which number 14 others were afterwards
added, the founder being chosen president or director. 
In 1714 the king granted them the royal confirmation and
protection.  Their device is a crucible in the middle of the
fire, with this motto, Limpia, fixa, y da esplendor--``It
purifies, fixes, and gives brightness.'' The number of its
members was limited to 24; the duke d'Escalona was chosen
director for life, but his successors were elected yearly, and
the secretary for life.  Their object, as marked out by the
royal declaration, was to cultivate and improve the national
language.  They were to begin with choosing carefully such
words and phrases as have been used by the best Spanish writers;
noting the low, barbarous or obsolete ones; and composing a
dictionary wherein these might be distinguished from the former.

Sweden.--The Svenska Akademien was founded in 1786, for the
purpose of purifying and perfecting the Swedish language. A medal
is struck by its direction every year in honour of some illustrious
Swede.  This academy does not publish its transactions.

Academie des inscriptions et belles-lettres (or ``Petite
Academie,'' founded in 1663) was an offshoot of the French
Academy, which then at least contained the elite of French
learning.  Louis XIV. was of all French kings the one most
occupied with his own aggrandisement.  Literature, and even
science, he only encouraged so far as they redounded to his
own glory.  Nor were literary men inclined to assert their
independence.  Boileau well represented the spirit of the age
when, in dedicating his tragedy Berenice to Colbert, he
wrote: ``The least things become important if in any degree
they can serve the glory and pleasure of the king.'' Thus it
was that the Academy of Inscriptions arose.  At the suggestion
of Colbert a company (a committee we should now call it) had
been appointed by the king, chosen from the French Academy,
charged with the office of furnishing inscriptions, devices
and legends for medals.  It consisted of four academicians:
Chapelain, then considered the poet laureate of France, one
of the authors of the critique on the Cid; the abbe Amable
de Bourzeis (1606-1671); Francois Charpentier (1620-1702),
an antiquary of high repute among his contemporaries; and
the abbe Jacques de Cassagnes (1636-1679), who owed his
appointment more to the fulsome flattery of his odes than
to his really learned translations of Cicero and Sallust. 
This company used to meet in Colbert's library in the winter,
at his country-house at Sceaux in the summer, generally on
Wednesdays, to serve the convenience of the minister, who was
always present.  Their meetings were principally occupied with
discussing the inscriptions, statues and pictures intended for
the decoration of Versailles; but Colbert, a really learned
man and an enthusiastic collector of manuscripts, was often
pleased to converse with them on matters of art, history and
antiquities.  Their first published work was a collection of
engravings, accompanied by descriptions, designed for some
of the tapestries at Versailles.  Louvois, who succeeded
Colbert as a superintendent of buildings, revived the
company, which had begun to relax its labours.  Felibien,
the learned architect, and the two great poets Racine and
Boileau, were added to their number.  A series of medals
was commenced, entitled Medailles de la Grande Histoire,
or, in other words, the history of the Grand Monarque.

But it was to M. de Pontchartrain, comptroller-general of
finance and secretary of state, that the academy owed its
institution.  He added to the company Renaudot and Jacques
Tourreil, both men of vast learning, the latter tutor to his
son, and put at its head his nephew, the abbe Jean Paul
Bignou. librarian to the king.  By a new regulation, dated
the 16th of July 1701, the Academie royale des inscriptions
et medailles was instituted, being composed of ten honorary
members, ten pensioners, ten associates, and ten pupils.  Its
constitution was an almost exact copy of that of the Academy of
Sciences.  Among the regulations we find the following, which
indicates clearly the transition from a staff of learned
officials to a learned body: ``The academy shall concern
itself with all that can contribute to the perfection of
inscriptions and legends, of designs for such monuments and
decorations as may be submitted to its judgment; also with
the description of all artistic works, present and future,
and the historical explanation of the subject of such works;
and as the knowledge of Greek and Latin antiquities. and
of these two languages, is the best guarantee for success
in labours of this class, the academicians shall apply
themselves . to all that this division of learning includes,
as one of the most worthy objects of their pursuit.''

Among the first honorary members we find the indefatigable
Mabillon (excluded from the pensioners by reason of his orders),
Pere La Chaise, the king's confessor, and Cardinal Rohan;
among the associates Fontenelle and Rollin, whose Ancient
History was submitted to the academy for revision.  In 1711
they completed L'Histoire metallique du roi, of which
Saint-Simon was asked to write the preface.  In 1716 the regent
changed its title to that of the Academie des inscriptions et
belleslettres, a title which better suited its new character.

In the great battle between the Ancients and the Moderns
which divided the learned world in the first half of the 18th
century, the Academy of Inscriptions naturally espoused the
cause of the Ancients, as the Academy of Sciences did that of the
Moderns.  During the earlier years of the French Revolution
the academy continued its labours uninterruptedly; and on the
22nd of January 1793, the day after the death of Louis XVI,
we find in the Proceedinigs that M. Brequigny read a paper
on the projects of marriage between Queen Elizabeth and the
dukes of Anjou and Alencon.  In the same year were published
the 45th and 46th vols. of the Memoires de l'academie.
On the 2nd of August of the same year the last seance of
the old academy was held.  More fortunate than its sister
Academy of Sciences, it lost only three of its members by
the guillotine.  One of these was the astronomer Sylvain
Bailly.  Three others sat as members of the Convention;
but for the honour of the academy, it should be added
that all three were distinguished by their moderation.

In the first draft of the new Institute, October 25, 1795, no
class corresponded exactly to the old Academy of Inscriptions;
but most of the members who survived found themselves re-elected
either in the class of moral and political science, under
which history and geography were included as sections, or
more generally under the class of literature and fine arts,
which embraced ancient languages, antiquities and monuments.

In 1816 the academy received again its old name.  The Proceedings
of the society embrace a vast field, and are of very various
merits.  Perhaps the subjects on which it has shown most
originality are comparative mythology, the history of science
among the ancients, and the geography and antiquities of
France.  The old academy has reckoned among its members De
Sacy the orientalist, Dansse de Villoison (1750-1805) the
philologist, Anquetil du Perron the traveller, Guillaume J.
de C. L. Sainte-Croix and du Theil the antiquaries, and Le
Beau, who has been named the last of the Romans.  The new
academy has inscribed on its lists the names of Champollion,
A. Remusat, Raynouard, Burnout and Augustin Thierry.

In consequence of the attention of several literary men in
Paris having been directed to Celtic antiquities, a Celtic
Academy was established in that city in 1805.  Its objects were,
first, the elucidation of the history, customs, antiquities,
manners and monuments of the Celts, particularly in France;
secondly, the etymology of all the European languages, by
the aid of the Celto-British, Welsh and Erse; and, thirdly,
researches relating to Druidism.  The attention of the members
was also particularly called to the history and settlements
of the Galatae in Asia. Lenoir, the keeper of the museum of
French monuments, was appointed president.  The academy still
exists as La societe nationale des antiquaires de France.

Great Britain.---The British Academy was the outcome of
a meeting of the principal European and American academies,
held at Wiesbaden in October 1899.  A scheme was drawn up
for an international association of the academies of the
world under the two sections of natural science and literary
science, but while the Royal Society adequately represented
England in science there was then no existing institution
that could claim to represent England in literature, and at
the first meeting of the federated academies this chair was
vacant.  A plan was proposed by Professor H. Sidgwick to add a
new section to the Royal Society, but after long deliberation
this was rejected by the president and council. The promoters
of the plan thereupon determined to form a separate society,
and invited certain persons to become the first members of a
new body, to be cailed ``The British Academy for the promotion
of historical, philosophical and philological studies.'' The
unincorporated body thus formed petitioned for a charter,
and on the 8th of August 1902 the royal charter was granted
and the by-laws were allowed by order in council. The objects
of the academy are therein defined--``the promotion of the
study of the moral and political sciences, including history,
philosophy, law, politics and economics, archaeology and
philology.'' The number of ordinary fellows (so all members
are entitled) is restricted to one hundred, and the academy
is governed by a president (the first being Lord Reay)
and a council of fifteen elected annually by the fellows.

Italy.--Under this class the Accademia Ercolanese (Academy
of Herculaneum) properly ranks.  It was established at
Naples about 1755, at which period a museum was formed of
the antiquities found at Herculaneum, Pompeii and other
places, by the marquis Tanucci, who was then minister of
state.  Its object was to explain the paintings, &c., discovered
at those places. For this purpose the members met every
fortnight, and at each meeting three paintings were submitted
to three academicians, who made their report at their next
sitting.  The first volume of their labours appeared in 1775,
and they have been continued under the title of Antichita di
Ercolano. They contain engravings of the principal paintings,
statues, bronzes, marble figures, medals, utensils, &c., with
explanations.  In the year 1807 an academy of history and
antiquities, on a new plan, was established at Naples by Joseph
Bonaparte.  The number of members was limited to forty, twenty
of whom were to be appointed by the king; and these twenty
were to present to him, for his choice, three names for each
of those needed to complete the full number. Eight thousand
ducats were to be annually allotted for the current expenses,
and two thousand for prizes to the authors of four works
which should be deemed by the academy most deserving of such a
reward.  A grand meeting was to be held every year, when
the prizes were to be distributed and analyses of the works
read.  The first meeting took place on the 25th of April
1807; but the subsequent changes in the political state
of Naples prevented the full and permanent establishment
of this institution.  In the same year an academy was
established at Florence for the illustration of Tuscan
antiquities, which published some volumes of memoirs.

defunct Academy of Surgery at Vienna was instituted in
1784 by the emperor Joseph II. under the direction of the
distinguished surgeon, Giovanni Alessandro Brambilla ( 1728-
1800) . For many years it did important work, and though closed
in 1848 was reconstituted by the emperor Francis Joseph in
1854.  In 1874 it ceased to exist; its functions had become
mainly military, and were transferred to newer schools.

France.---Academie de Medecine. Medicine is a science
which has always engaged the attention of the kings of
France. Charlemagne established a school of medicine in the
Louvre, and various societies have been founded, and privileges
granted to the faculty by his successors.  The Acadimie de
medecine succeeded to the old Academie royale de chirurgie
et societe royale de medecine. It was erected by a royal
ordinance, dated December 20, 1820. It was divided into three
sections--medicine, surgery and pharmacy.  In its constitution
it closely resembled the Academie des sciences. Its
function was to preserve or propagate vaccine matter, and
answer inquiries addressed to it by the government on the
subject of epidemics, sanitary reform and public health
generally.  It has maintained an enormous correspondence in
all quarters of the globe and published extensive minutes.

Germany.--The Academia Naturae Curiosi, afterwards
called the Academia Caesaraea Leopoldina, was founded in
1662 by J. L. Bausch, a physician of Leipzig, who published
a general invitation to medical men to communicate all
extraordinary cases that occurred in the course of their
practice.  The works of the Naturae Curiosi were at first
published separately; but in 1770 a new arrangement was
planned for publishing a volume of observations annually. 
From some cause, however, the first volume did not make
its appearance until 1784, when it was published under the
title of Ephemerides. In 1687 the emperor Leopold took the
society under his protection, and its name was changed in his
honour.  This academy has no fixed abode, but follows the
home of its president.  Its library remains at Dresden. By its
constitution the Leopoldine Academy consists of a president,
two adjuncts or secretaries and unlimited colleagues or
members.  At their admission the last come under a twofold
obligation--first, to choose some subject for discussion out
of the animal, vegetable or mineral kingdoms, not previously
treated by any colleague of the academy; and, secondly, to apply
themselves to furnish materials for the annual Ephemerides.

V. ACADEMIES OF THE FINE ARTS France.---The Academie
royale de peinture et de sculpture at Paris was founded by
Louis XIV. in 1648, under the title of Academie royale des
beaux arts, to which was afterwards united the Academie
d'architecture, founded 1671.  It is composed of painters,
sculptors, architects, engravers and musical composers.
From among the members of the society who are painters,
is chosen the director of the French Academie des beaux
arts at Berne, also instituted by Louis XIV. in 1677.  The
director's province is to superintend the studies of the
painters, sculptors, &c., who, chosen by competition, are
sent to Italy at the expense of the government, to complete
their studies in that country. Most of the celebrated
French painters have begun their career in this way.

The Academie nationale de musique is the official and
administrative name given in France to the grand opera.  In
1570 the poet Baif established in his house a school of
music, at which ballets and masquerades were given.  In 1645
Mazarin brought from Italy a troupe of actors, and established
them in the rue du Petit Bourbon, where they gave Jules
Strozzi's Achille in Sciro, the first opera performed in
France.  After Moliere's death in 1673, his theatre in the
Palais Royal was given to Sulu, and there were performed
all Gluck's great operas; there Vestris danced, and there
was produced Jean Jacques Rousseau's Devin du Village.

Great Britain.--The Royal Academy of Arts in London, founded in
1768, is described in a separate article. (See ACADEMY, ROYAL.)

The Academy of Ancient Music was established in London in
1710, with the view of promoting the study and practice of
vocal and instrumental harmony.  This institution had a fine
musical library, and was aided by the performances of the
gentlemen of the Chapel Royal and the choir of St Paul's,
with the boys belonging to each, and continued to flourish
for many years.  About 1734 the academy became a seminary
for the instruction of youth in the principias of music
and the laws of harmony.  The Royal Academy of Music was
formed for the performance of operas, composed by Handel,
and conducted by him at the theatre in the Haymarket.  The
subscription amounted to L. 50,000, and the king, besides
subscribing L. 1000, allowed the society to assume the title
Royal.  It consisted of a governor, deputy-governor and twenty
directors.  A contest between Handel and Senesino, one of
the performers, in which the directors took the part of the
latter, occasioned the dissolution of the academy after it
had existed with honour for more than nine years.  The present
Royal Academy of Music dates from 1822, and was incorporated in
1830.  It instructs pupils of both sexes in music. (See
also the article CONSERVATOIRE for colleges of music. )

Italy.--In 1778 an academy of painting and sculpture was
established at Turin.  The meetings were held in the palace
of the king, who distributed prizes among the most successful
members.  In Milan an academy of architecture was established
so early as 1380, by Gian Galeazzo Visconti.  About the
middle of the 18th century an academy of the arts was
established there, after the example of those at Paris and
Rome.  The pupils were furnished with originals and models,
and prizes were distributed by competent judges annually. 
The prize for painting was a gold medal.  Before the effects
of the French Revolution reached Italy this was one of the
best establishments of the kind in that kingdom.  In the hall
of the academy were some admirable examples of Correggio,
as well as several statues of great merit, particularly a
small bust of Vitellins, and a torso of Agrippina, of most
exquisite beauty.  The academy of the arts, which had been
long established at Florence, fell into decay, but was
restored in the end of the 18th century.  In it there are halls
for nude and plaster figures, for the use of the sculptor
and the painter, with models of all the finest statues in
Italy.  But the treasures of this and the other institutions
for the fine arts were greatly diminished during the occupancy
of Italy by the French. The academy of the arts at Modena,
after being plundered by the French, dwindled into a petty
school for drawing from living models.  There is also an
academy of the fine arts in Mantua, and another at Venice.

Russia.--The academy of St Petersburg was established in
1757 by the empress Elizabeth, at the suggestion of Count
Shuvalov, and annexed to the academy of sciences.  The fund for
its support was L. 4000 per annum, and the foundation admitted
forty scholars.  Catherine II. formed it into a separate
institution, augumented the annual revenue to L. 12,000, and
increased the number of scholars to three hundred; she
built for it a large circular building, which fronts the
Neva.  The scholars are admitted at the age of six, and
continue until they have attained that of eighteen.  They
are clothed, fed and lodged at the expense of the crown;
and are instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, French,
German and drawing.  At the age of fourteen they are at
liberty to choose any of the following arts; first, painting
in all its branches, architecture, mosaic, enamelling,
&c.; second, engraving on copper-plates, sealcutting,
&c.; third, carving on wood, ivory and amber; fourth,
watch-making, turning, instrument-making, casting statues
in bronze and other metals, imitating gems and medals in
paste and other compositions, gilding and varnishing.  Prizes
are annually distributed, and from those who have obtained
four prizes, twelve are selected, who are sent abroad at
the charge of the crown.  A certain sum is paid to defray
their travelling expenses; and when they are settled in any
town, they receive during four years an annual salary of
L. 60.  The academy has a small gallery of paintings for
the use of the scholars; and those who have made great
progress are permitted to copy the pictures in the imperial
collection.  For the purpose of design, there are
full-size models of the best antique statues in Italy.

South America.---There are several small academies in the
various towns of South America, the only one of note being
that of Rio de Janeiro, founded by John VI. of Portugal in
1816 and now known as the Escola Nacional de Bellas Artes.

Spain.---In Madrid an academy for painting, sculpture and
architecture, the Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando,
was founded by Philip V. The minister for foreign affairs is
president.  Prizes are distributed every three years.  In Cadiz
a few students are supplied by government with the means of
drawing and modelling from figures; and such as are not able
to purchase the requisite instruments are provided with them.

Sweden.---An academy of the fine arts was founded at
Stockholm in the year 1733 by Count Tessin.  In its hall are
the ancient figures of plaster presented by Louis XIV. to
Charles XI. The works of the students are publicly exhibited,
and prizes are distributed annually.  Such of them as display
distinguished ability obtain pensions from government, to
enable them to reside in Italy for some years, for the purposes
of investigation and improvement.  In this academy there are
nine professors and generally about four hundred students.

Austria.--In the year 1705 an academy of painting,
sculpture and architecture was established at Vienna,
with the view of encouraging and promoting the fine arts.

United States of America.--In America the institution similar
to the Royal Academy of Arts in London is the National Academy
of Design (1826), which in 1906 absorbed the Society of American
Artists, the members of the society becoming members of the academy.

The volume of excerpts from the general catalogue of
books in the British Museum, ``Academies,'' 5 parts and
index, furnishes a complete bibliography. (F. S.)

1 The Academy has made the amende honorable by placing in the
Salle des seances a bust of Moliere, with the inscription
``Rienne manque a sa gloire, it manquait a la notre.''

2 Hallam's Int. to Lit. of Europe, vol. i. p. 654, and vol. ii. p. 502.

ACADEMY, GREEK or ACADEME (Gr. akademeia or
ekademia), the name given to the philosophic successors of
Plato.  The name is derived from a pleasure-garden or
gymnasium situated in the suburb of the Ceramicus on the
river Cephissus about a mile to the north-west of Athens
from the gate called Dipylum. It was said to have belonged
to the ancient Attic hero Academus, who, when the Dioscuri
invaded Attica to recover their sister Helen, carried off by
Theseus, revealed the place where she was hidden.  Out of
gratitude the Lacedaemonians, who reverenced the Dioscuri,
always spared the Academy during their invasions of the
country.  It was walled in by Hipparchus and was adorned
with walks, groves and fountains by Cimon (Plut. Cim.
13), who bequeathed it as a public pleasure-ground to
his fellow-citizens. Subsequently the garden became the
resort of Plato (q.v.), who had a small estate in the
neighbourhood.  Here he taught for nearly fifty years till
his death in 348 B.C., and his followers continued to
make it their headquarters.  It was closed for teaching by
Justinian in A.D. 529 along with the other pagan schools.
Cicero borrowed the name for his villa near Puteoll,
where he Composed his dialogue The Academic Questions.

The Platonic Academy (proper) lasted from the days of Plato
to those of Cicero, and during its whole course there is
traceable a distinct continuity of thought which justifies
its examination as a real intellectual unit.  On the
other hand, this continuity of thought is by no means an
identity.  The Platonic doctrine was so far modified in
the hands of successive scholarchs that the Academy has
been divided into either two, three or five main sections
(Sext.  Empir. Pyrrh.  Hyp. i. 220).  Finally,in the days
of Philo, Antiochus and Cicero, the metaphysical dogmatism
of Plato had been changed into an ethical syncretism which
combined elements from the Scepticism of Carneades and the
doctrines of the Stoics; it was a change from a dogmatism
which men found impossible to defend, to a probabilism
which afforded a retreat from Scepticism and intellectual
anarchy. Cicero represents at once the doctrine of the later
Academy and the general attitude of Roman society when he
says, ``My words do not proclaim the truth, like a Pythian
priestess; but I conjecture what is probable, like a plain
man; and where, I ask, am I to search for anything more than
verisimilitude?'' And again: ``The characteristic of the
Academy is never to interpose one's judgment, to approve what
seems most probable, to compare together different opinions,
to see what may be advanced on either side and to leave one's
listeners free to judge without pretending to dogmatize.''

The passage from Sextus Empiricus, cited above, gives the
general view that there were three academies: the first, or
Old, academy under Speusippus and Xenocrates; the second,
or Middle, academy under Arcesilaus and Polemon; the third,
or New, academy under Carneades and Clitomachus.  Sextus
notices also the theory that there was a fourth, that of Philo
of Larissa and Charmidas, and a fifth, that of Antiochus. 
Diogenes Laertius says that Lacydes was the founder of the
New Academy (i. 19, iv. 59). Cicero (de Orat. iii. 18, &c.)
and Varro insist that there were only two academies, the Old
and the New. Those who maintain that there is no justification
for the five-fold division hold that the agnosticism of
Carneades was really latent in Plato, and became prominent
owing to the necessity of refuting the Stoic criterion.

The general tendency of the Academic thinkers was towards
practical simplicity, a tendency due in large measure to
the inferior intellectual capacity of Plato's immediate
successors. Cicero (de Fin. v. 3) says generally of the
Old Academy: ``Their writings and method contain all liberal
learning, all history, all polite discourse; and besides they
embrace such a variety of arts, that no one can undertake any
noble career without their aid. . . . In a word the Academy
is, as it were, the workshop of every artist.'' It is true
that these men turned to scientific investigation, but in
so doing they escaped from the high altitudes in which Plato
thought, and tended to lay emphasis on the mundane side of
philosophy.  Of Plato's originality and speculative power,
of his poetry and enthusiasm they inherited nothing, ``nor
amid all the learning which has been profusely lavished upon
investigating their tenets is there a single deduction calculated
to elucidate distinctly the character of their progress or
regression'' (Archer Butler, Lect. on Anc. Phil. ii. 515).

The modification of Academic doctrine from Plato to
Cicero may be indicated briefly under four heads.

(1) Plato's own theory of Ideas was not accepted even by
Speusirinus and Xenocrates.  They argued that the Good cannot
be the origin of things, inasmuch as Goodness is only found
as an attribute of things.  Therefore, the idea of Good must
be secondary to some other more fundamental principle of
existence.  This unit Speusippus attempted to find in
the Pythagorean number-theory.  From it he deduced three
principles, one for numbers, one for magnitude, one for the
soul.  The Deity he conceived as that living force which
rules all and resides everywhere.  Xenocrates, though like
Speusippus infected with Pythagoreanism, was the most faithful
of Plato's successors.  He distinguished three spheres, the
sensible, the intelligible, and a third compounded of the
two, to which correspond respectively, sense, intellect and
opinion (doxa). Cicero notes, however, that both Speusippus
and Xenocrates abandon the Socratic principle of hesitancy.

(2) Up to Arcesilaus, the Academy accepted the principle of
finding a general unity in all things, by the aid of which a
principle of certainty might be found.  Arcesilaus, however,
broke new ground by attacking the very possibility of certainty.
Socrates had said, ``This alone I know, that I know nothing.''
But Arcesilaus went farther and denied the possibility of
even the Socratic minimum of certainty: ``I cannot know even
whether I know or not.'' Thus from the dogmatism of the master
the Academy plunged into the extremes of agnostic criticism.

(3) The next stage in the Academic succession was the moderate
scepticism of Carneades, which owed its existence to his
opposition to Chrysippus, the Stoic.  To the Stoical theory
of perception, the fantasia kataleptike, by which they
expressed a conviction of certainty arising from impressions
so strong as to amount to science, he opposed the doctrine
of acatalepsia, which denied any necessary correspondence
between perceptions and the objects perceived.  He saved
himself, however, from absolute scepticism by the doctrine
of probability or verisimilitude, which may serve as a
practical guide in life.  Thus his criterion of imagination
(fantasia) is that it must be credible, irrefutable and
attested by comparison with other impressions; it may be
wrong, but for the person concerned it is valid.  In ethics
he was an avowed sceptic.  During his official visit to Rome,
he gave public lectures, in which he successively proved
and disproved with equal ease the existence of justice.

(4) In the last period we find a tendency not only
to reconcile the internal divergences of the Academy
itself, but also to connect it with parallel growths of
thought.  Philo of Larissa endeavours to show that Carneades
was not opposed to Plato, and further that the apparent
antagonism between Plato and Zeno was due to the fact that
they were arguing from different points of view.  From this
syncretism emerged the prudent non-committal eclecticism
of Cicero, the last product of Academic development.

For detailed accounts of the Academicians see SPEUSIPPUS,
histories of philosophy by Zeller and Windelband, and Th.
Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, ii. 270 (Eng. tr., London, 1905).

ACADEMY, ROYAL. The Royal Academy of Arts in London, to
give it the original title in full, was founded in 1768,
``for the purpose of cultivating and improving the arts of
painting, sculpture and architecture.'' Many attempts had
previously been made in England to form a society which
should have for its object the advancement of the fine
arts.  Sir Jumes Thornbill, his son-in-law Hogarth, the
Dilettanti Society, made efforts in this direction, but their
schemes were wrecked by want of means.  Accident solved the
problem.  The crowds that attended an exhibition of pictures
held in 1758 at the Foundling Hospital for the benefit
of charity, suggested a way of making money hitherto
unsuspected.  Two societies were quickly formed, one
calling itself the ``Society of Artists'' and the other the
``Free Society of Artists.'' The latter ceased to exist in
1774.  The former flourished, and in 1765 was granted a royal
charter under the title of the ``Incorporated Society of
Artists of Great Britain.'' But though prosperous it was not
united.  A number of the members, including the most eminent
artists of the day, resigned in 1768, and headed by William
Chambers the architect, and Benjamin West, presented on
28th November in that year to George III., who had already
shown his interest in the fine arts, a memorial soliciting
his ``gracious assistance, patronage and protection,'' in
``establishing a society for promoting the arts of design.',
The memorialists stated that the two principal objects they
had in view were the establishing of ``a well-regulated
school or academy of design for the use of students in the
arts, and an annual exhibition open to all artists of
distinguished merit; the profit arising from the last of these
institutions'' would, they thought, ``fully answer all the
expenses of the first,'' and, indeed, leave something over
to be distributed ``in useful charities.'' The king expressed
his agreement with the proposal, but asked for further
particulars.  These were furnished to him on the 7th of
December and approved, and on the 10th of December they
were submitted in form, and the document embodying them
received his signature, with the words, ``I approve of this
plan; let it be put into execution.'' This document, known
as the ``Instrument,'' defined under twenty-seven heads the
constitution and government of the Royal Academy, and contained
the names of the thirty-six original members nominated by the
king.  Changes and modifications in the laws and regulations
laid down in it have of course been made, but none of them
without the sanction of the sovereign, and the ``Instrument''
remains to this day in all essential particulars the Magna
Charta of the society.  Four days after the signing of this
document--on the 14th of Decemben--twentyeight of the first
nominated members met and drew up the Form of Obligation
which is still signed by every academician on receiving his
diploma, and also elected a president, keeper, secretary,
council and visitors in the schools; the professors being chosen
at a further meeting held on the 17th.  No time was lost in
establishing the schools, and on the 2nd of January 1769 they
were opened at some rooms in Pall Mall, a little eastward of
the site now occupied by the Junior United Service Club, the
president, Sir Joshua Reynolds, delivering on that occasion the
first of his famous ``discourses.'' The opening of the first
exhibition at the same place followed on the 26th of April.

The king when founding the Academy undertook to supply out
of his own privy purse any deficiencies between the receipts
derived from the exhibitions and the expenditure incurred on
the schools, charitable donations for artists, &c. For twelve
years he was called upon to do so, and contributed in all
something over L. 5000, but in 1781 there was a surplus, and no
further call has ever been made on the royal purse.  George
III. also gave the Academy rooms in what was then his own
palace of Somerset House, and the schools and offices were
removed there in 1771, but the exhibition continued to be held
in Pall Mall, till the completion in 1780 of the new Somerset
House.  Then the Academy took possession of the apartments
in it which the king, on giving up the palace for government
offices, had expressly stipulated should be provided.  Here
it remained till 1837, when the government, requiring the use
of these rooms, offered in exchange a portion of the National
Gallery, then just erected in Trafalgar Square.  The offer,
which contained no conditions, was accepted.  But it was
not long before the necessity for a further removal became
imminent.  Already in 1850 notice was given by the government
that the rooms occupied by the Academy would be required for
the purposes of the National Gallery, and that they proposed
to give the academy L. 40,000 to provide themselves with a
building elsewhere.  The matter slumbered, however, till 1858,
when the question was raised in the house of Commons as to
whether it would not be justifiable to turn the Academy out
of the National Gallery without making any provision for it
elsewhere.  Much discussion followed, and a royal commission
was appointed in 1863 ``to inquire into the present position
of the Royal Academy in relation to the fine arts, and into
the circumstances and conditions under which it occupies
a portion of the National Gallery, &c.'' In their report,
which contained a large number of proposals and suggestions,
some of them since carried out, the commissioners stated
that they had ``come to the clear conclusion that the Royal
Academy have no legal, but that they have a moral claim to
apartments at the public expense.'' Negotiations had been
already going on between the government and the Academy for
the appropriation to the latter of a portion of the site
occupied by the recently purchased Burlington House, on which
the Academy offered to erect suitable buildings at its own
expense.  The negotiations were renewed in 1866, and in
March in the following year a lease of old Burlington
House, and a portion of the garden behind it, was granted
to the Academy for 999 years at a peppercorn rent, subject
to the condition that ``the premises shall be at all times
exclusively devoted to the purpose of the cultivation of
the fine arts.'' The Academy immediately proceeded to
erect, on the garden portion of the site thus acquired,
exhibition galleries and schools, which were opened in
1869, further additions being made in 1884.  An upper storey
was also added to old Burlington House, in which to place
the diploma works, the Gibson statuary and other works of
art.  Altogether the Academy, out of its accumulated savings,
has spent on these buildings more than L. 160,000.  They are
its own property, and are maintained entirely at its expense.

The government of the Academy was by the ``Instrument'' vested
in ``a president and eight other persons, who shall form
a council.'' Four of these were to retire every year, and
the seats were to go by rotation to every academician.  The
number was increased in 1870 to twelve, and reduced to ten
in 1875. The rules as to retirement and rotation are still in
force.  Newly elected academicians begin their two years'
service as soon as they have received their diploma.  The
council has, to quote the ``Instrument'', ``the entire
direction and management of the business'' of the Academy
in all its branches; and also the framing of new laws and
regulations, but the latter, before coming into force, must
be sanctioned by the general assembly and approved by the
sovereign.  The general assembly consists of the whole body of
academicians, and meets on certain fixed dates and at such
other times as the business may require; also at the request
to the president of any five members.  The principal executive
officers of the Academy are the president, the keeper, the
treasurer, the librarian and the secretary, all now elected
by the general assembly, subject to the approval of the
sovereign.  The president is elected annually on the foundation
day, 10th December, but the appointment is virtually for
life.  No change has ever been made in the conditions attached
to this office, with the exception of its being now a salaried
instead of an unsalaried post.  The treasurership and
librarianship, both offices originally held not by election but
by direct appointment from the sovereign, are now elective,
the holders being subject to re-election every five years,
and the keepership is also held upon the same terms; while
the secretaryship, which up to 1873 had always been filled
like the other offices by an academician, has since then
been held by a layman. Other officers elected by the general
assembly are the auditors (three academicians, one of whom
retires every year), the visitors in the schools (academicians
and associates), and the professors of painting, sculpture
and architecture---who must be members---and of anatomy and
chemistry.  There are also a registrar, and curators and
teachers in the schools, who are appointed by the council.

The thirty-six original academicians were named by George III.
Their successors have been elected, up to 1867, by academicians
only---since that date by academicians and associates together. 
The original number was fixed in the ``Instrument'' at forty,
and has so remained.  Each academician on his election has to
present an approved specimen of his work---called his diploma
work---before his diploma is submitted to the sovereign for
signature.  On receiving his diploma he signs the Roll of
Institution as an academician, and takes his seat in the general
assembly.  The class of associates, out of whom alone the
academicians can be elected, was founded in 1769---they were
``to be elected from amongst the exhibitors, and be entitled
to every advantage enjoyed by the royal academicians,
excepting that of having a voice in the deliberations or any
share in the government of the Academy.'' Those exhibitors
who wished to become candidates had to give in their names
at the close of the exhibition.  This condition no longer
exists, candidates having since 1867 merely to be proposed and
seconded by members of the Academy.  On election, they attend
at a council meeting to sign the Roll of Institution as an
associate, and receive a diploma signed by the president and
secretary.  In 1867 also associates were admitted to vote
at all elections of members; in 1868 they were made eligible
to serve as visitors in the schools, and in 1886 to become
candidates for the professorships of painting, sculpture and
architecture.  At first the number of associates was limited
to twenty; in 1866 the number was made indefinite with a
minimum of twenty, and in 1876 the minimum was raised to
thirty.  Vacancies in the lists of academicians and associates
caused by death or resignation can be filled up at any time
within five weeks of the event, except in the months of
August, September and October, but a vacancy in the associate
list caused by election only dates from the day on which
the new academician receives his diploma.  The mode of
election is the same in both cases, first by marked lists
and afterwards by ballot.  All who at the first marking have
four or more votes are marked for again, and the two highest
then go to the ballot.  Engravers have always constituted
a separate class, and up to 1855 they were admitted to the
associateship only, the number, six, being in addition to
the other associates; now the maximum is four, of whom not
more than two may be academicians.  A class of honorary
retired academicians was established in 1862, and of honorary
retired associates in 1884. The first honorary foreign
academicians were elected in 1869. The honorary members
consist of a chaplain, an antiquary, a secretary for foreign
correspondence, and professors of ancient history and ancient
literature.  These posts, which date from the foundation of
the Academy, have always been held by distinguished men.

Academy Schools.--One of the most important functions of the
Royal Academy, and one which for nearly a century it discharged
alone, was the instruction of students in art.  The first
act, as has been shown, of the newly founded Academy was to
establish schools ---``an Antique Academy,'' and a ``School
for the Living Model'' for painters, sculptors and architects. 
In the first year, 1769, no fewer than seventy-seven students
entered.  A school of painting was added in 1815, and special
schools of sculpture and architecture in 1871.  It would
occupy too much space to follow the various changes that
have been made in the schools since their establishment.  In
one important respect, however, they remain the same, viz.
in the instruction being gratuitous--no fees have ever been
charged.  Up to the removal of the Academy to its present
quarters the schools could not be kept permanently open, as
the rooms occupied by them were wanted for the exhibition. 
They are now open all the year round with the exception
of a fortnight at Christmas, and the months of August and
September.  They consist of an antique school, upper and
lower schools of painting, a school of drawing from the life,
a school of modelling from the life and an architectural
school. Admission is gained by submitting certain specimens
of drawing or modelling, and the successful candidates, called
probationers, have then to undergo a further test in the
schools, on passing which they are admitted as students
for three years.  At the end of that time they are again
examined, and if qualified admitted for a further term of two
years.  These examinations are held twice a year, in January
and July.  Female students were first admitted in 1860. 
There are many scholarships, money prizes and medals to be
gained by the various classes of students during the time of
studentship, including travelling studentships of the value
of L. 200 for one year, gold and silver medals, and prizes
varying from L. 50 to L. 10.  There are permanent curators and
teachers in all the schools, but the principal teaching is
done by the visitors, academicians and associates, elected
to serve in each school.  The average cost of maintaining
these schools, including salaries, fees, cost of models,
prizes, books, maintenance of building, &c., is from L. 5000 to
L. 6000 a year, apart from certain scholarships and prizes
derived from moneys given or bequeathed for this purpose,
such as the Landseer scholarships, the Creswick prize, the
Armitage prizes and the Turner scholarship and gold medal.

Charities. -- Another of the principal objects to which
the profits of the Royal Academy have been devoted has been
the relief of disiressed artists and their families.  From
the commencement of the institution a fund was set apart for
this purpose, and subsequently a further sum was allotted
to provide pensions for necessitous members of the Academy
and their widows.  Both these funds were afterwards merged
in the general fund, and various changes have from time to
time been made in the conditions under which pensions and
donations have been granted and in their amount.  At the
present time pensions not exceeding a certain fixed amount
may be given to academicians and associates, sixty years of
age, who have retired and whose circumstances show them to
be in need, provided the sum given does not make their total
annual income exceed a certain limit, and the same amounts
can be given to their widows subject to the same conditions. 
No pensions are granted without very strict inquiry into
the circumstances of the applicant, who is obliged to make
a yearly declaration as to his or her income.  The average
annual amount of these pensions has been latterly about
L. 2000.  Pensions are also given according to the civil
service scale to certain officers on retirement. lt may be
stated here that with the exception of these pensions and
of salaries and fees for official services, no member of the
Academy derives any pecuniary benefit from the funds of the
institution.  Donations to distressed artists who are or
have been exhibitors at the Royal Academy, their widows
and children under twenty-one years of age, are made twice
a year in February and August.  The maximum amount that
can be granted to any one applicant in one donation is
L. 100, and no one can receive a grant more than once a
year.  The average yearly amount thus expended is from
L. 1200 to L. 1500.  In addition to these charities from its
general funds, the Academy administers for the benefit of
artists, not members of the Academy, certain other funds
which have been bequeathed to it for charitable purposes,
viz. the Turner fund, the Cousins fund, the Cooke fund,
the Newton bequest and the Edwards fund (see below).

Exhibitions. -- The source from which have been derived
the funds for carrying on the varied work of the Royal
Academy, its schools, its charities and general cost of
administration, and which has enabled it to spend large sums
on building, and provided it with the means of maintaining
the buildings, has been the annual exhibitions. With the
exception of the money left by John Gibson, R.A., some
of which was spent in building the gallery containing the
statues and bas-reliefs bequeathed by him, these exhibitions
have provided the sole source of revenue, all other moneys
that have come to the Academy having been either left in
trust, or been constituted trusts, for certain specific
purposes.  The first exhibition in 1769 contained 136 works,
of which more than one-half were contributed by members, and
brought in L. 699: 17: 6. In 1780, the first year in which the
receipts exceeded the expenditure, the number of works was
489, of which nearly one-third were by members, and the sum
received was L. 3069: 1s. This increase continued gradually
with fluctuations, and in 1836, the last year at Somerset
House, the number of works was 1154, and the receipts were
L. 5179: 19s. No great addition to the number of works exhibited
took place at Trafalgar Square, but the receipts steadily
grew, and their careful management enabled the Academy, when
the time came for moving, to erect its own buildings and
become no longer dependent on the government for a home. 
The greater space afforded by the galleries at Burlington
House rendered it possible to increase the number of works
exhibited, which of late years has reached a total of over
2000, while the receipts have also been such as to provide
the means for further building, and for a largely increased
expenditure of all kinds.  It may be noted that the number
of works sent for exhibition soon began to exceed the space
available.  In 1868, the last year at Trafalgar Square, the
number sent was 3011.  This went on increasing, with occasional
fluctuations, at Burlington House, and in the year 1900 it
reached the number of 13,462.  The annual winter exhibition
of works by old masters and deceased British artists was
begun in 1870.  It was never intended to be a source of
revenue, but appreciation by the public has so far prevented
it from being a cause of loss.  The summer exhibition
of works by living artists opens on the first Monday in
May, and closes on the first Monday in August.  The winter
exhibition of works by deceased artists opens on the first
Monday in Januaty. and closes on the second Saturday in
March.  The galleries containing the diploma works, the
Gibson statuary and other works of art are open daily, free.

Presidents of the Royal Academy.--Sir Joshua Reynolds,
1768-1792; Benjamin West (resigned), 1792-1805; James Wyatt
(president-elect), 1805; Benjamin West (re-elected), 1806-1820;
Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1820--1830; Sir Martin Archer Shee, 1830-1850;
Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, 1850--1865; Sir Francis Grant,
1866-1878; Frederick, Lord Leighton of Stretton, 1878--1896;
Sir John Everett Millais, 1896; Sir Edward John Poynter, 1896.

The library contains about 7000 volumes, dealing with
the history, the theory and the practice of the various
branches of the fine arts, some of them of great
rarity and value.  It is open daily to the students and
members, and to other persons on a proper introduction.

The trust funds administered by the Royal Academy are -- 

The Turner fund (J. M. W. Turner, R.A.), which provides
sixteen annuities of L. 50 each, for artists of repute
not members of the Academy, also a biennial scholarship
of L. 50 and a gold medal for a landscape painting.

The Chantrey fund (Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A.), the
income of which, paid over by the Chantrey trustees,
is spent on pictures and sculpture. (See CHANTREY.)

The Creswick fund (Thomas Creswick, R.A.), which provides
an annual prize of L. 30 for a landscape painting in oil.

The Cooke fund (E.W.  Cooke, R.A.), which provides
two annuities of L. 35 each for painters not members
of the Academy, over sixty years of age and in need.

The Landseer fund (Charles Landseer, R.A.), which provides
four scholarships of L. 40 each, two in painting and two
in sculpture, tenable for two years, open to students
at the end of the first two years of studentship, and
given for the best work done during the second year.

The Armitage fund (E. Armitage, R.A.), which provides two annual prizes
of L. 30 and L. 10, for a design in monochrome for a figure picture.

The Cousins fund (S. Cousins, R.A.), which provides
seven annuities of L. 80 each for deserving artists,
not members of the Academy, in need of assistance.

The Newton bequest (H. C. Newton), which provides an
annual sum of L. 60 for the indigent widow of a painter.

The (John Bizo), to be used in the scientific
investigation into the nature of pigments and varnishes, &c.

The Edwards fund (W. J. Edwards), producing L.  40 a year
for the benefit of poor artists or artistic engravers.

The Leighton bequest (Lord Leighton, P.R.A.), received
from Mrs Orr and Mrs Matthews in memory of their
brother, the income from which, about L. 300, is expended
on the decoration of public places and buildings.

The literature concerning the Royal Academy consists
chiefly of pamphlets and articles of more or less ephemeral
value.  More serious works are: William Sandby, The History
of the Royal Academy of Arts (London, 1862) (withdrawn
from circulation on a question of copyright); Report
from the Select Committee on Arts and their Connexion with
Manufactures, with the Minutes of Evidence and Appendix
(London, 1836 ); Report of the Royal Commission on the
Royal Academy, with Minutes of Evidence and Appendix
(London, 1863); Martin Archer Shee, The Life of Sir M. A.
Shee, P.R.A. (London, 1860); C. R. Leslie, R.A., and Tom
Taylor, Life and Times of Sir Joshua Reynolds, P.R.A.
(London, 1865); J. E. Hodgson, R.A. (the late), and
Fred.  A. Eaton, Sec. R.A., ``The Royal Academy in the
Last Century,'' Art Journal, 1889-1901.  But the chief
sources of information on the subject are the minute-books
of the council and of the general assembly, and the annual
reports, which, however, only date from 1859. (F. A. E.)

ACADIAN, in geology, the name given by Sir J. W. Dawson
in 1867 to a series of black, red and green shales and
slates, with dark grey limestones, which are well developed
at St John, New Brunswick; Avalon in E. Newfoundland, and
Braintree in E. Massachusetts.  These rocks are of Middle
Cambrian age and possess a Paradoxides fauna.  They
have been correlated with limestone beds in Tennessee,
Alabama, central Nevada and British Columbia (St Stephen).

See CAMBRIAN SYSTEM; also C. D. Walcott, Bull. 
U.S. Geol. Survey, No. 81, 1891; and Sir J. W.
Dawson, Acadian Geology, 1st ed. 1855, 3rd ed. 1878.

ACADIE, or ACADIA, a name given by the French in 1603 to
that part of the mainland of North America lying between the
latitudes 40 deg.  and 46 deg. .  In the treaty of Utrecht (1713)
the words used in transferring the French possessions to
Britain were ``Nova Scotia or Acadia.'' See NOVA SCOTIA
for the limits included at that date under the term.

ACAMTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic
worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.  Its
members are quite devoid of any mouth or alimentary canal,
but have a well-developed body cavity into which the eggs
are dehisced and which communicates with the exterior by

From Cambridge Natural History, vol. ii., ``Worms,
&c.,'' by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

Fig. 1. A, Five specimens of Echinorhynchus acus,
Rud., attached to a piece of intestinal wall, X 4.

B, The proboscis of one still more highly magnified.

means of an oviduct.  The size of the animals varies greatly,
from forms a few millimetres in length to Gigantorhynchus
gigas, which measures from 10 to 65 cms.  The adults live
in great numbers in the alimentary canal of some vertebrate,
usually fish, the larvae are as a rule encysted in the
body cavity of some invertebrate, most often an insect or
crustacean, more rarely a small fish.  The body is divisible
into a proboscis and a trunk with sometimes an intervening neck
region.  The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged
in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the
animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.  The hooks
may be of two or three shapes.  Like the body, the proboscis
is hollow, and its cavity is separated from the body cavity
by a septum or proboscis sheath.  Traversing the cavity of
the proboscis are muscle-strands inserted into the tip of the
proboscis at one end and into the septum at the other.  Their
contraction causes the proboscis to be invaginated into its
cavity (fig. 2). But the whole proboscis apparatus can also
be, at least partially, withdrawn into the body cavity, and
this is effected by two retractor muscles which run from the
posterior aspect of the septum to the body wall (fig. 3).

The skin is peculiar.  Externally is a thin cuticle; this
covers the epidermis, which consists of a syncytium with
no cell limits.  The syncytium is traversed by a series
of branching tubules containing fluid and is controlled
by a few wandering, amoeboid nuclei (fig. 2). Inside the
syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle
fibres, and within this again some rather scattered
longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.  In their
minute structure the muscular fibres resemble those of
Nematodes.  Except for the absence of the longitudinal fibres
the skin of the proboscis resembles that of the body, but
the fluid-containing tubules of the latter are shut off
from those of the body.  The canals of the proboscis open
ultimately into a circular vessel which runs round its base.
From the circular canal two sac-like diverticula called the

From Cambridge Natural History, vol. ii.,
``Worms, &c.,'' by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.

FIG. 2.--A longitudinal section through the
anterior end of Echinorhynchus haeruca, Rud. (from

a, The proboscis not fully expanded.
b, Proboscis-sheath.
c, Retractor muscles of the proboscis.
d, Cerebral ganglion.
e, Retinaculum enclosing a nerve
f, One of the retractors of the sheath.
g, A lemniscus.
h, One of the spaces in the sub-cuticular tissue.
i, Longitudinal muscular layer.
j, Circular muscular laver.
k, Line of division between the sub-cuticular tissue of the trunk
and that of the proboscis with the lemnisci.

``lemnisci'' depend into the cavity of the body (fig. 2). Each
consists of a prolongation of the syncytial material of the
proboscis skin, penetrated by canals and sheathed with a scanty
muscular coat. They seem to act as reservoirs into which the
fluid of the tense, extended proboscis can withdraw when it
is retracted, and from which the fluid can be driven out when
it is wished to expand the proboscis.

There are no alimentary canal or specialized organs for
circulation or for respiration. Food is imbibed through the skin from
the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala

J. Kaiser has described as kidneys two organs something like
minute shrubs situated dorsally to the generative ducts into
which they open. At the end of each twig is a membrane
pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen
of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.

The central ganglion of the nervous system lies in the
proboscis sheath or septum. It supplies the proboscis with nerves and
gives off behind two stout trunks which supply the body (fig. 2).
Each of these trunks is surrounded by muscles, and the
complex retains the old name of ``retinaculum.'' In the male at
least there is also a genital ganglion. Some scattered papillae
may possibly be sense-organs.

The Acanthocephala are dioecious. There is a ``stay'' called
the ``ligament'' which runs from the hinder end of the
proboscis sheath to the posterior end of the body. In this the two testes
lie (fig. 3). Each opens in a vas deferens which bears three
diverticula or vesiculae seminales, and three pairs of cement
glands also are found which pour their secretions through a duct into
the vasa deferentia. The latter unite and end in a penis which opens

Fig. 3.---An optical section through a male Neorhynchus
clavaeceps, Zed. (from Hamann).

a, Proboscis.
b, Proboscis sheath.
c, Retractor of the proboscis.
d, Cerebral ganglion.
f, f, Petractors of the proboscis sheath.
g, g, Lemnisci, each with two giant nuclei.
h, Space in sub-cuticular layer of the skin.
l, Ligament.
m, m, Testes.
o, Glands on vas deferens.
p, Giant nucleus in skin.
q, Opening of vas deferens.

The ovaries arise like the testes as rounded bodies in the
ligament.  From these masses of ova dehisce into the body
cavity and float in its fluid. Here the eggs are fertilized
and here they segment so that the young embryos are formed
within their mother's body.  The embryos escape into the
uterus through the ``bell,'' a funnel like opening continuous
with the uterus.  Just at the junction of the ``bell''
and the uterus there is a second small opening situated
dorsally. The ``bell'' swallows the matured embryos and
passes them on into the uterus, and thus out of the body via
the oviduct, which opens at one end into the uterus and at
the other on to the exterior at the posterior end of the
body.  But should the ``bell'' swallow any of the ova, or
even one of the younger embryos, these are passed back
into the body cavity through the second and dorsal opening.

The embryo thus passes from the body of the female into
the alimentary canal of the host and leaves this with the
faeces.  It is then, if lucky, eaten by some crustacean, or
insect, more rarely by a fish.  In the stomach it casts
its membranes and becomes mobile, bores through the stomach
walls and encysts usually in the cavity of its first and
invertebrate host. By this time the embryo has all the
organs of the adult perfected save only the reproductive;
these develop only when the first host is swallowed
by the second or final host, in which case the parasite
attaches itself to the wall of the alimentary canal and

A curious feature shared by both larva and adult is the large
size of many of the cells, e.g. the nerve cells and the bell.

O. Hamann has divided the group into three
families, to which a fourth must be added.

(i.) Fam. Echinorhynchidae.This is by far the largest
family and contains the commonest species; the larva of
Echinorhynchus proteus lives in Gammarus pulex and in
small fish, the adult is common in many fresh-water fish: E.
polymorphus, larval host the crayfish, adult host the duck:
E. angustotus occurs as a larva in Asellus aquaticus,
as an adult in the perch, pike and barbel: E. moniliformis
has for its larval host the larvae of the beetle Blaps
mucronata, for its final host certain mice, if introduced
into man it lives well: E. acus is common in whiting: E.
porrigeus in the fin-whale, and E. strumosus in the seal. 
A species named E. hominis has been described from a boy.
(ii.) Fam. Gigantorhynchidae. A small family of large forms
with a ringed and flattened body. Gigantorhynchus gigas
lives normally in the pig, but is not uncommon in man in
South Russia, its larval host is the grub of Melolontha
vulgaris, Cetonis auratus, and in America probably of
Lachnosterna arcuata: G. echinodiscus lives in the
intestine of ant-eaters: G. spira in that of the

Fig. 4.
A, The larva of Echinorhynchus proteus from the body cavity of
Phoxinus laevis, with the proboscis retracted and the whole still
enclosed in a capsule.
B, A section through the same; a, the invaginated proboscis;
b, proboscis sheath; c, beginning of the neck; d,
lemniscus. Highlymagnified (both from Hamann).
king vulture, Sarcorhampus papa, and G.
taeniodes in Dicholopus cristatus, a cariama.

(iii.) Fam. Neorhynchidae. Sexually mature whilst still
in the larval stage. Neorhynchus clavaeceps in Cyprinus
carpio has its larval form in the larva of Sialis
lularia and in the leech Nephelis octcculii: tact
K. agilis is found in Mugil auratus and M. cephalus.

(iv.) Apororhynchidae. With no proboscis. This family contains
the single  species Apororhynchus hemignathi, found near
the anus of Hemignathiis procerus, a Sandwich Island bird.

Fig. 5. -- Fully formed larva of Echinorhynchus
proteus from the body cavity of Phoxinus laevis
(from Hamann). Highly magnified. a, Proboscis;
b, bulla; c, neck; d, trunk; e, e, lemnisci.

AUTHORITIES. - O. Hamann, O. Jen. Zeitschr. xxv., 1891,
p. 113; Zool.  Anz. xv., 1892, 195; J. Kaiser, Bibl. 
Zool. ii., 1893: A. E. Shipley, Quart.  Journ.  Micr. 
Sci. Villot, Zool.  Anz. viii., 1885, p. 19. (A. E. S.) 

ACANTHUS (the Greek and Latin name for the plant, connected
with ake, a sharp point), a genus of plants belonging to
the natural order Acanthaceae.  The species are natives of
the southern parts of Europe and the warmer parts of Asia and
Africa.  The best-known is Acanthus mollis (brank-ursine, or
bears' breech), a common  species throughout the Mediterranean
region, having large, deeply cut, hairy, shining leaves.  Another
species, Acanthus spinosus, is so called from its spiny
heaves.  They are bold, handsome plants, with stately spikes,
2 to 3 ft. high, of flowers with spiny bracts. A. mollis, A.
lalifolius and A. longifolius  are broad-leaved species; A.
spinosus and A. spinosissimus have narrower, spiny toothed
leaves.  In decoration, the acanthus was first reproduced in
metal, and subsequently carved in stone by the Greeks.  It was
afterwards, with various changes, adopted in all succeeding
styles of architecture as a basis of ornamental decoration. 
There are two types, that found in the Acanthus spinosus,
which was followed by the Greeks, and that in the Acanthus
mollis, which seems to have been preferred by the Romans.

ACAPULCO, a city and port of the state of Guerrero on
the Pacific coast of Mexico, 190 m.  S.S.W. of the city
of Mexico, Pop. (1900) 4932.  It is located on a deep,
semicircular bay, almost land-locked, easy of access, and
with so secure an anchorage that vessels can safely lie
alongside the rocks that fringe the shore.  It is the best
harbour on the Pacific coast of Mexico, and it is a port
of Call for steamship lines running between Panama and San
Francisco.  The town is built on a narrow strip of low
land, scarcely half a mile wide, between the shore line and
the lofty mountains that encircle the bay.  There is great
natural beauty in the surroundings, but the mountains render
the town difficult of access from the interior, and give it
an exceptionally hot and unhealthy climate.  The effort to
admit the cooling sea breezes by cutting through the mountains
a passage called the Abra de San Nicolas had some beneficial
effect.  Acapulco was long the most important Mexican port
on the Pacific, and the only depot for the Spanish fleets
plying between Mexico and Spain's East Indian colonies from
1778 until the independence of Mexico, when this trade was
lost.  The town has been chosen as the terminus for two railway
lines seeking a Pacific port--the Interoceanic and the Mexican
Central.  The town suffered considerably from earthquakes in
July and August 1909.  There are exports of hides, cedar and
fruit, and the adjacent district of Tabares produces cotton,
tobacco, cacao, sugar cane, Indian corn, beans and coffee.

ACARNANIA, a district of ancient Greece, bounded on
the W. by the Ionian Sea, on the N. by the Ambracian
Gulf, on the E. and S. by Mt. Thyamus and the Acholous. 
The Echinades islands, off the S.W. coast, are gradually
being joined up to the mainland.  Its most populous region
was the plain of the Acholous, commanded by the principal
town Stratus; communication with the coast was impeded by
mountain ridges and lagoons.  Its people long continued in
semi-barbarism, having little intercourse with the rest of
Greece.  In the 5th century B.C. with the aid of Athens
they subdued the Corinthian factories on their coast.  In
391 they submitted to the Spartan king Agesilaus; in 371
they passed under Theban control.  In the Hellenistic age
the Acarnanians were constantly assailed by their Aetolian
neighbours.  On the advice of Cassander they made effective
their ancient cantonal league, apparently after the pattern of
Aetolla.  In the 3rd century they obtained assistance from
the Illyrians, and formed a close alliance with Philip V. of
Macedonia, whom they supported in his Roman wars, their new
federal capital, Lencas, standing a siege in his interest.
For their sympathy with his successor Perseus they were
deprived of Lencas and required to send hostages to Rome
(167). The country was finally desolated by Augustus, who
drafted its inhabitants into Nicopoiis and Patrae.  Acarnania
took a prominent part in the national uprising of 1821; it
is now joined with Aetolia as a nome.  The sites of several
ancient towns in Acarnania are marked by well preserved
walls, especially those of Stratus, Oeniadae and Limnaea.

AUTHORITIES.-Strabo vii. 7, x. 2; Thucydides; Polybius iv.
40; Livy xxxiii. 16-17; Corpus Inscr.  Graecarum, no. 1739; E.
Oberhummer, Akarnanien im Altertum (Munich, 1887); Heuzey, Mt.
Olympe et l'Acarnanie (Paris, 1860). (M. O. B. C.; E. GR.)

ACARUS (from Gr. akari, a mite), a genus of
Arachnids, represented by the cheese mite and other forms.

ACASTUS, in Greek legend, the son of Pohas, king of Iolcus in
Thessaly (Ovid, Metam. vili. 306; Apollonius Rhodius i. 224;
Pindar, Nemea, iv. 54, v. 26). He was a great friend of Jason,
and took part in the Calydonian boar-hunt and the Argonautic
expedition.  After his father's death he instituted splendid
funeral games in his honour, which were celebrated by artists
and poets, such as Stesichorus.  His wife Astydameia (called
Hippolyte in Horace, Odes, iii. 7. 17) fell in love with
Peleus (q.v.), who had taken refuge at Iolcus, but when her
advances were rejected accused him falsely to her husband. 
Acastus, to avenge his fancied wrongs, left Peleus asleep
on Mount Pellon, having first hidden his famous sword.  On
awaking, Peleus was attacked by the Centaurs, but saved by
Cheiron.  Having re-covered his sword he returned to Iolcus
and slew Acastus and Astydameia.  Acastus was represented
with his famous horses in the painting of the Argonautic
expedition by Micon in the temple of the Dioscuri at Athens.

ACATALEPSY (Gr. a-, privative, and katalambanein, to
seize), a term used in Scepticism to denote incomprehensibility.

ACAULESCENT (Lat. acaulescens, becoming stemless, from a,
not, and caulis, a stem), a term used of a plant apparently
stemless, as dandelion, the stem being almost suppressed.

ACCA LARENTIA (not Laurentia), in Roman legend, the
wife of the shepherd Faustulus, who saved the lives of the
twins Romulus and Remus after they had been thrown into the
Tiber. She had twelve sons, and on the death of one of them
Romulus took his place, and with the remaining eleven founded
the college of the Arval brothers (Fratres